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SubjectRe: [PATCH 5/5] fs/xfs: Allow toggle of physical DAX flag
On Fri 08-11-19 11:36:13, Ira Weiny wrote:
> On Fri, Nov 08, 2019 at 02:46:06PM +0100, Jan Kara wrote:
> > On Fri 08-11-19 14:12:38, Jan Kara wrote:
> > > On Mon 21-10-19 15:49:31, Ira Weiny wrote:
> > > > On Mon, Oct 21, 2019 at 11:45:36AM +1100, Dave Chinner wrote:
> > > > > On Sun, Oct 20, 2019 at 08:59:35AM -0700, ira.weiny@intel.com wrote:
> > > > > That, fundamentally, is the issue here - it's not setting/clearing
> > > > > the DAX flag that is the issue, it's doing a swap of the
> > > > > mapping->a_ops while there may be other code using that ops
> > > > > structure.
> > > > >
> > > > > IOWs, if there is any code anywhere in the kernel that
> > > > > calls an address space op without holding one of the three locks we
> > > > > hold here (i_rwsem, MMAPLOCK, ILOCK) then it can race with the swap
> > > > > of the address space operations.
> > > > >
> > > > > By limiting the address space swap to file sizes of zero, we rule
> > > > > out the page fault path (mmap of a zero length file segv's with an
> > > > > access beyond EOF on the first read/write page fault, right?).
> > > >
> > > > Yes I checked that and thought we were safe here...
> > > >
> > > > > However, other aops callers that might run unlocked and do the wrong
> > > > > thing if the aops pointer is swapped between check of the aop method
> > > > > existing and actually calling it even if the file size is zero?
> > > > >
> > > > > A quick look shows that FIBMAP (ioctl_fibmap())) looks susceptible
> > > > > to such a race condition with the current definitions of the XFS DAX
> > > > > aops. I'm guessing there will be others, but I haven't looked
> > > > > further than this...
> > > >
> > > > I'll check for others and think on what to do about this. ext4 will have the
> > > > same problem I think. :-(
> > >
> > > Just as a datapoint, ext4 is bold and sets inode->i_mapping->a_ops on
> > > existing inodes when switching journal data flag and so far it has not
> > > blown up. What we did to deal with issues Dave describes is that we
> > > introduced percpu rw-semaphore guarding switching of aops and then inside
> > > problematic functions redirect callbacks in the right direction under this
> > > semaphore. Somewhat ugly but it seems to work.
>
> Ah I am glad you brought this up. I had not seen this before.
>
> Is that s_journal_flag_rwsem?

Yes.

> In the general case I don't think that correctly protects against:
>
> if (a_ops->call)
> a_ops->call();
>
> Because not all operations are defined in both ext4_aops and
> ext4_journalled_aops. Specifically migratepage.
>
> move_to_new_page() specifically follows the pattern above with migratepage. So
> is there a bug here?

Looks like there could be.

> > Thinking about this some more, perhaps this scheme could be actually
> > transformed in something workable. We could have a global (or maybe per-sb
> > but I'm not sure it's worth it) percpu rwsem and we could transform aops
> > calls into:
> >
> > percpu_down_read(aops_rwsem);
> > do_call();
> > percpu_up_read(aops_rwsem);
> >
> > With some macro magic it needn't be even that ugly.
>
> I think this is safer. And what I have been investigating/coding up.
> Because that also would protect against the above with:
>
> percpu_down_read(aops_rwsem);
> if (a_ops->call)
> a_ops->call();
> percpu_up_read(aops_rwsem);
>
> However I have been looking at SRCU because we also have patterns like:
>
>
> generic_file_buffered_read
> if (a_ops->is_partially_uptodate)
> a_ops->is_partially_uptodate()
> page_cache_sync_readahead
> force_page_cache_readahead
> if (!a_ops->readpage && !a_ops->readpages)
> return;
> __do_page_cache_readahead
> read_pages
> if (a_ops->readpages)
> a_ops->readpages()
> a_ops->readpage
>
>
> So we would have to pass the a_ops through to use a rwsem. Where SRCU I
> think would be fine to just take the SRCU read lock multiple times. Am I
> wrong?

So the idea I had would not solve this issue because we'd release the rwsem
once we return from ->is_partially_uptodate(). This example shows that we
actually expect consistency among different aops as they are called in
sequence and that's much more difficult to achieve than just a consistency
within single aop call.

> We also have a 3rd (2nd?) issue. There are callers who check for the
> presence of an operation to be used later. For example do_dentry_open():
>
> do_dentry_open()
> {
> ...
> if (<flags> & O_DIRECT)
> if (!<a_ops> || !<a_ops>->direct_IO)
> return -EINVAL;
> ...
> }
>
> After this open direct_IO better be there AFAICT so changing the a_ops
> later would not be good. For ext4 direct_IO is defined for all the
> a_ops... so I guess that is not a big deal. However, is the user really
> getting the behavior they expect in this case?

In this particular case I don't think there's any practical harm for any
filesystem but in general this is another instance where consistency of
aops over time is assumed.

> I'm afraid of requiring FSs to have to follow rules in defining their a_ops.
> Because I'm afraid maintaining those rules would be hard and would eventually
> lead to crashes when someone did it wrong.

I guess this very much depends on the rules. But yes, anything non-obvious
or hard to check would quickly lead to bugs, I agree. But IMHO fully
general solution to above problems would clutter the generic code in rather
ugly way as well because usage of aops is pretty widespread in mm and fs
code. It isn't just a few places that call them...

But I think we could significantly reduce the problem by looking at what's
in aops. We have lots of operations there that operate on pages. If we
mandate that before and during switching of aops, you must make sure
there's nothing in page cache for the inode, you've already dealt with 90%
of the problems.

Beside these we have:
* write_begin - that creates page in page cache so above rule should stop
it as well
* bmap - honestly I'd be inclined to just move this to inode_operations
just like fiemap. There's nothing about address_space in its functionality.
* swap_activate / swap_deactivate - Either I'd move these to
file_operations (what's there about address_space, right), or since all
instances of this only care about the inode, we can as well just pass
only inode to the function and move it to inode_operations.

And then the really problematic ones:
* direct_IO - Logically with how the IO path is structured, it belongs in
aops so I wouldn't move it. With the advance of iomap it is on its way to
being removed altogether but that will take a long time to happen
completely. So for now I'd mandate that direct_IO path must be locked out
while switching aops.
* readpages - these should be locked out by the rule that page creation is
forbidden.
* writepages - these need to be locked out when switching aops.

And that should be it. So I don't think there's a need for reference-counting
of aops in the generic code, especially since I don't think it can be done
in an elegant way (but feel free to correct me). I think that just
providing a way to lock-out above three calls would be enough.

> So for this 3rd (2nd) case I think we should simply take a reference to the
> a_ops and fail changing the mode. For the DAX case that means the user is best
> served by taking a write lease on the file to ensure there are no other opens
> which could cause issues.
>
> Would that work for changing the journaling mode?
>
> And I _think_ this is the only issue we have with this right now. But if other
> callers of a_ops needed the pattern of using the a_ops at a time across context
> changes they would need to ensure this reference was taken.
>
> What I have come up with thus far is an interface like:
>
> /*
> * as_get_a_ops() -- safely get the a_ops from the address_space specified
> *
> * @as: address space to get a_ops from
> * @ref: used to indicate if a reference is required on this a_ops
> * @tok: srcu token to be returned in as_put_a_ops()
> *
> * The a_ops returned is protected from changing until as_put_a_ops().
> *
> * If ref is specified then ref must also be specified in as_put_a_ops() to
> * release this reference. In this case a reference is taken on the a_ops
> * which will prevent it from changing until the reference is released.
> *
> * References should _ONLY_ be taken when the a_ops needs to be constant
> * across a user context switch because doing so will block changing the a_ops
> * until that reference is released.
> *
> * Examples of using a reference are checks for specific a_ops pointers which
> * are expected to support functionality at a later date (example direct_IO)
> */
> static inline const struct address_space_operations *
> as_get_a_ops(struct address_space *as, bool ref, int *tok)
> {
> ...
> }
>
> static inline void
> as_assign_a_ops(struct address_space *as,
> const struct address_space_operations *a_ops)
> {
> ...
> }
>
> static inline void as_put_a_ops(struct address_space *as, int tok, bool ref)
> {
> ...
> }
>
>
> I'm still working out the details of using SRCU and a ref count. I have made
> at least 1 complete pass of all the a_ops users and I think this would cover
> them all.

Well, my concern with the use of interface like this is:

a) The clutter in the generic code
b) It's difficult to make this work with SRCU because presumably you want
to use synchronize_srcu() while switching aops. But then you have three
operations to do:
1) switch aops
2) set inode flag
3) synchronize_srcu

and depending on the order in which you do these either "old aops"
operations will see inode with a flag or "new aops" will see the inode
without a flag and either can confuse those functions...

Honza
--
Jan Kara <jack@suse.com>
SUSE Labs, CR

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