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SubjectRe: [PATCH v9 1/3] mm: Shuffle initial free memory to improve memory-side-cache utilization
On Tue 29-01-19 21:02:16, Dan Williams wrote:
> Randomization of the page allocator improves the average utilization of
> a direct-mapped memory-side-cache. Memory side caching is a platform
> capability that Linux has been previously exposed to in HPC
> (high-performance computing) environments on specialty platforms. In
> that instance it was a smaller pool of high-bandwidth-memory relative to
> higher-capacity / lower-bandwidth DRAM. Now, this capability is going to
> be found on general purpose server platforms where DRAM is a cache in
> front of higher latency persistent memory [1].
>
> Robert offered an explanation of the state of the art of Linux
> interactions with memory-side-caches [2], and I copy it here:
>
> It's been a problem in the HPC space:
> http://www.nersc.gov/research-and-development/knl-cache-mode-performance-coe/
>
> A kernel module called zonesort is available to try to help:
> https://software.intel.com/en-us/articles/xeon-phi-software
>
> and this abandoned patch series proposed that for the kernel:
> https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20170823100205.17311-1-lukasz.daniluk@intel.com
>
> Dan's patch series doesn't attempt to ensure buffers won't conflict, but
> also reduces the chance that the buffers will. This will make performance
> more consistent, albeit slower than "optimal" (which is near impossible
> to attain in a general-purpose kernel). That's better than forcing
> users to deploy remedies like:
> "To eliminate this gradual degradation, we have added a Stream
> measurement to the Node Health Check that follows each job;
> nodes are rebooted whenever their measured memory bandwidth
> falls below 300 GB/s."
>
> A replacement for zonesort was merged upstream in commit cc9aec03e58f
> "x86/numa_emulation: Introduce uniform split capability". With this
> numa_emulation capability, memory can be split into cache sized
> ("near-memory" sized) numa nodes. A bind operation to such a node, and
> disabling workloads on other nodes, enables full cache performance.
> However, once the workload exceeds the cache size then cache conflicts
> are unavoidable. While HPC environments might be able to tolerate
> time-scheduling of cache sized workloads, for general purpose server
> platforms, the oversubscribed cache case will be the common case.
>
> The worst case scenario is that a server system owner benchmarks a
> workload at boot with an un-contended cache only to see that performance
> degrade over time, even below the average cache performance due to
> excessive conflicts. Randomization clips the peaks and fills in the
> valleys of cache utilization to yield steady average performance.
>
> Here are some performance impact details of the patches:
>
> 1/ An Intel internal synthetic memory bandwidth measurement tool, saw a
> 3X speedup in a contrived case that tries to force cache conflicts. The
> contrived cased used the numa_emulation capability to force an instance
> of the benchmark to be run in two of the near-memory sized numa nodes.
> If both instances were placed on the same emulated they would fit and
> cause zero conflicts. While on separate emulated nodes without
> randomization they underutilized the cache and conflicted unnecessarily
> due to the in-order allocation per node.
>
> 2/ A well known Java server application benchmark was run with a heap
> size that exceeded cache size by 3X. The cache conflict rate was 8% for
> the first run and degraded to 21% after page allocator aging. With
> randomization enabled the rate levelled out at 11%.
>
> 3/ A MongoDB workload did not observe measurable difference in
> cache-conflict rates, but the overall throughput dropped by 7% with
> randomization in one case.
>
> 4/ Mel Gorman ran his suite of performance workloads with randomization
> enabled on platforms without a memory-side-cache and saw a mix of some
> improvements and some losses [3].
>
> While there is potentially significant improvement for applications that
> depend on low latency access across a wide working-set, the performance
> may be negligible to negative for other workloads. For this reason the
> shuffle capability defaults to off unless a direct-mapped
> memory-side-cache is detected. Even then, the page_alloc.shuffle=0
> parameter can be specified to disable the randomization on those
> systems.
>
> Outside of memory-side-cache utilization concerns there is potentially
> security benefit from randomization. Some data exfiltration and
> return-oriented-programming attacks rely on the ability to infer the
> location of sensitive data objects. The kernel page allocator,
> especially early in system boot, has predictable first-in-first out
> behavior for physical pages. Pages are freed in physical address order
> when first onlined.
>
> Quoting Kees:
> "While we already have a base-address randomization
> (CONFIG_RANDOMIZE_MEMORY), attacks against the same hardware and
> memory layouts would certainly be using the predictability of
> allocation ordering (i.e. for attacks where the base address isn't
> important: only the relative positions between allocated memory).
> This is common in lots of heap-style attacks. They try to gain
> control over ordering by spraying allocations, etc.
>
> I'd really like to see this because it gives us something similar
> to CONFIG_SLAB_FREELIST_RANDOM but for the page allocator."
>
> While SLAB_FREELIST_RANDOM reduces the predictability of some local slab
> caches it leaves vast bulk of memory to be predictably in order
> allocated. However, it should be noted, the concrete security benefits
> are hard to quantify, and no known CVE is mitigated by this
> randomization.
>
> Introduce shuffle_free_memory(), and its helper shuffle_zone(), to
> perform a Fisher-Yates shuffle of the page allocator 'free_area' lists
> when they are initially populated with free memory at boot and at
> hotplug time. Do this based on either the presence of a
> page_alloc.shuffle=Y command line parameter, or autodetection of a
> memory-side-cache (to be added in a follow-on patch).
>
> The shuffling is done in terms of CONFIG_SHUFFLE_PAGE_ORDER sized free
> pages where the default CONFIG_SHUFFLE_PAGE_ORDER is MAX_ORDER-1 i.e.
> 10, 4MB this trades off randomization granularity for time spent
> shuffling. MAX_ORDER-1 was chosen to be minimally invasive to the page
> allocator while still showing memory-side cache behavior improvements,
> and the expectation that the security implications of finer granularity
> randomization is mitigated by CONFIG_SLAB_FREELIST_RANDOM.
>
> The performance impact of the shuffling appears to be in the noise
> compared to other memory initialization work. Also the bulk of the work
> is done in the background as a part of deferred_init_memmap().

The last part is not true with this version anymore, right?

> This initial randomization can be undone over time so a follow-on patch
> is introduced to inject entropy on page free decisions. It is reasonable
> to ask if the page free entropy is sufficient, but it is not enough due
> to the in-order initial freeing of pages. At the start of that process
> putting page1 in front or behind page0 still keeps them close together,
> page2 is still near page1 and has a high chance of being adjacent. As
> more pages are added ordering diversity improves, but there is still
> high page locality for the low address pages and this leads to no
> significant impact to the cache conflict rate.

I find mm_shuffle_ctl a bit confusing because the mode of operation is
either AUTO (enabled when the HW is present) or FORCE_ENABLE when
explicitly enabled by the command line. Nothing earth shattering though.

> [1]: https://itpeernetwork.intel.com/intel-optane-dc-persistent-memory-operating-modes/
> [2]: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/AT5PR8401MB1169D656C8B5E121752FC0F8AB120@AT5PR8401MB1169.NAMPRD84.PROD.OUTLOOK.COM
> [3]: https://lkml.org/lkml/2018/10/12/309
>
> Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com>
> Cc: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@linux.intel.com>
> Cc: Mike Rapoport <rppt@linux.ibm.com>
> Reviewed-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
> Signed-off-by: Dan Williams <dan.j.williams@intel.com>

Other than that, I haven't spotted any fundamental issues. The feature
is a hack but I do agree that it might be useful for the specific HW it
is going to be used for. I still think that shuffling only top orders
has close to zero security benefits because it is not that hard to
control the memory fragmentation.

With that
Acked-by: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com>

> ---
> include/linux/list.h | 17 ++++
> include/linux/mmzone.h | 4 +
> include/linux/shuffle.h | 45 +++++++++++
> init/Kconfig | 23 ++++++
> mm/Makefile | 7 ++
> mm/memblock.c | 1
> mm/memory_hotplug.c | 3 +
> mm/page_alloc.c | 6 +-
> mm/shuffle.c | 188 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> 9 files changed, 292 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)
> create mode 100644 include/linux/shuffle.h
> create mode 100644 mm/shuffle.c
>
> diff --git a/include/linux/list.h b/include/linux/list.h
> index edb7628e46ed..3dfb8953f241 100644
> --- a/include/linux/list.h
> +++ b/include/linux/list.h
> @@ -150,6 +150,23 @@ static inline void list_replace_init(struct list_head *old,
> INIT_LIST_HEAD(old);
> }
>
> +/**
> + * list_swap - replace entry1 with entry2 and re-add entry1 at entry2's position
> + * @entry1: the location to place entry2
> + * @entry2: the location to place entry1
> + */
> +static inline void list_swap(struct list_head *entry1,
> + struct list_head *entry2)
> +{
> + struct list_head *pos = entry2->prev;
> +
> + list_del(entry2);
> + list_replace(entry1, entry2);
> + if (pos == entry1)
> + pos = entry2;
> + list_add(entry1, pos);
> +}
> +
> /**
> * list_del_init - deletes entry from list and reinitialize it.
> * @entry: the element to delete from the list.
> diff --git a/include/linux/mmzone.h b/include/linux/mmzone.h
> index cc4a507d7ca4..374e9d483382 100644
> --- a/include/linux/mmzone.h
> +++ b/include/linux/mmzone.h
> @@ -1272,6 +1272,10 @@ void sparse_init(void);
> #else
> #define sparse_init() do {} while (0)
> #define sparse_index_init(_sec, _nid) do {} while (0)
> +static inline int pfn_present(unsigned long pfn)
> +{
> + return pfn_valid(pfn);
> +}
> #endif /* CONFIG_SPARSEMEM */
>
> /*
> diff --git a/include/linux/shuffle.h b/include/linux/shuffle.h
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..bed2d2901d13
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/include/linux/shuffle.h
> @@ -0,0 +1,45 @@
> +// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +// Copyright(c) 2018 Intel Corporation. All rights reserved.
> +#ifndef _MM_SHUFFLE_H
> +#define _MM_SHUFFLE_H
> +#include <linux/jump_label.h>
> +
> +enum mm_shuffle_ctl {
> + SHUFFLE_ENABLE,
> + SHUFFLE_FORCE_DISABLE,
> +};
> +
> +#define SHUFFLE_ORDER (MAX_ORDER-1)
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_SHUFFLE_PAGE_ALLOCATOR
> +DECLARE_STATIC_KEY_FALSE(page_alloc_shuffle_key);
> +extern void page_alloc_shuffle(enum mm_shuffle_ctl ctl);
> +extern void __shuffle_free_memory(pg_data_t *pgdat);
> +static inline void shuffle_free_memory(pg_data_t *pgdat)
> +{
> + if (!static_branch_unlikely(&page_alloc_shuffle_key))
> + return;
> + __shuffle_free_memory(pgdat);
> +}
> +
> +extern void __shuffle_zone(struct zone *z);
> +static inline void shuffle_zone(struct zone *z)
> +{
> + if (!static_branch_unlikely(&page_alloc_shuffle_key))
> + return;
> + __shuffle_zone(z);
> +}
> +#else
> +static inline void shuffle_free_memory(pg_data_t *pgdat)
> +{
> +}
> +
> +static inline void shuffle_zone(struct zone *z)
> +{
> +}
> +
> +static inline void page_alloc_shuffle(enum mm_shuffle_ctl ctl)
> +{
> +}
> +#endif
> +#endif /* _MM_SHUFFLE_H */
> diff --git a/init/Kconfig b/init/Kconfig
> index d47cb77a220e..cfa199f3e9be 100644
> --- a/init/Kconfig
> +++ b/init/Kconfig
> @@ -1714,6 +1714,29 @@ config SLAB_FREELIST_HARDENED
> sacrifies to harden the kernel slab allocator against common
> freelist exploit methods.
>
> +config SHUFFLE_PAGE_ALLOCATOR
> + bool "Page allocator randomization"
> + default SLAB_FREELIST_RANDOM && ACPI_NUMA
> + help
> + Randomization of the page allocator improves the average
> + utilization of a direct-mapped memory-side-cache. See section
> + 5.2.27 Heterogeneous Memory Attribute Table (HMAT) in the ACPI
> + 6.2a specification for an example of how a platform advertises
> + the presence of a memory-side-cache. There are also incidental
> + security benefits as it reduces the predictability of page
> + allocations to compliment SLAB_FREELIST_RANDOM, but the
> + default granularity of shuffling on 4MB (MAX_ORDER) pages is
> + selected based on cache utilization benefits.
> +
> + While the randomization improves cache utilization it may
> + negatively impact workloads on platforms without a cache. For
> + this reason, by default, the randomization is enabled only
> + after runtime detection of a direct-mapped memory-side-cache.
> + Otherwise, the randomization may be force enabled with the
> + 'page_alloc.shuffle' kernel command line parameter.
> +
> + Say Y if unsure.
> +
> config SLUB_CPU_PARTIAL
> default y
> depends on SLUB && SMP
> diff --git a/mm/Makefile b/mm/Makefile
> index d210cc9d6f80..ac5e5ba78874 100644
> --- a/mm/Makefile
> +++ b/mm/Makefile
> @@ -33,7 +33,7 @@ mmu-$(CONFIG_MMU) += process_vm_access.o
> endif
>
> obj-y := filemap.o mempool.o oom_kill.o fadvise.o \
> - maccess.o page_alloc.o page-writeback.o \
> + maccess.o page-writeback.o \
> readahead.o swap.o truncate.o vmscan.o shmem.o \
> util.o mmzone.o vmstat.o backing-dev.o \
> mm_init.o mmu_context.o percpu.o slab_common.o \
> @@ -41,6 +41,11 @@ obj-y := filemap.o mempool.o oom_kill.o fadvise.o \
> interval_tree.o list_lru.o workingset.o \
> debug.o $(mmu-y)
>
> +# Give 'page_alloc' its own module-parameter namespace
> +page-alloc-y := page_alloc.o
> +page-alloc-$(CONFIG_SHUFFLE_PAGE_ALLOCATOR) += shuffle.o
> +
> +obj-y += page-alloc.o
> obj-y += init-mm.o
> obj-y += memblock.o
>
> diff --git a/mm/memblock.c b/mm/memblock.c
> index 022d4cbb3618..c0cfbfae4a03 100644
> --- a/mm/memblock.c
> +++ b/mm/memblock.c
> @@ -17,6 +17,7 @@
> #include <linux/poison.h>
> #include <linux/pfn.h>
> #include <linux/debugfs.h>
> +#include <linux/shuffle.h>
> #include <linux/kmemleak.h>
> #include <linux/seq_file.h>
> #include <linux/memblock.h>
> diff --git a/mm/memory_hotplug.c b/mm/memory_hotplug.c
> index b9a667d36c55..07732be3065e 100644
> --- a/mm/memory_hotplug.c
> +++ b/mm/memory_hotplug.c
> @@ -23,6 +23,7 @@
> #include <linux/highmem.h>
> #include <linux/vmalloc.h>
> #include <linux/ioport.h>
> +#include <linux/shuffle.h>
> #include <linux/delay.h>
> #include <linux/migrate.h>
> #include <linux/page-isolation.h>
> @@ -895,6 +896,8 @@ int __ref online_pages(unsigned long pfn, unsigned long nr_pages, int online_typ
> zone->zone_pgdat->node_present_pages += onlined_pages;
> pgdat_resize_unlock(zone->zone_pgdat, &flags);
>
> + shuffle_zone(zone);
> +
> if (onlined_pages) {
> node_states_set_node(nid, &arg);
> if (need_zonelists_rebuild)
> diff --git a/mm/page_alloc.c b/mm/page_alloc.c
> index cde5dac6229a..6208ff744b07 100644
> --- a/mm/page_alloc.c
> +++ b/mm/page_alloc.c
> @@ -61,6 +61,7 @@
> #include <linux/sched/rt.h>
> #include <linux/sched/mm.h>
> #include <linux/page_owner.h>
> +#include <linux/shuffle.h>
> #include <linux/kthread.h>
> #include <linux/memcontrol.h>
> #include <linux/ftrace.h>
> @@ -1752,9 +1753,9 @@ _deferred_grow_zone(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order)
> void __init page_alloc_init_late(void)
> {
> struct zone *zone;
> + int nid;
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_DEFERRED_STRUCT_PAGE_INIT
> - int nid;
>
> /* There will be num_node_state(N_MEMORY) threads */
> atomic_set(&pgdat_init_n_undone, num_node_state(N_MEMORY));
> @@ -1779,6 +1780,9 @@ void __init page_alloc_init_late(void)
> memblock_discard();
> #endif
>
> + for_each_node_state(nid, N_MEMORY)
> + shuffle_free_memory(NODE_DATA(nid));
> +
> for_each_populated_zone(zone)
> set_zone_contiguous(zone);
> }
> diff --git a/mm/shuffle.c b/mm/shuffle.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..db517cdbaebe
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/mm/shuffle.c
> @@ -0,0 +1,188 @@
> +// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +// Copyright(c) 2018 Intel Corporation. All rights reserved.
> +
> +#include <linux/mm.h>
> +#include <linux/init.h>
> +#include <linux/mmzone.h>
> +#include <linux/random.h>
> +#include <linux/shuffle.h>
> +#include <linux/moduleparam.h>
> +#include "internal.h"
> +
> +DEFINE_STATIC_KEY_FALSE(page_alloc_shuffle_key);
> +static unsigned long shuffle_state __ro_after_init;
> +
> +/*
> + * Depending on the architecture, module parameter parsing may run
> + * before, or after the cache detection. SHUFFLE_FORCE_DISABLE prevents,
> + * or reverts the enabling of the shuffle implementation. SHUFFLE_ENABLE
> + * attempts to turn on the implementation, but aborts if it finds
> + * SHUFFLE_FORCE_DISABLE already set.
> + */
> +void page_alloc_shuffle(enum mm_shuffle_ctl ctl)
> +{
> + if (ctl == SHUFFLE_FORCE_DISABLE)
> + set_bit(SHUFFLE_FORCE_DISABLE, &shuffle_state);
> +
> + if (test_bit(SHUFFLE_FORCE_DISABLE, &shuffle_state)) {
> + if (test_and_clear_bit(SHUFFLE_ENABLE, &shuffle_state))
> + static_branch_disable(&page_alloc_shuffle_key);
> + } else if (ctl == SHUFFLE_ENABLE
> + && !test_and_set_bit(SHUFFLE_ENABLE, &shuffle_state))
> + static_branch_enable(&page_alloc_shuffle_key);
> +}
> +
> +static bool shuffle_param;
> +extern int shuffle_show(char *buffer, const struct kernel_param *kp)
> +{
> + return sprintf(buffer, "%c\n", test_bit(SHUFFLE_ENABLE, &shuffle_state)
> + ? 'Y' : 'N');
> +}
> +static int shuffle_store(const char *val, const struct kernel_param *kp)
> +{
> + int rc = param_set_bool(val, kp);
> +
> + if (rc < 0)
> + return rc;
> + if (shuffle_param)
> + page_alloc_shuffle(SHUFFLE_ENABLE);
> + else
> + page_alloc_shuffle(SHUFFLE_FORCE_DISABLE);
> + return 0;
> +}
> +module_param_call(shuffle, shuffle_store, shuffle_show, &shuffle_param, 0400);
> +
> +/*
> + * For two pages to be swapped in the shuffle, they must be free (on a
> + * 'free_area' lru), have the same order, and have the same migratetype.
> + */
> +static struct page * __meminit shuffle_valid_page(unsigned long pfn, int order)
> +{
> + struct page *page;
> +
> + /*
> + * Given we're dealing with randomly selected pfns in a zone we
> + * need to ask questions like...
> + */
> +
> + /* ...is the pfn even in the memmap? */
> + if (!pfn_valid_within(pfn))
> + return NULL;
> +
> + /* ...is the pfn in a present section or a hole? */
> + if (!pfn_present(pfn))
> + return NULL;
> +
> + /* ...is the page free and currently on a free_area list? */
> + page = pfn_to_page(pfn);
> + if (!PageBuddy(page))
> + return NULL;
> +
> + /*
> + * ...is the page on the same list as the page we will
> + * shuffle it with?
> + */
> + if (page_order(page) != order)
> + return NULL;
> +
> + return page;
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Fisher-Yates shuffle the freelist which prescribes iterating through
> + * an array, pfns in this case, and randomly swapping each entry with
> + * another in the span, end_pfn - start_pfn.
> + *
> + * To keep the implementation simple it does not attempt to correct for
> + * sources of bias in the distribution, like modulo bias or
> + * pseudo-random number generator bias. I.e. the expectation is that
> + * this shuffling raises the bar for attacks that exploit the
> + * predictability of page allocations, but need not be a perfect
> + * shuffle.
> + */
> +#define SHUFFLE_RETRY 10
> +void __meminit __shuffle_zone(struct zone *z)
> +{
> + unsigned long i, flags;
> + unsigned long start_pfn = z->zone_start_pfn;
> + unsigned long end_pfn = zone_end_pfn(z);
> + const int order = SHUFFLE_ORDER;
> + const int order_pages = 1 << order;
> +
> + spin_lock_irqsave(&z->lock, flags);
> + start_pfn = ALIGN(start_pfn, order_pages);
> + for (i = start_pfn; i < end_pfn; i += order_pages) {
> + unsigned long j;
> + int migratetype, retry;
> + struct page *page_i, *page_j;
> +
> + /*
> + * We expect page_i, in the sub-range of a zone being
> + * added (@start_pfn to @end_pfn), to more likely be
> + * valid compared to page_j randomly selected in the
> + * span @zone_start_pfn to @spanned_pages.
> + */
> + page_i = shuffle_valid_page(i, order);
> + if (!page_i)
> + continue;
> +
> + for (retry = 0; retry < SHUFFLE_RETRY; retry++) {
> + /*
> + * Pick a random order aligned page from the
> + * start of the zone. Use the *whole* zone here
> + * so that if it is freed in tiny pieces that we
> + * randomize in the whole zone, not just within
> + * those fragments.
> + *
> + * Since page_j comes from a potentially sparse
> + * address range we want to try a bit harder to
> + * find a shuffle point for page_i.
> + */
> + j = z->zone_start_pfn +
> + ALIGN_DOWN(get_random_long() % z->spanned_pages,
> + order_pages);
> + page_j = shuffle_valid_page(j, order);
> + if (page_j && page_j != page_i)
> + break;
> + }
> + if (retry >= SHUFFLE_RETRY) {
> + pr_debug("%s: failed to swap %#lx\n", __func__, i);
> + continue;
> + }
> +
> + /*
> + * Each migratetype corresponds to its own list, make
> + * sure the types match otherwise we're moving pages to
> + * lists where they do not belong.
> + */
> + migratetype = get_pageblock_migratetype(page_i);
> + if (get_pageblock_migratetype(page_j) != migratetype) {
> + pr_debug("%s: migratetype mismatch %#lx\n", __func__, i);
> + continue;
> + }
> +
> + list_swap(&page_i->lru, &page_j->lru);
> +
> + pr_debug("%s: swap: %#lx -> %#lx\n", __func__, i, j);
> +
> + /* take it easy on the zone lock */
> + if ((i % (100 * order_pages)) == 0) {
> + spin_unlock_irqrestore(&z->lock, flags);
> + cond_resched();
> + spin_lock_irqsave(&z->lock, flags);
> + }
> + }
> + spin_unlock_irqrestore(&z->lock, flags);
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * shuffle_free_memory - reduce the predictability of the page allocator
> + * @pgdat: node page data
> + */
> +void __meminit __shuffle_free_memory(pg_data_t *pgdat)
> +{
> + struct zone *z;
> +
> + for (z = pgdat->node_zones; z < pgdat->node_zones + MAX_NR_ZONES; z++)
> + shuffle_zone(z);
> +}
>

--
Michal Hocko
SUSE Labs

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