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SubjectRe: [PATCH V3 7/9] x86/alternative: Batch of patch operations
On Sat, 26 Jan 2019 12:52:15 +0100
Daniel Bristot de Oliveira <bristot@redhat.com> wrote:

> On 1/23/19 6:15 AM, Masami Hiramatsu wrote:
> > Hi Daniel,
> >
> > On Fri, 21 Dec 2018 11:27:32 +0100
> > Daniel Bristot de Oliveira <bristot@redhat.com> wrote:
> >
> >> Currently, the patch of an address is done in three steps:
> >>
> >> -- Pseudo-code #1 - Current implementation ---
> >> 1) add an int3 trap to the address that will be patched
> >> sync cores (send IPI to all other CPUs)
> >> 2) update all but the first byte of the patched range
> >> sync cores (send IPI to all other CPUs)
> >> 3) replace the first byte (int3) by the first byte of replacing opcode
> >> sync cores (send IPI to all other CPUs)
> >> -- Pseudo-code #1 ---
> >>
> >> When a static key has more than one entry, these steps are called once for
> >> each entry. The number of IPIs then is linear with regard to the number 'n' of
> >> entries of a key: O(n*3), which is O(n).
> >>
> >> This algorithm works fine for the update of a single key. But we think
> >> it is possible to optimize the case in which a static key has more than
> >> one entry. For instance, the sched_schedstats jump label has 56 entries
> >> in my (updated) fedora kernel, resulting in 168 IPIs for each CPU in
> >> which the thread that is enabling the key is _not_ running.
> >>
> >> With this patch, rather than receiving a single patch to be processed, a vector
> >> of patches is passed, enabling the rewrite of the pseudo-code #1 in this
> >> way:
> >>
> >> -- Pseudo-code #2 - This patch ---
> >> 1) for each patch in the vector:
> >> add an int3 trap to the address that will be patched
> >>
> >> sync cores (send IPI to all other CPUs)
> >>
> >> 2) for each patch in the vector:
> >> update all but the first byte of the patched range
> >>
> >> sync cores (send IPI to all other CPUs)
> >>
> >> 3) for each patch in the vector:
> >> replace the first byte (int3) by the first byte of replacing opcode
> >>
> >> sync cores (send IPI to all other CPUs)
> >> -- Pseudo-code #2 - This patch ---
> >>
> >> Doing the update in this way, the number of IPI becomes O(3) with regard
> >> to the number of keys, which is O(1).
> >>
> >> The batch mode is done with the function text_poke_bp_batch(), that receives
> >> two arguments: a vector of "struct text_to_poke", and the number of entries
> >> in the vector.
> >>
> >> The vector must be sorted by the addr field of the text_to_poke structure,
> >> enabling the binary search of a handler in the poke_int3_handler function
> >> (a fast path).
> >>
> >> Signed-off-by: Daniel Bristot de Oliveira <bristot@redhat.com>
> >> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
> >> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>
> >> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
> >> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
> >> Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
> >> Cc: Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@kernel.org>
> >> Cc: "Steven Rostedt (VMware)" <rostedt@goodmis.org>
> >> Cc: Jiri Kosina <jkosina@suse.cz>
> >> Cc: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
> >> Cc: "Peter Zijlstra (Intel)" <peterz@infradead.org>
> >> Cc: Chris von Recklinghausen <crecklin@redhat.com>
> >> Cc: Jason Baron <jbaron@akamai.com>
> >> Cc: Scott Wood <swood@redhat.com>
> >> Cc: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com>
> >> Cc: Clark Williams <williams@redhat.com>
> >> Cc: x86@kernel.org
> >> Cc: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org
> >> ---
> >> arch/x86/include/asm/text-patching.h | 15 ++++
> >> arch/x86/kernel/alternative.c | 108 +++++++++++++++++++++++++--
> >> 2 files changed, 117 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)
> >>
> >> diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/text-patching.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/text-patching.h
> >> index e85ff65c43c3..42ea7846df33 100644
> >> --- a/arch/x86/include/asm/text-patching.h
> >> +++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/text-patching.h
> >> @@ -18,6 +18,20 @@ static inline void apply_paravirt(struct paravirt_patch_site *start,
> >> #define __parainstructions_end NULL
> >> #endif
> >>
> >> +/*
> >> + * Currently, the max observed size in the kernel code is
> >> + * JUMP_LABEL_NOP_SIZE/RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE, which are 5.
> >> + * Raise it if needed.
> >> + */
> >> +#define POKE_MAX_OPCODE_SIZE 5
> >> +
> >> +struct text_to_poke {
> >> + void *handler;
> >> + void *addr;
> >> + size_t len;
> >> + const char opcode[POKE_MAX_OPCODE_SIZE];
> >> +};
> >> +
> >> extern void *text_poke_early(void *addr, const void *opcode, size_t len);
> >>
> >> /*
> >> @@ -37,6 +51,7 @@ extern void *text_poke_early(void *addr, const void *opcode, size_t len);
> >> extern void *text_poke(void *addr, const void *opcode, size_t len);
> >> extern int poke_int3_handler(struct pt_regs *regs);
> >> extern void *text_poke_bp(void *addr, const void *opcode, size_t len, void *handler);
> >> +extern void text_poke_bp_batch(struct text_to_poke *tp, unsigned int nr_entries);
> >> extern int after_bootmem;
> >>
> >> #endif /* _ASM_X86_TEXT_PATCHING_H */
> >> diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/alternative.c b/arch/x86/kernel/alternative.c
> >> index 6f5ad8587de0..8fa47e5ec709 100644
> >> --- a/arch/x86/kernel/alternative.c
> >> +++ b/arch/x86/kernel/alternative.c
> >> @@ -21,6 +21,7 @@
> >> #include <asm/tlbflush.h>
> >> #include <asm/io.h>
> >> #include <asm/fixmap.h>
> >> +#include <linux/bsearch.h>
> >>
> >> int __read_mostly alternatives_patched;
> >>
> >> @@ -738,10 +739,32 @@ static void do_sync_core(void *info)
> >> }
> >>
> >> static bool bp_patching_in_progress;
> >> +/*
> >> + * Single poke.
> >> + */
> >> static void *bp_int3_handler, *bp_int3_addr;
> >> +/*
> >> + * Batching poke.
> >> + */
> >> +static struct text_to_poke *bp_int3_tpv;
> >> +static unsigned int bp_int3_tpv_nr;
> >> +
> >> +static int text_bp_batch_bsearch(const void *key, const void *elt)
> >> +{
> >> + struct text_to_poke *tp = (struct text_to_poke *) elt;
> >> +
> >> + if (key < tp->addr)
> >> + return -1;
> >> + if (key > tp->addr)
> >> + return 1;
> >> + return 0;
> >> +}
> >>
> >> int poke_int3_handler(struct pt_regs *regs)
> >> {
> >> + void *ip;
> >> + struct text_to_poke *tp;
> >> +
> >> /*
> >> * Having observed our INT3 instruction, we now must observe
> >> * bp_patching_in_progress.
> >> @@ -757,21 +780,41 @@ int poke_int3_handler(struct pt_regs *regs)
> >> if (likely(!bp_patching_in_progress))
> >> return 0;
> >>
> >> - if (user_mode(regs) || regs->ip != (unsigned long)bp_int3_addr)
> >> + if (user_mode(regs))
> >> return 0;
> >>
> >> - /* set up the specified breakpoint handler */
> >> - regs->ip = (unsigned long) bp_int3_handler;
> >> + /*
> >> + * Single poke first.
> >> + */
> >
> > I wonder why would you separate single poke and batch poke?
> > It seems a single poke is just a case that bp_int3_tpv_nr == 1.
>
> Hi Masami!
>
> The single poke is used only at the boot time, before the system is able to
> allocate memory. After that, the batch mode becomes the default.

Hmm, what's the difference from text_poke_early()?

>
> I was thinking to make one function to each method, but then I would have to
> change the do_int3() and manage how to switch between one and the other without
> further overhead. I was planing to do this in a second round of improvements.

I didn't think such big change.
I just thought we could allocate single entry array on stack, something like

text_poke_bp(void *addr, const void *opcode, size_t len, void *handler)
{
struct text_to_poke tp = {.handler = handler, .addr = addr, .len = len};
if (len > POKE_MAX_OPCODE_SIZE)
return -E2BIG;
memcpy(tp.opcode, opcode, len);
return text_poke_bp_batch(&tp, 1);
}

>
> > If so, you can remove bp_int3_addr and this block.
> >
> >> + if (bp_int3_addr) {
> >> + if (regs->ip == (unsigned long) bp_int3_addr) {
> >> + regs->ip = (unsigned long) bp_int3_handler;
> >> + return 1;
> >> + }
> >> + return 0;
> >> + }
> >>
> >> - return 1;
> >> + /*
> >> + * Batch mode.
> >> + */
> >> + if (bp_int3_tpv_nr) {
> >
> > if (unlikely(bp_int3_tpv_nr))
> >
> > Sorry about interrupting, but this is a "hot-path" when we use kprobes.
>
> No problem at all! :-)

Thanks! :-)

>
> I will change this function to better deal with the hot-path (the default mode
> after the system boots up).
>
> how about something like this:
> ------------------ %< ------------------
> int poke_int3_handler(struct pt_regs *regs)
> {
> void *ip;
> struct text_to_poke *tp;
>
> /*
> * Having observed our INT3 instruction, we now must observe
> * bp_patching_in_progress.
> *
> * in_progress = TRUE INT3
> * WMB RMB
> * write INT3 if (in_progress)
> *
> * Idem for bp_int3_handler.
> */
> smp_rmb();
>
> if (likely(!bp_patching_in_progress))
> return 0;
>
> if (user_mode(regs))
> return 0;
>
> /*
> * Single poke is only used at the boot.
> */
> if (unlikely(!bp_int3_tpv))
> goto single_poke;
>
> ip = (void *) regs->ip - sizeof(unsigned char);
> tp = bsearch(ip, bp_int3_tpv, bp_int3_tpv_nr,
> sizeof(struct text_to_poke),
> text_bp_batch_bsearch);
> if (tp) {
> /* set up the specified breakpoint handler */
> regs->ip = (unsigned long) tp->handler;
> return 1;
> }
>
> return 0;
>
> single_poke:
> if (regs->ip == (unsigned long) bp_int3_addr) {
> regs->ip = (unsigned long) bp_int3_handler;
> return 1;
> }
>
> return 0;
> }
> ------------- >% ----------
>
> In this way the default code is up, and the only 'if' I am using is a var of the
> batch mode (that will be used later). If are are still at the boot, we are
> jumping to the end of the function.
>
> look better?

yeah, it looks much better. But I just wonder why don't you consolidate both by
just because reducing code.

>
> >
> > Also, could you add NOKPROBE_SYMBOL(); for all symbols involved in this
> > process?
> > Recently I found I missed it for poke_int3_handler and sent a fix.
> > ( https://www.mail-archive.com/linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org/msg1898241.html )
> > If this increase the function-call-chain from poke_int3_handler, those
> > must be marked as NOKPROBE_SYMBOL().
>
> Ack! Doing that!

Thank you!

>
> Thanks!


--
Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@kernel.org>

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