lkml.org 
[lkml]   [2019]   [Jan]   [21]   [last100]   RSS Feed
Views: [wrap][no wrap]   [headers]  [forward] 
 
Messages in this thread
/
SubjectRe: [PATCH v7 2/3] arm64: implement ftrace with regs
From
Date


On 1/19/19 5:39 AM, Torsten Duwe wrote:
> Once gcc8 adds 2 NOPs at the beginning of each function, replace the
> first NOP thus generated with a quick LR saver (move it to scratch reg
> x9), so the 2nd replacement insn, the call to ftrace, does not clobber
> the value. Ftrace will then generate the standard stack frames.
>
> Note that patchable-function-entry in GCC disables IPA-RA, which means
> ABI register calling conventions are obeyed *and* scratch registers
> such as x9 are available.
>
> Introduce and handle an ftrace_regs_trampoline for module PLTs, right
> after ftrace_trampoline, and double the size of this special section.
>
> Signed-off-by: Torsten Duwe <duwe@suse.de>
>
> ---
>
> Mark, if you see your ftrace entry macro code being represented correctly
> here, please add your sign-off, As I've initially copied it from your mail.
>
> ---
> arch/arm64/include/asm/ftrace.h | 17 ++++-
> arch/arm64/include/asm/module.h | 3
> arch/arm64/kernel/entry-ftrace.S | 125 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
> arch/arm64/kernel/ftrace.c | 114 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++---------
> arch/arm64/kernel/module-plts.c | 3
> arch/arm64/kernel/module.c | 2
> 6 files changed, 227 insertions(+), 37 deletions(-)
> --- a/arch/arm64/include/asm/ftrace.h
> +++ b/arch/arm64/include/asm/ftrace.h
> @@ -14,9 +14,24 @@
> #include <asm/insn.h>
>
> #define HAVE_FUNCTION_GRAPH_FP_TEST
> -#define MCOUNT_ADDR ((unsigned long)_mcount)
> #define MCOUNT_INSN_SIZE AARCH64_INSN_SIZE
>
> +/*
> + * DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS is implemented by adding 2 NOPs at the beginning
> + * of each function, with the second NOP actually calling ftrace. In contrary
> + * to a classic _mcount call, the call instruction to be modified is thus
> + * the second one, and not the only one.
> + */
> +#ifdef CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS
> +#define ARCH_SUPPORTS_FTRACE_OPS 1
> +#define REC_IP_BRANCH_OFFSET AARCH64_INSN_SIZE
> +/* All we need is some magic value. Simply use "_mCount:" */
> +#define MCOUNT_ADDR (0x5f6d436f756e743a)
> +#else
> +#define REC_IP_BRANCH_OFFSET 0
> +#define MCOUNT_ADDR ((unsigned long)_mcount)
> +#endif
> +
> #ifndef __ASSEMBLY__
> #include <linux/compat.h>
>
> --- a/arch/arm64/kernel/entry-ftrace.S
> +++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/entry-ftrace.S
> @@ -10,6 +10,7 @@
> */
>
> #include <linux/linkage.h>
> +#include <asm/asm-offsets.h>
> #include <asm/assembler.h>
> #include <asm/ftrace.h>
> #include <asm/insn.h>
> @@ -124,6 +125,7 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(_mcount)
> NOKPROBE(_mcount)
>
> #else /* CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE */
> +#ifndef CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS
> /*
> * _mcount() is used to build the kernel with -pg option, but all the branch
> * instructions to _mcount() are replaced to NOP initially at kernel start up,
> @@ -163,11 +165,6 @@ GLOBAL(ftrace_graph_call) // ftrace_gra
>
> mcount_exit
> ENDPROC(ftrace_caller)
> -#endif /* CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE */
> -
> -ENTRY(ftrace_stub)
> - ret
> -ENDPROC(ftrace_stub)
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
> /*
> @@ -187,7 +184,125 @@ ENTRY(ftrace_graph_caller)
>
> mcount_exit
> ENDPROC(ftrace_graph_caller)
> +#endif /* CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER */
> +
> +#else /* CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS */
> +
> + .macro ftrace_regs_entry, allregs=0
> + /* make room for pt_regs, plus a callee frame */
> + sub sp, sp, #(S_FRAME_SIZE + 16)
> +
> + /* save function arguments */
> + stp x0, x1, [sp, #S_X0]
> + stp x2, x3, [sp, #S_X2]
> + stp x4, x5, [sp, #S_X4]
> + stp x6, x7, [sp, #S_X6]
> + stp x8, x9, [sp, #S_X8]
>
> + .if \allregs == 1
> + stp x10, x11, [sp, #S_X10]
> + stp x12, x13, [sp, #S_X12]
> + stp x14, x15, [sp, #S_X14]
> + stp x16, x17, [sp, #S_X16]
> + stp x18, x19, [sp, #S_X18]
> + stp x20, x21, [sp, #S_X20]
> + stp x22, x23, [sp, #S_X22]
> + stp x24, x25, [sp, #S_X24]
> + stp x26, x27, [sp, #S_X26]
> + .endif
> +
> + /* Save fp and x28, which is used in this function. */
> + stp x28, x29, [sp, #S_X28]
> +
> + /* The stack pointer as it was on ftrace_caller entry... */
> + add x28, sp, #(S_FRAME_SIZE + 16)
> + /* ...and the link Register at callee entry */
> + stp x9, x28, [sp, #S_LR] /* to pt_regs.r[30] and .sp */
> +
> + /* The program counter just after the ftrace call site */
> + str lr, [sp, #S_PC]
> +
> + /* Now fill in callee's preliminary stackframe. */
> + stp x29, x9, [sp, #S_FRAME_SIZE]
> + /* Let FP point to it. */
> + add x29, sp, #S_FRAME_SIZE
> +
> + /* Our stackframe, stored inside pt_regs. */
> + stp x29, x30, [sp, #S_STACKFRAME]
> + add x29, sp, #S_STACKFRAME
> + .endm
> +
> +ENTRY(ftrace_regs_caller)
> + ftrace_regs_entry 1
> + b ftrace_common
> +ENDPROC(ftrace_regs_caller)
> +
> +ENTRY(ftrace_caller)
> + ftrace_regs_entry 0
> + b ftrace_common
> +ENDPROC(ftrace_caller)
> +
> +ENTRY(ftrace_common)
> +
> + mov x3, sp /* pt_regs are @sp */
> + ldr_l x2, function_trace_op, x0
> + mov x1, x9 /* parent IP */
> + sub x0, lr, #8 /* function entry == IP */
> +
> +GLOBAL(ftrace_call)
> + bl ftrace_stub
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
> +GLOBAL(ftrace_graph_call) // ftrace_graph_caller();
> + nop // If enabled, this will be replaced
> + // "b ftrace_graph_caller"
> +#endif
> +
> +/*
> + * GCC's patchable-function-entry implicitly disables IPA-RA,
> + * so all non-argument registers are either scratch / dead
> + * or callee-saved (within the ftrace framework). Function
> + * arguments of the call we are intercepting right now however
> + * need to be preserved in any case.
> + */
> +ftrace_common_return:
> + /* restore function args */
> + ldp x0, x1, [sp]
> + ldp x2, x3, [sp, #S_X2]
> + ldp x4, x5, [sp, #S_X4]
> + ldp x6, x7, [sp, #S_X6]
> + ldr x8, [sp, #S_X8]
> +
> + /* restore fp and x28 */
> + ldp x28, x29, [sp, #S_X28]
> +
> + ldr lr, [sp, #S_LR]
> + ldr x9, [sp, #S_PC]

Is it fair to assume that we never modify registers beyond LR and PC as a result of ftrace/livepatching? I presume it is, but just checking.

> + /* clean up both frames, ours and callee preliminary */
> + add sp, sp, #S_FRAME_SIZE + 16
> +
> + ret x9
> +ENDPROC(ftrace_common)
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
> +ENTRY(ftrace_graph_caller)
> + ldr x0, [sp, #S_PC] /* pc */
> + sub x0, x0, #8 /* start of the ftrace call site */
> + add x1, sp, #S_LR /* &lr */
> + ldr x2, [sp, #S_FRAME_SIZE] /* fp */
> + bl prepare_ftrace_return
> + b ftrace_common_return
> +ENDPROC(ftrace_graph_caller)
> +#endif /* CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER */
> +#endif /* CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS */
> +#endif /* CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE */
> +
> +ENTRY(ftrace_stub)
> + ret
> +ENDPROC(ftrace_stub)
> +
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
> /*
> * void return_to_handler(void)
> *
> --- a/arch/arm64/kernel/ftrace.c
> +++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/ftrace.c
> @@ -65,19 +65,67 @@ int ftrace_update_ftrace_func(ftrace_fun
> return ftrace_modify_code(pc, 0, new, false);
> }
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_ARM64_MODULE_PLTS
> +static int install_ftrace_trampoline(struct module *mod, unsigned long *addr)
> +{
> + struct plt_entry trampoline, *mod_trampoline;
> +
> + /*
> + * Iterate over
> + * mod->arch.ftrace_trampolines[MOD_ARCH_NR_FTRACE_TRAMPOLINES]
> + * The assignment to various ftrace functions happens here.
> + */
> + if (*addr == FTRACE_ADDR)
> + mod_trampoline = &mod->arch.ftrace_trampolines[0];
> + else if (*addr == FTRACE_REGS_ADDR)
> + mod_trampoline = &mod->arch.ftrace_trampolines[1];
> + else
> + return -EINVAL;
> +
> + trampoline = get_plt_entry(*addr, mod_trampoline);
> +
> + if (!plt_entries_equal(mod_trampoline, &trampoline)) {
> + /* point the trampoline at our ftrace entry point */
> + module_disable_ro(mod);
> + *mod_trampoline = trampoline;
> + module_enable_ro(mod, true);
> +
> + /* update trampoline before patching in the branch */
> + smp_wmb();
> + }
> + *addr = (unsigned long)(void *)mod_trampoline;
> +
> + return 0;
> +}
> +#endif
> +
> +/*
> + * Ftrace with regs generates the tracer calls as close as possible to
> + * the function entry; no stack frame has been set up at that point.
> + * In order to make another call e.g to ftrace_caller, the LR must be
> + * saved from being overwritten.
> + * Between two functions, and with IPA-RA turned off, the scratch registers
> + * are available, so move the LR to x9 before calling into ftrace.
> + * "mov x9, lr" is officially aliased from "orr x9, xzr, lr".
> + */
> +#define MOV_X9_X30 aarch64_insn_gen_logical_shifted_reg( \
> + AARCH64_INSN_REG_9, AARCH64_INSN_REG_ZR, \
> + AARCH64_INSN_REG_LR, 0, AARCH64_INSN_VARIANT_64BIT, \
> + AARCH64_INSN_LOGIC_ORR)
> +
> /*
> * Turn on the call to ftrace_caller() in instrumented function
> */
> int ftrace_make_call(struct dyn_ftrace *rec, unsigned long addr)
> {
> - unsigned long pc = rec->ip;
> + unsigned long pc = rec->ip + REC_IP_BRANCH_OFFSET;
> u32 old, new;
> long offset = (long)pc - (long)addr;
>
> if (offset < -SZ_128M || offset >= SZ_128M) {
> #ifdef CONFIG_ARM64_MODULE_PLTS
> - struct plt_entry trampoline;
> struct module *mod;
> + int ret;
>
> /*
> * On kernels that support module PLTs, the offset between the
> @@ -96,32 +144,14 @@ int ftrace_make_call(struct dyn_ftrace *
> if (WARN_ON(!mod))
> return -EINVAL;
>
> - /*
> - * There is only one ftrace trampoline per module. For now,
> - * this is not a problem since on arm64, all dynamic ftrace
> - * invocations are routed via ftrace_caller(). This will need
> - * to be revisited if support for multiple ftrace entry points
> - * is added in the future, but for now, the pr_err() below
> - * deals with a theoretical issue only.
> - */
> - trampoline = get_plt_entry(addr, mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline);
> - if (!plt_entries_equal(mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline,
> - &trampoline)) {
> - if (!plt_entries_equal(mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline,
> - &(struct plt_entry){})) {
> - pr_err("ftrace: far branches to multiple entry points unsupported inside a single module\n");
> - return -EINVAL;
> - }
> -
> - /* point the trampoline to our ftrace entry point */
> - module_disable_ro(mod);
> - *mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline = trampoline;
> - module_enable_ro(mod, true);
> + /* Check against our well-known list of ftrace entry points */
> + if (addr == FTRACE_ADDR || addr == FTRACE_REGS_ADDR) {
> + ret = install_ftrace_trampoline(mod, &addr);
> + if (ret < 0)
> + return ret;
> + } else
> + return -EINVAL;
>
> - /* update trampoline before patching in the branch */
> - smp_wmb();
> - }
> - addr = (unsigned long)(void *)mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline;
> #else /* CONFIG_ARM64_MODULE_PLTS */
> return -EINVAL;
> #endif /* CONFIG_ARM64_MODULE_PLTS */
> @@ -133,17 +163,45 @@ int ftrace_make_call(struct dyn_ftrace *
> return ftrace_modify_code(pc, old, new, true);
> }
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS
> +int ftrace_modify_call(struct dyn_ftrace *rec, unsigned long old_addr,
> + unsigned long addr)
> +{
> + unsigned long pc = rec->ip + REC_IP_BRANCH_OFFSET;
> + u32 old, new;
> +
> + old = aarch64_insn_gen_branch_imm(pc, old_addr, true);
> + new = aarch64_insn_gen_branch_imm(pc, addr, true);
> +

Is this a branch or a call? Does addr always fit in the immediate limits?

> + return ftrace_modify_code(pc, old, new, true);

Can you talk to the semantics of whether this operation is atomic w.r.t system? Will old and new return consistent values? Given the nature of ftrace, I presume it's well isolated.

> +}
> +#endif
> +
> /*
> * Turn off the call to ftrace_caller() in instrumented function
> */
> int ftrace_make_nop(struct module *mod, struct dyn_ftrace *rec,
> unsigned long addr)
> {
> - unsigned long pc = rec->ip;
> + unsigned long pc = rec->ip + REC_IP_BRANCH_OFFSET;
> bool validate = true;
> u32 old = 0, new;
> long offset = (long)pc - (long)addr;
>
> + /*
> + * -fpatchable-function-entry= does not generate a profiling call
> + * initially; the NOPs are already there. So instead,
> + * put the LR saver there ahead of time, in order to avoid
> + * any race condition over patching 2 instructions.
> + */
> + if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS) &&
> + addr == MCOUNT_ADDR) {
> + old = aarch64_insn_gen_nop();
> + new = MOV_X9_X30;
> + pc -= REC_IP_BRANCH_OFFSET;
> + return ftrace_modify_code(pc, old, new, validate);

I presume all the icache flush and barrier handling is in ftrace_modify_code()?

> + }
> +
> if (offset < -SZ_128M || offset >= SZ_128M) {
> #ifdef CONFIG_ARM64_MODULE_PLTS
> u32 replaced;
> --- a/arch/arm64/include/asm/module.h
> +++ b/arch/arm64/include/asm/module.h
> @@ -32,7 +32,8 @@ struct mod_arch_specific {
> struct mod_plt_sec init;
>
> /* for CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE */
> - struct plt_entry *ftrace_trampoline;
> + struct plt_entry *ftrace_trampolines;
> +#define MOD_ARCH_NR_FTRACE_TRAMPOLINES 2

I don't see the generation of ftrace_trampolines[1]

> };
> #endif
>
> --- a/arch/arm64/kernel/module.c
> +++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/module.c
> @@ -452,7 +452,7 @@ int module_finalize(const Elf_Ehdr *hdr,
> #ifdef CONFIG_ARM64_MODULE_PLTS
> if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE) &&
> !strcmp(".text.ftrace_trampoline", secstrs + s->sh_name))
> - me->arch.ftrace_trampoline = (void *)s->sh_addr;
> + me->arch.ftrace_trampolines = (void *)s->sh_addr;
> #endif
> }
>
> --- a/arch/arm64/kernel/module-plts.c
> +++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/module-plts.c
> @@ -333,7 +333,8 @@ int module_frob_arch_sections(Elf_Ehdr *
> tramp->sh_type = SHT_NOBITS;
> tramp->sh_flags = SHF_EXECINSTR | SHF_ALLOC;
> tramp->sh_addralign = __alignof__(struct plt_entry);
> - tramp->sh_size = sizeof(struct plt_entry);
> + tramp->sh_size = MOD_ARCH_NR_FTRACE_TRAMPOLINES
> + * sizeof(struct plt_entry);
> }
>
> return 0;
>

Balbir Singh.

\
 
 \ /
  Last update: 2019-01-22 02:40    [W:0.226 / U:26.456 seconds]
©2003-2018 Jasper Spaans|hosted at Digital Ocean and TransIP|Read the blog|Advertise on this site