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SubjectRe: [PATCH RFC 1/8] rcu: Add comment documenting how rcu_seq_snap works
On Tue, May 15, 2018 at 11:41:15AM -0700, Joel Fernandes wrote:
> On Tue, May 15, 2018 at 05:55:07AM -0700, Paul E. McKenney wrote:
> > On Tue, May 15, 2018 at 12:02:43AM -0700, Joel Fernandes wrote:
> > > Hi Paul,
> > > Good morning, hope you're having a great Tuesday. I managed to find some
> > > evening hours today to dig into this a bit more.
> > >
> > > On Mon, May 14, 2018 at 08:59:52PM -0700, Paul E. McKenney wrote:
> > > > On Mon, May 14, 2018 at 06:51:33PM -0700, Joel Fernandes wrote:
> > > > > On Mon, May 14, 2018 at 10:38:16AM -0700, Paul E. McKenney wrote:
> > > > > > On Sun, May 13, 2018 at 08:15:34PM -0700, Joel Fernandes (Google) wrote:
> > > > > > > rcu_seq_snap may be tricky for someone looking at it for the first time.
> > > > > > > Lets document how it works with an example to make it easier.
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > Signed-off-by: Joel Fernandes (Google) <joel@joelfernandes.org>
> > > > > > > ---
> > > > > > > kernel/rcu/rcu.h | 24 +++++++++++++++++++++++-
> > > > > > > 1 file changed, 23 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > diff --git a/kernel/rcu/rcu.h b/kernel/rcu/rcu.h
> > > > > > > index 003671825d62..fc3170914ac7 100644
> > > > > > > --- a/kernel/rcu/rcu.h
> > > > > > > +++ b/kernel/rcu/rcu.h
> > > > > > > @@ -91,7 +91,29 @@ static inline void rcu_seq_end(unsigned long *sp)
> > > > > > > WRITE_ONCE(*sp, rcu_seq_endval(sp));
> > > > > > > }
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > -/* Take a snapshot of the update side's sequence number. */
> > > > > > > +/*
> > > > > > > + * Take a snapshot of the update side's sequence number.
> > > > > > > + *
> > > > > > > + * This function predicts what the grace period number will be the next
> > > > > > > + * time an RCU callback will be executed, given the current grace period's
> > > > > > > + * number. This can be gp+1 if RCU is idle, or gp+2 if a grace period is
> > > > > > > + * already in progress.
> > > > > >
> > > > > > How about something like this?
> > > > > >
> > > > > > This function returns the earliest value of the grace-period
> > > > > > sequence number that will indicate that a full grace period has
> > > > > > elapsed since the current time. Once the grace-period sequence
> > > > > > number has reached this value, it will be safe to invoke all
> > > > > > callbacks that have been registered prior to the current time.
> > > > > > This value is the current grace-period number plus two to the
> > > > > > power of the number of low-order bits reserved for state, then
> > > > > > rounded up to the next value in which the state bits are all zero.
> > > > >
> > > > > This makes sense too, but do you disagree with what I said?
> > > >
> > > > In a pedantic sense, definitely. RCU callbacks are being executed pretty
> > > > much all the time on a busy system, so it is only the recently queued
> > > > ones that are guaranteed to be deferred that long. And my experience
> > > > indicates that someone really will get confused by that distinction,
> > > > so I feel justified in being pedantic in this case.
> > >
> > > Ok I agree, I'll include your comment above.
> > >
> > > > > Also just to let you know, thanks so much for elaborately providing an
> > > > > example on the other thread where we are discussing the rcu_seq_done check. I
> > > > > will take some time to trace this down and see if I can zero in on the same
> > > > > understanding as yours.
> > > > >
> > > > > I get why we use rcu_seq_snap there in rcu_start_this_gp but the way it its
> > > > > used is 'c' is the requested GP obtained from _snap, and we are comparing that with the existing
> > > > > rnp->gp_seq in rcu_seq_done. When that rnp->gp_seq reaches 'c', it only
> > > > > means rnp->gp_seq is done, it doesn't tell us if 'c' is done which is what
> > > > > we were trying to check in that loop... that's why I felt that check wasn't
> > > > > correct - that's my (most likely wrong) take on the matter, and I'll get back
> > > > > once I trace this a bit more hopefully today :-P
> > > >
> > > > If your point is that interrupts are disabled throughout, so there isn't
> > > > much chance of the grace period completing during that time, you are
> > > > mostly right. The places you might not be right are the idle loop and
> > > > offline CPUs. And yes, call_rcu() doesn't like queuing callbacks onto
> > > > offline CPUs, but IIRC it is just fine in the case where callbacks have
> > > > been offloaded from that CPU.
> > > >
> > > > And if you instead say that "c" is the requested final ->gp_seq value
> > > > obtained from _snap(), the thought process might go more easily.
> > >
> > > Yes I agree with c being the requested final value which is the GP for which
> > > the callbacks will be queued. At the end of the GP c, the callbacks will have
> > > executed.
> > >
> > > About the rcu_seq_done check and why I believe its not right to use it in
> > > that funnel locking loop, if you could allow me to try argument my point from
> > > a different angle...
> > >
> > > We agreed that the way gp_seq numbers work and are compared with each other
> > > to identify if a GP is elapsed or not, is different from the way the previous
> > > numbers (gp_num) were compared.
> > >
> > > Most notably, before the gp_seq conversions - inorder to start a GP, we were
> > > doing gp_num += 1, and completed had to catch up to gp_num + 1 to mark the
> > > end.
> > >
> > > Now with gp_seq, for a gp to start, we don't do the "+1", we just set the
> > > state bits. To mark the end, we clear the state bits and increment the gp_num
> > > part of gp_seq.
> > >
> > > However, in the below commit 12d6c129fd0a ("rcu: Convert grace-period
> > > requests to ->gp_seq"). You did a one-to-one replacement of the ULONG_CMP_GE
> > > with rcu_seq_done. You did so even though the gp_seq numbers work differently
> > > from previously used numbers (gp_num and completed).
> > >
> > > I would then argue that because of the differences above, a one-to-one
> > > replacement of the ULONG_CMP_GE with the rcu_seq_done wouldn't make sense.
> > >
> > > I argue this because, in previous code - the ULONG_CMP_GE made sense for the gp_num
> > > way of things because, if c == gp_num, that means that :
> > > - c started already
> > > - c has finished.
> > > Which worked correctly, because we have nothing to do and we can bail
> > > without setting any flag.
> > >
> > > Where as now, with the gp_seq regime, c == gp_seq means:
> > > - c-1 finished (I meant -1 subtracted from the gp_num part of c)
> > > This would cause us to bail without setting any flag for starting c.
> > >
> > > I did some tracing and I could never hit the rcu_seq_done check because it
> > > never happens in my tracing that _snap returned something for which
> > > rcu_seq_done returned true, so I'm not sure if this check is needed, but
> > > you're the expert ;)
> > >
> > > @@ -1629,16 +1583,16 @@ static bool rcu_start_this_gp(struct rcu_node *rnp, struct rcu_data *rdp,
> > > * not be released.
> > > */
> > > raw_lockdep_assert_held_rcu_node(rnp);
> > > + WARN_ON_ONCE(c & 0x2); /* Catch any lingering use of ->gpnum. */
> > > + WARN_ON_ONCE(((rnp->completed << RCU_SEQ_CTR_SHIFT) >> RCU_SEQ_CTR_SHIFT) != rcu_seq_ctr(rnp->gp_seq)); /* Catch any ->completed/->gp_seq mismatches. */
> > > trace_rcu_this_gp(rnp, rdp, c, TPS("Startleaf"));
> > > for (rnp_root = rnp; 1; rnp_root = rnp_root->parent) {
> > > if (rnp_root != rnp)
> > > raw_spin_lock_rcu_node(rnp_root);
> > > - WARN_ON_ONCE(ULONG_CMP_LT(rnp_root->gpnum +
> > > - need_future_gp_mask(), c));
> > > if (need_future_gp_element(rnp_root, c) ||
> > > - ULONG_CMP_GE(rnp_root->gpnum, c) ||
> > > + rcu_seq_done(&rnp_root->gp_seq, c) ||
> > >
> > > ^^^^
> > > A direct replacement of ULONG_CMP_GE is bit weird? It
> > > means we bail out if c-1 completed, and we don't set any
> > > flag for starting c. That could result in the clean up
> > > never starting c?
> >
> > Ah, I see what you are getting at now.
> >
> > What I do instead in 334dac2da529 ("rcu: Make rcu_nocb_wait_gp() check
> > if GP already requested") is to push the request down to the leaves of
> > the tree and to the rcu_data structure. Once that commit is in place,
> > the check for the grace period already being in progress isn't all
> > that helpful, though I suppose that it could be added. One way to
> > do that would be to replace "rcu_seq_done(&rnp_root->gp_seq, c)" with
> > ULONG_CMP_GE(rnp_root->gpnum, (c - RCU_SEQ_STATE_MASK))", but that seems
> > a bit baroque to me.
> >
> > The point of the rcu_seq_done() is to catch long delays, but given the
> > current implementation, the fact that interrupts are disabled across
> > all calls should prevent the rcu_seq_done() from ever returning true.
> > (Famous last words!) So, yes, it could be removed, in theory, at least.
> > At least until the real-time guys force me to come up with a way to
> > run this code with interrupts enabled (hopefully never!).
> >
> > If I were to do that, I would first wrap it with a WARN_ON_ONCE() and
> > leave it that way for an extended period of testing. Yes, I am paranoid.
> > Why do you ask? ;-)
> :-D
>
> Ah I see what you're doing in that commit where you're moving the furthest
> request down to the leaves, so that would protect against the scenario I was
> describing and set the gp_seq_needed of the leaf.

But I came up with a less baroque check for a grace period having started,
at which point the question becomes "Why not just do both?", especially
since a check for a grace period having started is satisfied by that
grace period's having completed, which means minimal added overhead.
Perhaps no added overhead for some compilers and architectures.

Please see the end of this email for a prototype patch.

> The code would be correct then, but one issue is it would shout out the
> 'Prestarted' tracepoint for 'c' when that's not really true..
>
> rcu_seq_done(&rnp_root->gp_seq, c)
>
> translates to ULONG_CMP_GE(&rnp_root->gp_seq, c)
>
> which translates to the fact that c-1 completed.
>
> So in this case if rcu_seq_done returns true, then saying that c has been
> 'Prestarted' seems a bit off to me. It should be 'Startedleaf' or something
> since what we really are doing is just marking the leaf as you mentioned in
> the unlock_out part for a future start.

Indeed, some of the tracing is not all that accurate. But the trace
message itself contains the information needed to work out why the
loop was exited, so perhaps something like 'EarlyExit'?

Thanx, Paul

------------------------------------------------------------------------

commit 59a4f38edcffbef1521852fe3b26ed4ed85af16e
Author: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Date: Tue May 15 11:53:41 2018 -0700

rcu: Make rcu_start_this_gp() check for grace period already started

In the old days of ->gpnum and ->completed, the code requesting a new
grace period checked to see if that grace period had already started,
bailing early if so. The new-age ->gp_seq approach instead checks
whether the grace period has already finished. A compensating change
pushed the requested grace period down to the bottom of the tree, thus
reducing lock contention and even eliminating it in some cases. But why
not further reduce contention, especially on large systems, by doing both,
especially given that the cost of doing both is extremely small?

This commit therefore adds a new rcu_seq_started() function that checks
whether a specified grace period has already started. It then uses
this new function in place of rcu_seq_done() in the rcu_start_this_gp()
function's funnel locking code.

Reported-by: Joel Fernandes <joel@joelfernandes.org>
Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

diff --git a/kernel/rcu/rcu.h b/kernel/rcu/rcu.h
index 003671825d62..1c5cbd9d7c97 100644
--- a/kernel/rcu/rcu.h
+++ b/kernel/rcu/rcu.h
@@ -108,6 +108,15 @@ static inline unsigned long rcu_seq_current(unsigned long *sp)
}

/*
+ * Given a snapshot from rcu_seq_snap(), determine whether or not the
+ * corresponding update-side operation has started.
+ */
+static inline bool rcu_seq_started(unsigned long *sp, unsigned long s)
+{
+ return ULONG_CMP_LT((s - 1) & ~RCU_SEQ_STATE_MASK, READ_ONCE(*sp));
+}
+
+/*
* Given a snapshot from rcu_seq_snap(), determine whether or not a
* full update-side operation has occurred.
*/
diff --git a/kernel/rcu/tree.c b/kernel/rcu/tree.c
index 9e900c5926cc..ed69f49b7054 100644
--- a/kernel/rcu/tree.c
+++ b/kernel/rcu/tree.c
@@ -1580,7 +1580,7 @@ static bool rcu_start_this_gp(struct rcu_node *rnp, struct rcu_data *rdp,
if (rnp_root != rnp)
raw_spin_lock_rcu_node(rnp_root);
if (ULONG_CMP_GE(rnp_root->gp_seq_needed, c) ||
- rcu_seq_done(&rnp_root->gp_seq, c) ||
+ rcu_seq_started(&rnp_root->gp_seq, c) ||
(rnp != rnp_root &&
rcu_seq_state(rcu_seq_current(&rnp_root->gp_seq)))) {
trace_rcu_this_gp(rnp_root, rdp, c, TPS("Prestarted"));
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