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SubjectRe: [PATCH 17/30] Documentation: kconfig: document a new Kconfig macro language
2018-04-15 8:33 GMT+09:00 Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>:
> On 04/12/18 22:06, Masahiro Yamada wrote:
>> Add a document for the macro language introduced to Kconfig.
>>
>> Signed-off-by: Masahiro Yamada <yamada.masahiro@socionext.com>
>> ---
>>
>> Changes in v3: None
>> Changes in v2: None
>>
>> Documentation/kbuild/kconfig-macro-language.txt | 179 ++++++++++++++++++++++++
>> MAINTAINERS | 2 +-
>> 2 files changed, 180 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
>> create mode 100644 Documentation/kbuild/kconfig-macro-language.txt
>>
>> diff --git a/Documentation/kbuild/kconfig-macro-language.txt b/Documentation/kbuild/kconfig-macro-language.txt
>> new file mode 100644
>> index 0000000..1f6281b
>> --- /dev/null
>> +++ b/Documentation/kbuild/kconfig-macro-language.txt
>> @@ -0,0 +1,179 @@
>> +Concept
>> +-------
>> +
>> +The basic idea was inspired by Make. When we look at Make, we notice sort of
>> +two languages in one. One language describes dependency graphs consisting of
>> +targets and prerequisites. The other is a macro language for performing textual
>> +substitution.
>> +
>> +There is clear distinction between the two language stages. For example, you
>> +can write a makefile like follows:
>> +
>> + APP := foo
>> + SRC := foo.c
>> + CC := gcc
>> +
>> + $(APP): $(SRC)
>> + $(CC) -o $(APP) $(SRC)
>> +
>> +The macro language replaces the variable references with their expanded form,
>> +and handles as if the source file were input like follows:
>> +
>> + foo: foo.c
>> + gcc -o foo foo.c
>> +
>> +Then, Make analyzes the dependency graph and determines the targets to be
>> +updated.
>> +
>> +The idea is quite similar in Kconfig - it is possible to describe a Kconfig
>> +file like this:
>> +
>> + CC := gcc
>> +
>> + config CC_HAS_FOO
>> + def_bool $(shell $(srctree)/scripts/gcc-check-foo.sh $(CC))
>> +
>> +The macro language in Kconfig processes the source file into the following
>> +intermediate:
>> +
>> + config CC_HAS_FOO
>> + def_bool y
>> +
>> +Then, Kconfig moves onto the evaluation stage to resolve inter-symbol
>> +dependency, which is explained in kconfig-language.txt.
>> +
>> +
>> +Variables
>> +---------
>> +
>> +Like in Make, a variable in Kconfig works as a macro variable. A macro
>> +variable is expanded "in place" to yield a text string that may then expanded
>
> may then be expanded
>
>> +further. To get the value of a variable, enclose the variable name in $( ).
>> +As a special case, single-letter variable names can omit the parentheses and is
>
> and are
>
>> +simply referenced like $X. Unlike Make, Kconfig does not support curly braces
>> +as in ${CC}.
>> +
>> +There are two types of variables: simply expanded variables and recursively
>> +expanded variables.
>> +
>> +A simply expanded variable is defined using the := assignment operator. Its
>> +righthand side is expanded immediately upon reading the line from the Kconfig
>> +file.
>> +
>> +A recursively expanded variable is defined using the = assignment operator.
>> +Its righthand side is simply stored as the value of the variable without
>> +expanding it in any way. Instead, the expansion is performed when the variable
>> +is used.
>> +
>> +There is another type of assignment operator; += is used to append text to a
>> +variable. The righthand side of += is expanded immediately if the lefthand
>> +side was originally defined as a simple variable. Otherwise, its evaluation is
>> +deferred.
>> +
>> +
>> +Functions
>> +---------
>> +
>> +Like Make, Kconfig supports both built-in and user-defined functions. A
>> +function invocation looks much like a variable reference, but includes one or
>> +more parameters separated by commas:
>> +
>> + $(function-name arg1, arg2, arg3)
>> +
>> +Some functions are implemented as a built-in function. Currently, Kconfig
>> +supports the following:
>> +
>> + - $(shell command)
>> +
>> + The 'shell' function accepts a single argument that is expanded and passed
>> + to a subshell for execution. The standard output of the command is then read
>> + and returned as the value of the function. Every newline in the output is
>> + replaced with a space. Any trailing newlines are deleted. The standard error
>> + is not returned, nor is any program exit status.
>> +
>> + - $(warning text)
>> +
>> + The 'warning' function prints its arguments to stderr. The output is prefixed
>> + with the name of the current Kconfig file, the current line number. It
>
> file and the current line number. It
>
>> + evaluates to an empty string.
>> +
>> + - $(info text)
>> +
>> + The 'info' function is similar to 'warning' except that it sends its argument
>> + to stdout without any Kconfig name or line number.
>
> Are current Kconfig file name and line number available so that someone can
> construct their own $(info message) messages?

Not available for now, but it would be easy to support such special variables
that expand to the current file name, and line number.
For example, '$(file)' and '$(lineno)' ?


>> +
>> +A user-defined function is defined by using the = operator. The parameters are
>> +referenced within the body definition with $1, $2, etc. (or $(1), $(2), etc.)
>> +In fact, a user-defined function is internally treated as a recursive variable.
>
> so the difference is just whether there are arguments?
> A recursive variable does not have arguments and a function always has at least
> one argument?

At least in my implementation, yes, they are implemented in the same way.
The difference is "what we call it".

I just called it in an intuitive name.

If there is no argument, people generally assume it is a variable.
If it takes arguments, a function.
But, in fact, they are the same.



Probably, similar situation in GNU Make.

For example, you can use $(call ...) to expand a variable

Test Makefile:


A = 1

all:
@echo $(A)
@echo $(call A)


Both print the value of A.








>
>> +
>> +A user-defined function is referenced in the same way as a built-in function:
>> +
>> + $(my_func, arg0, arg1, arg2)
>
> Syntax given above is:
> + $(function-name arg1, arg2, arg3)
>
> with no comma after the function name. Which is it?


Sorry, no comma after the function name.

But, I personally think a comma after the function name is more consistent.




>> +
>> +Note 1:
>> +There is a slight difference in the whitespace handling of the function call
>> +between Make and Kconfig. In Make, leading whitespaces are trimmed from the
>> +first argument. So, $(info FOO) is equivalent to $(info FOO). Kconfig keeps
>> +any leading whitespaces except the one right after the function name, which
>> +works as a separator. So, $(info FOO) prints " FOO" to the stdout.
>> +
>> +Note 2:
>> +In Make, a user-defined function is referenced by using a built-in function,
>> +'call', like this:
>> +
>> + $(call my_func, arg0, arg1, arg2)
>> +
>> +However, Kconfig did not adopt this form just for the purpose of shortening the
>> +syntax.
>> +
>> +
>> +Caveats
>> +-------
>> +
>> +A variable (or function) can not be expanded across tokens. So, you can not use
>
> cannot cannot
>
>> +a variable as a shorthand for an expression that consists of multiple tokens.
>> +The following works:
>> +
>> + RANGE_MIN := 1
>> + RANGE_MAX := 3
>> +
>> + config FOO
>> + int "foo"
>> + range $(RANGE_MIN) $(RANGE_MAX)
>> +
>> +But, the following does not work:
>> +
>> + RANGES := 1 3
>> +
>> + config FOO
>> + int "foo"
>> + range $(RANGES)
>> +
>> +A variable can not be expanded to any keyword in Kconfig. The following does
>
> cannot
>
>> +not work:
>> +
>> + MY_TYPE := tristate
>> +
>> + config FOO
>> + $(MY_TYPE) "foo"
>> + default y
>> +
>> +Obviously from the design, $(shell command) is expanded in the textual
>> +substitution phase. You can not pass symbols to the 'shell' function.
>
> cannot
>
>> +The following does not work as expected.
>> +
>> + config ENDIAN_OPTION
>> + string
>> + default "-mbig-endian" if CPU_BIG_ENDIAN
>> + default "-mlittle-endian" if CPU_LITTLE_ENDIAN
>> +
>> + config CC_HAS_ENDIAN_OPTION
>> + def_bool $(shell $(srctree)/scripts/gcc-check-option ENDIAN_OPTION)
>> +
>> +Instead, you can do like follows so that any function call is statically
>> +expanded.
>> +
>> + config CC_HAS_ENDIAN_OPTION
>> + bool
>
> fix indentation?

Good catch. I will fix them all.



>> + default $(shell $(srctree)/scripts/gcc-check-option -mbig-endian) if CPU_BIG_ENDIAN
>> + default $(shell $(srctree)/scripts/gcc-check-option -mlittle-endian) if CPU_LITTLE_ENDIAN
>
>
> --
> ~Randy
> --
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--
Best Regards
Masahiro Yamada

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