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SubjectRe: [PATCH v5 3/8] docs: Add Generic Counter interface documentation
On Fri,  9 Mar 2018 13:42:48 -0500
William Breathitt Gray <vilhelm.gray@gmail.com> wrote:

> This patch adds high-level documentation about the Generic Counter
> interface.
>
> Signed-off-by: William Breathitt Gray <vilhelm.gray@gmail.com>
Other than the little issues Randy raised and one more inline from
me this looks good to me.

I would suggest you check whitespace in general to make sure there
are not other odd mixes of tabs and spaces hiding in here.

Reviewed-by: Jonathan Cameron <Jonathan.Cameron@huawei.com>

> ---
> Documentation/driver-api/generic-counter.rst | 321 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> Documentation/driver-api/index.rst | 1 +
> MAINTAINERS | 1 +
> 3 files changed, 323 insertions(+)
> create mode 100644 Documentation/driver-api/generic-counter.rst
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/driver-api/generic-counter.rst b/Documentation/driver-api/generic-counter.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..bce0cbc31963
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/driver-api/generic-counter.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,321 @@
> +=========================
> +Generic Counter Interface
> +=========================
> +
> +Introduction
> +============
> +
> +Counter devices are prevalent within a diverse spectrum of industries.
> +The ubiquitous presence of these devices necessitates a common interface
> +and standard of interaction and exposure. This driver API attempts to
> +resolve the issue of duplicate code found among existing counter device
> +drivers by introducing a generic counter interface for consumption. The
> +Generic Counter interface enables drivers to support and expose a common
> +set of components and functionality present in counter devices.
> +
> +Theory
> +======
> +
> +Counter devices can vary greatly in design, but regardless of whether
> +some devices are quadrature encoder counters or tally counters, all
> +counter devices consist of a core set of components. This core set of
> +components, shared by all counter devices, is what forms the essence of
> +the Generic Counter interface.
> +
> +There are three core components to a counter:
> +
> + COUNT
> + -----
> + A Count represents the count data for a set of Signals. The
> + Generic Counter interface provides the following available count
> + data types:
> +
> + * COUNT_POSITION_UNSIGNED:
> + Unsigned integer value representing position.
> +
> + * COUNT_POSITION_SIGNED:
> + Signed integer value representing position.
> +
> + A Count has a count function mode which represents the update
> + behavior for the count data. The Generic Counter interface
> + provides the following available count function modes:
> +
> + * Increase:
> + Accumulated count is incremented.
> +
> + * Decrease:
> + Accumulated count is decremented.
> +
> + * Pulse-Direction:
> + Rising edges on quadrature pair signal A updates
> + the respective count. The input level of
> + quadrature pair signal B determines direction.
> +
> + * Quadrature x1:
> + If direction is forward, rising edges on
> + quadrature pair signal A updates the respective
> + count; if the direction is backward, falling
> + edges on quadrature pair signal A updates the
> + respective count. Quadrature encoding determines
> + the direction.
> +
> + * Quadrature x2:
> + Any state transition on quadrature pair signal A
> + updates the respective count. Quadrature
> + encoding determines the direction.
> +
> + * Quadrature x4:
> + Any state transition on either quadrature pair
> + signals updates the respective count. Quadrature
> + encoding determines the direction.
> +
> + A Count has a set of one or more associated Signals.
> +
> + SIGNAL
> + ------
> + A Signal represents a counter input data; this is the input data
> + that is analyzed by the counter to determine the count data;
> + e.g. a quadrature signal output line of a rotary encoder. Not
> + all counter devices provide user access to the Signal data.
> +
> + The Generic Counter interface provides the following available
> + signal data types for when the Signal data is available for user
> + access:
> +
> + * SIGNAL_LEVEL_LOW:
> + Signal line is in a low state.
> +
> + * SIGNAL_LEVEL_HIGH:
> + Signal line is in a high state.

Something odd in formatting here as those two bullet points should
be aligned.

> +
> + A Signal may be associated to one or more Counts.
> +
> + SYNAPSE
> + -------
> + A Synapse represents the association of a Signal with a
> + respective Count. Signal data affects respective Count data, and
> + the Synapse represents this relationship.
> +
> + The Synapse action mode specifies the Signal data condition
> + which triggers the respective Count's count function evaluation
> + to update the count data. The Generic Counter interface provides
> + the following available action modes:
> +
> + * None:
> + Signal does not trigger the count function. In
> + Pulse-Direction count function mode, this Signal
> + is evaluated as Direction.
> + * Rising Edge:
> + Low state transitions to high state.
> + * Falling Edge:
> + High state transitions to low state.
> + * Both Edges:
> + Any state transition.
> +
> +
> +A counter is defined as a set of input signals associated to count data
> +that are generated by the evaluation of the state of the associated
> +input signals as defined by the respective count functions. Within the
> +context of the Generic Counter interface, a counter consists of Counts
> +each associated to a set of Signals, whose respective Synapse instances
> +represent the count function update conditions for the associated
> +Counts.
> +
> +Paradigm
> +========
> +
> +The most basic counter device may be expressed as a single Count
> +associated with a single Signal via a single Synapse. Take for example
> +a counter device which simply accumulates a count of rising edges on a
> +source input line.
> +
> + Count Synapse Signal
> + ----- ------- ------
> ++---------------------+
> +| Data: Count | Rising Edge ________
> +| Function: Increase | <------------- / Source \
> +| | ____________
> ++---------------------+
> +
> +In this example, the Signal is a source input line with a pulsing
> +voltage, while the Count is a persistent count value which is repeatedly
> +incremented. The Signal is associated with the respective Count via a
> +Synapse. The increase function is triggered by the Signal data condition
> +specified by the Synapse -- in this case a rising edge condition on the
> +voltage input line. In summary, the counter device existence and
> +behavior is aptly represented by respective Count, Signal, and Synapse
> +components: a rising edge condition triggers an increase function on an
> +accumulating count datum.
> +
> +A counter device is not limited to a single Signal; in fact, in theory
> +many Signals may be associated with even a single Count. For example, a
> +quadrature encoder counter device can keep track of position based on
> +the states of two input lines.
> +
> + Count Synapse Signal
> + ----- ------- ------
> ++-------------------------+
> +| Data: Position | Both Edges ___
> +| Function: Quadrature x4 | <------------ / A \
> +| | _______
> +| |
> +| | Both Edges ___
> +| | <------------ / B \
> +| | _______
> ++-------------------------+
> +
> +In this example, two Signals (quadrature encoder lines A and B) are
> +associated to a single Count: a rising or falling edge on either A or B
> +triggers the "Quadrature x4" function which determines the direction of
> +movement and updates the respective position data. The "Quadrature x4"
> +function is likely implemented in the hardware of the quadrature encoder
> +counter device; the Count, Signals, and Synapses simply represent this
> +hardware behavior and functionality.
> +
> +Signals associated to the same Count can have differing Synapse action
> +mode conditions. For example, a quadrature encoder counter device
> +operating in a non-quadrature Pulse-Direction mode could have one input
> +line dedicated for movement and a second input line dedicated for
> +direction.
> +
> + Count Synapse Signal
> + ----- ------- ------
> ++---------------------------+
> +| Data: Position | Rising Edge ___
> +| Function: Pulse-Direction | <------------- / A \ (Movement)
> +| | _______
> +| |
> +| | None ___
> +| | <------------- / B \ (Direction)
> +| | _______
> ++---------------------------+
> +
> +Only Signal A triggers the "Pulse-Direction" update function, but the
> +instantaneous state of Signal B is still required in order to know the
> +direction so that the position data may be properly updated. Ultimately,
> +both Signals are associated to the same Count via two respective
> +Synapses, but only one Synapse has an active action mode condition which
> +triggers the respective count function while the other is left with a
> +"None" condition action mode to indicate its respective Signal's
> +availability for state evaluation despite its non-triggering mode.
> +
> +Keep in mind that the Signal, Synapse, and Count are abstract
> +representations which do not need to be closely married to their
> +respective physical sources. This allows the user of a counter to
> +divorce themselves from the nuances of physical components (such as
> +whether an input line is differential or single-ended) and instead focus
> +on the core idea of what the data and process represent (e.g. position
> +as interpreted from quadrature encoding data).
> +
> +Userspace Interface
> +===================
> +
> +Several sysfs attributes are generated by the Generic Counter interface,
> +and reside under the /sys/bus/counter/devices/counterX directory, where
> +counterX refers to the respective counter device. Please see
> +Documentation/ABI/testing/sys-bus-counter-generic-sysfs for detailed
> +information on each Generic Counter interface sysfs attribute.
> +
> +Through these sysfs attributes, programs and scripts may interact with
> +the Generic Counter paradigm Counts, Signals, and Synapses of respective
> +counter devices.
> +
> +Driver API
> +==========
> +
> +Driver authors may utilize the Generic Counter interface in their code
> +by including the include/linux/iio/counter.h header file. This header
> +file provides several core data structures, function prototypes, and
> +macros for defining a counter device.
> +
> +.. kernel-doc:: include/linux/counter.h
> + :internal:
> +
> +.. kernel-doc:: drivers/counter/generic-counter.c
> + :export:
> +
> +Implementation
> +==============
> +
> +To support a counter device, a driver must first allocate the available
> +Counter Signals via counter_signal structures. These Signals should
> +be stored as an array and set to the signals array member of an
> +allocated counter_device structure before the Counter is registered to
> +the system.
> +
> +Counter Counts may be allocated via counter_count structures, and
> +respective Counter Signal associations (Synapses) made via
> +counter_synapse structures. Associated counter_synapse structures are
> +stored as an array and set to the the synapses array member of the
> +respective counter_count structure. These counter_count structures are
> +set to the counts array member of an allocated counter_device structure
> +before the Counter is registered to the system.
> +
> +Driver callbacks should be provided to the counter_device structure in
> +order to communicate with the device: to read and write various Signals
> +and Counts, and to set and get the "action mode" and "function mode" for
> +various Synapses and Counts respectively.
> +
> +A defined counter_device structure may be registered to the system by
> +passing it to the counter_register function, and unregistered by passing
> +it to the counter_unregister function. Similarly, the
> +devm_counter_register and devm_counter_unregister functions may be used
> +if device memory-managed registration is desired.
> +
> +Extension sysfs attributes can be created for auxiliary functionality
> +and data by passing in defined counter_device_ext, counter_count_ext,
> +and counter_signal_ext structures. In these cases, the
> +counter_device_ext structure is used for global configuration of the
> +respective Counter device, while the counter_count_ext and
> +counter_signal_ext structures allow for auxiliary exposure and
> +configuration of a specific Count or Signal respectively.
> +
> +Architecture
> +============
> +
> +When the Generic Counter interface counter module is loaded, the
> +counter_init function is called which registers a bus_type named
> +"counter" to the system. Subsequently, when the module is unloaded, the
> +counter_exit function is called which unregisters the bus_type named
> +"counter" from the system.
> +
> +Counter devices are registered to the system via the counter_register
> +function, and later removed via the counter_unregister function. The
> +counter_register function establishes a unique ID for the Counter
> +device and creates a respective sysfs directory, where X is the
> +mentioned unique ID:
> +
> + /sys/bus/counter/devices/counterX
> +
> +Sysfs attributes are created within the counterX directory to expose
> +functionality, configurations, and data relating to the Counts, Signals,
> +and Synapses of the Counter device, as well as options and information
> +for the Counter device itself.
> +
> +Each Signal has a directory created to house its relevant sysfs
> +attributes, where Y is the unique ID of the respective Signal:
> +
> + /sys/bus/counter/devices/counterX/signalY
> +
> +Similarly, each Count has a directory created to house its relevant
> +sysfs attributes, where Y is the unique ID of the respective Count:
> +
> + /sys/bus/counter/devices/counterX/countY
> +
> +For a more detailed breakdown of the available Generic Counter interface
> +sysfs attributes, please refer to the
> +Documentation/ABI/testing/sys-bus-counter file.
> +
> +The Signals and Counts associated with the Counter device are registered
> +to the system as well by the counter_register function. The
> +signal_read/signal_write driver callbacks are associated to their
> +respective Signal attributes, while the count_read/count_write and
> +function_get/function_set driver callbacks are associated to their
> +respective Count attributes; similarly, the same is true for the
> +action_get/action_set driver callbacks and their respective Synapse
> +attributes. If a driver callback is left undefined, then the respective
> +read/write permission is left disabled for the relevant attributes.
> +
> +Similarly, extension sysfs attributes are created for the defined
> +counter_device_ext, counter_count_ext, and counter_signal_ext
> +structures that are passed in.
> diff --git a/Documentation/driver-api/index.rst b/Documentation/driver-api/index.rst
> index e9b41b1634f3..57e6e2c1d063 100644
> --- a/Documentation/driver-api/index.rst
> +++ b/Documentation/driver-api/index.rst
> @@ -25,6 +25,7 @@ available subsections can be seen below.
> frame-buffer
> regulator
> iio/index
> + generic-counter
> input
> usb/index
> pci
> diff --git a/MAINTAINERS b/MAINTAINERS
> index 2a7bf2f84272..a71dff6eae87 100644
> --- a/MAINTAINERS
> +++ b/MAINTAINERS
> @@ -3673,6 +3673,7 @@ M: William Breathitt Gray <vilhelm.gray@gmail.com>
> L: linux-iio@vger.kernel.org
> S: Maintained
> F: Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-counter*
> +F: Documentation/driver-api/generic-counter.rst
> F: drivers/counter/
> F: include/linux/counter.h
>

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