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Subject[PATCH v3 4/4] mm/memory_hotplug: optimize memory hotplug
Date
This patch was inspired by the discussion of this problem:
http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20180130083006.GB1245@in.ibm.com

Currently, during memory hotplugging we traverse struct pages several
times:

1. memset(0) in sparse_add_one_section()
2. loop in __add_section() to set do: set_page_node(page, nid); and
SetPageReserved(page);
3. loop in pages_correctly_reserved() to check that SetPageReserved is set.
4. loop in memmap_init_zone() to call __init_single_pfn()

This patch removes loops 1, 2, and 3 and only leaves the loop 4, where all
struct page fields are initialized in one go, the same as it is now done
during boot.

The benefits:
- We improve the memory hotplug performance because we are not evicting
cache several times and also reduce loop branching overheads.

- Remove condition from hotpath in __init_single_pfn(), that was added in
order to fix the problem that was reported by Bharata in the above email
thread, thus also improve the performance during normal boot.

- Make memory hotplug more similar to boot memory initialization path
because we zero and initialize struct pages only in one function.

- Simplifies memory hotplug strut page initialization code, and thus
enables future improvements, such as multi-threading the initialization
of struct pages in order to improve the hotplug performance even further
on larger machines.

Signed-off-by: Pavel Tatashin <pasha.tatashin@oracle.com>
---
drivers/base/memory.c | 38 +++++++++++++++++++++-----------------
drivers/base/node.c | 17 ++++++++++-------
include/linux/memory_hotplug.h | 2 ++
include/linux/node.h | 4 ++--
mm/memory_hotplug.c | 21 ++-------------------
mm/page_alloc.c | 28 ++++++++++------------------
mm/sparse.c | 29 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++---
7 files changed, 73 insertions(+), 66 deletions(-)

diff --git a/drivers/base/memory.c b/drivers/base/memory.c
index fe4b24f05f6a..a14fb0cd424a 100644
--- a/drivers/base/memory.c
+++ b/drivers/base/memory.c
@@ -187,13 +187,14 @@ int memory_isolate_notify(unsigned long val, void *v)
}

/*
- * The probe routines leave the pages reserved, just as the bootmem code does.
- * Make sure they're still that way.
+ * The probe routines leave the pages uninitialized, just as the bootmem code
+ * does. Make sure we do not access them, but instead use only information from
+ * within sections.
*/
-static bool pages_correctly_reserved(unsigned long start_pfn)
+static bool pages_correctly_probed(unsigned long start_pfn)
{
- int i, j;
- struct page *page;
+ unsigned long section_nr = pfn_to_section_nr(start_pfn);
+ unsigned long section_nr_end = section_nr + sections_per_block;
unsigned long pfn = start_pfn;

/*
@@ -201,21 +202,24 @@ static bool pages_correctly_reserved(unsigned long start_pfn)
* SPARSEMEM_VMEMMAP. We lookup the page once per section
* and assume memmap is contiguous within each section
*/
- for (i = 0; i < sections_per_block; i++, pfn += PAGES_PER_SECTION) {
+ for (; section_nr < section_nr_end; section_nr++) {
if (WARN_ON_ONCE(!pfn_valid(pfn)))
return false;
- page = pfn_to_page(pfn);
-
- for (j = 0; j < PAGES_PER_SECTION; j++) {
- if (PageReserved(page + j))
- continue;
-
- printk(KERN_WARNING "section number %ld page number %d "
- "not reserved, was it already online?\n",
- pfn_to_section_nr(pfn), j);

+ if (!present_section_nr(section_nr)) {
+ pr_warn("section %ld pfn[%lx, %lx) not present",
+ section_nr, pfn, pfn + PAGES_PER_SECTION);
+ return false;
+ } else if (!valid_section_nr(section_nr)) {
+ pr_warn("section %ld pfn[%lx, %lx) no valid memmap",
+ section_nr, pfn, pfn + PAGES_PER_SECTION);
+ return false;
+ } else if (online_section_nr(section_nr)) {
+ pr_warn("section %ld pfn[%lx, %lx) is already online",
+ section_nr, pfn, pfn + PAGES_PER_SECTION);
return false;
}
+ pfn += PAGES_PER_SECTION;
}

return true;
@@ -237,7 +241,7 @@ memory_block_action(unsigned long phys_index, unsigned long action, int online_t

switch (action) {
case MEM_ONLINE:
- if (!pages_correctly_reserved(start_pfn))
+ if (!pages_correctly_probed(start_pfn))
return -EBUSY;

ret = online_pages(start_pfn, nr_pages, online_type);
@@ -727,7 +731,7 @@ int register_new_memory(int nid, struct mem_section *section)
}

if (mem->section_count == sections_per_block)
- ret = register_mem_sect_under_node(mem, nid);
+ ret = register_mem_sect_under_node(mem, nid, false);
out:
mutex_unlock(&mem_sysfs_mutex);
return ret;
diff --git a/drivers/base/node.c b/drivers/base/node.c
index ee090ab9171c..f1c0c130ac88 100644
--- a/drivers/base/node.c
+++ b/drivers/base/node.c
@@ -397,7 +397,8 @@ static int __ref get_nid_for_pfn(unsigned long pfn)
}

/* register memory section under specified node if it spans that node */
-int register_mem_sect_under_node(struct memory_block *mem_blk, int nid)
+int register_mem_sect_under_node(struct memory_block *mem_blk, int nid,
+ bool check_nid)
{
int ret;
unsigned long pfn, sect_start_pfn, sect_end_pfn;
@@ -423,11 +424,13 @@ int register_mem_sect_under_node(struct memory_block *mem_blk, int nid)
continue;
}

- page_nid = get_nid_for_pfn(pfn);
- if (page_nid < 0)
- continue;
- if (page_nid != nid)
- continue;
+ if (check_nid) {
+ page_nid = get_nid_for_pfn(pfn);
+ if (page_nid < 0)
+ continue;
+ if (page_nid != nid)
+ continue;
+ }
ret = sysfs_create_link_nowarn(&node_devices[nid]->dev.kobj,
&mem_blk->dev.kobj,
kobject_name(&mem_blk->dev.kobj));
@@ -502,7 +505,7 @@ int link_mem_sections(int nid, unsigned long start_pfn, unsigned long nr_pages)

mem_blk = find_memory_block_hinted(mem_sect, mem_blk);

- ret = register_mem_sect_under_node(mem_blk, nid);
+ ret = register_mem_sect_under_node(mem_blk, nid, true);
if (!err)
err = ret;

diff --git a/include/linux/memory_hotplug.h b/include/linux/memory_hotplug.h
index aba5f86eb038..0f2c17bef9d6 100644
--- a/include/linux/memory_hotplug.h
+++ b/include/linux/memory_hotplug.h
@@ -234,6 +234,8 @@ void put_online_mems(void);
void mem_hotplug_begin(void);
void mem_hotplug_done(void);

+int get_section_nid(unsigned long section_nr);
+
extern void set_zone_contiguous(struct zone *zone);
extern void clear_zone_contiguous(struct zone *zone);

diff --git a/include/linux/node.h b/include/linux/node.h
index 4ece0fee0ffc..41f171861dcc 100644
--- a/include/linux/node.h
+++ b/include/linux/node.h
@@ -67,7 +67,7 @@ extern void unregister_one_node(int nid);
extern int register_cpu_under_node(unsigned int cpu, unsigned int nid);
extern int unregister_cpu_under_node(unsigned int cpu, unsigned int nid);
extern int register_mem_sect_under_node(struct memory_block *mem_blk,
- int nid);
+ int nid, bool check_nid);
extern int unregister_mem_sect_under_nodes(struct memory_block *mem_blk,
unsigned long phys_index);

@@ -97,7 +97,7 @@ static inline int unregister_cpu_under_node(unsigned int cpu, unsigned int nid)
return 0;
}
static inline int register_mem_sect_under_node(struct memory_block *mem_blk,
- int nid)
+ int nid, bool check_nid)
{
return 0;
}
diff --git a/mm/memory_hotplug.c b/mm/memory_hotplug.c
index 565048f496f7..cf1041380ab7 100644
--- a/mm/memory_hotplug.c
+++ b/mm/memory_hotplug.c
@@ -250,7 +250,6 @@ static int __meminit __add_section(int nid, unsigned long phys_start_pfn,
struct vmem_altmap *altmap, bool want_memblock)
{
int ret;
- int i;

if (pfn_valid(phys_start_pfn))
return -EEXIST;
@@ -259,23 +258,6 @@ static int __meminit __add_section(int nid, unsigned long phys_start_pfn,
if (ret < 0)
return ret;

- /*
- * Make all the pages reserved so that nobody will stumble over half
- * initialized state.
- * FIXME: We also have to associate it with a node because page_to_nid
- * relies on having page with the proper node.
- */
- for (i = 0; i < PAGES_PER_SECTION; i++) {
- unsigned long pfn = phys_start_pfn + i;
- struct page *page;
- if (!pfn_valid(pfn))
- continue;
-
- page = pfn_to_page(pfn);
- set_page_node(page, nid);
- SetPageReserved(page);
- }
-
if (!want_memblock)
return 0;

@@ -909,7 +891,8 @@ int __ref online_pages(unsigned long pfn, unsigned long nr_pages, int online_typ
int ret;
struct memory_notify arg;

- nid = pfn_to_nid(pfn);
+ nid = get_section_nid(pfn_to_section_nr(pfn));
+
/* associate pfn range with the zone */
zone = move_pfn_range(online_type, nid, pfn, nr_pages);

diff --git a/mm/page_alloc.c b/mm/page_alloc.c
index 81e18ceef579..2667b35fca41 100644
--- a/mm/page_alloc.c
+++ b/mm/page_alloc.c
@@ -1177,10 +1177,9 @@ static void free_one_page(struct zone *zone,
}

static void __meminit __init_single_page(struct page *page, unsigned long pfn,
- unsigned long zone, int nid, bool zero)
+ unsigned long zone, int nid)
{
- if (zero)
- mm_zero_struct_page(page);
+ mm_zero_struct_page(page);
set_page_links(page, zone, nid, pfn);
init_page_count(page);
page_mapcount_reset(page);
@@ -1194,12 +1193,6 @@ static void __meminit __init_single_page(struct page *page, unsigned long pfn,
#endif
}

-static void __meminit __init_single_pfn(unsigned long pfn, unsigned long zone,
- int nid, bool zero)
-{
- return __init_single_page(pfn_to_page(pfn), pfn, zone, nid, zero);
-}
-
#ifdef CONFIG_DEFERRED_STRUCT_PAGE_INIT
static void __meminit init_reserved_page(unsigned long pfn)
{
@@ -1218,7 +1211,7 @@ static void __meminit init_reserved_page(unsigned long pfn)
if (pfn >= zone->zone_start_pfn && pfn < zone_end_pfn(zone))
break;
}
- __init_single_pfn(pfn, zid, nid, true);
+ __init_single_page(pfn_to_page(pfn), pfn, zid, nid);
}
#else
static inline void init_reserved_page(unsigned long pfn)
@@ -1535,7 +1528,7 @@ static unsigned long __init deferred_init_pages(int nid, int zid,
} else {
page++;
}
- __init_single_page(page, pfn, zid, nid, true);
+ __init_single_page(page, pfn, zid, nid);
nr_pages++;
}
return (nr_pages);
@@ -5328,6 +5321,7 @@ void __meminit memmap_init_zone(unsigned long size, int nid, unsigned long zone,
pg_data_t *pgdat = NODE_DATA(nid);
unsigned long pfn;
unsigned long nr_initialised = 0;
+ struct page *page;
#ifdef CONFIG_HAVE_MEMBLOCK_NODE_MAP
struct memblock_region *r = NULL, *tmp;
#endif
@@ -5389,6 +5383,11 @@ void __meminit memmap_init_zone(unsigned long size, int nid, unsigned long zone,
#endif

not_early:
+ page = pfn_to_page(pfn);
+ __init_single_page(page, pfn, zone, nid);
+ if (context == MEMMAP_HOTPLUG)
+ SetPageReserved(page);
+
/*
* Mark the block movable so that blocks are reserved for
* movable at startup. This will force kernel allocations
@@ -5405,15 +5404,8 @@ void __meminit memmap_init_zone(unsigned long size, int nid, unsigned long zone,
* because this is done early in sparse_add_one_section
*/
if (!(pfn & (pageblock_nr_pages - 1))) {
- struct page *page = pfn_to_page(pfn);
-
- __init_single_page(page, pfn, zone, nid,
- context != MEMMAP_HOTPLUG);
set_pageblock_migratetype(page, MIGRATE_MOVABLE);
cond_resched();
- } else {
- __init_single_pfn(pfn, zone, nid,
- context != MEMMAP_HOTPLUG);
}
}
}
diff --git a/mm/sparse.c b/mm/sparse.c
index 7af5e7a92528..d7808307023b 100644
--- a/mm/sparse.c
+++ b/mm/sparse.c
@@ -30,11 +30,14 @@ struct mem_section mem_section[NR_SECTION_ROOTS][SECTIONS_PER_ROOT]
#endif
EXPORT_SYMBOL(mem_section);

-#ifdef NODE_NOT_IN_PAGE_FLAGS
+#if defined(NODE_NOT_IN_PAGE_FLAGS) || defined(CONFIG_MEMORY_HOTPLUG)
/*
* If we did not store the node number in the page then we have to
* do a lookup in the section_to_node_table in order to find which
* node the page belongs to.
+ *
+ * We also use this data in case memory hotplugging is enabled to be
+ * able to determine nid while struct pages are not yet initialized.
*/
#if MAX_NUMNODES <= 256
static u8 section_to_node_table[NR_MEM_SECTIONS] __cacheline_aligned;
@@ -42,17 +45,28 @@ static u8 section_to_node_table[NR_MEM_SECTIONS] __cacheline_aligned;
static u16 section_to_node_table[NR_MEM_SECTIONS] __cacheline_aligned;
#endif

+#ifdef NODE_NOT_IN_PAGE_FLAGS
int page_to_nid(const struct page *page)
{
return section_to_node_table[page_to_section(page)];
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(page_to_nid);
+#endif /* NODE_NOT_IN_PAGE_FLAGS */

static void set_section_nid(unsigned long section_nr, int nid)
{
section_to_node_table[section_nr] = nid;
}
-#else /* !NODE_NOT_IN_PAGE_FLAGS */
+
+/* Return NID for given section number */
+int get_section_nid(unsigned long section_nr)
+{
+ if (WARN_ON(section_nr >= NR_MEM_SECTIONS))
+ return 0;
+ return section_to_node_table[section_nr];
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(get_section_nid);
+#else /* ! (NODE_NOT_IN_PAGE_FLAGS || CONFIG_MEMORY_HOTPLUG) */
static inline void set_section_nid(unsigned long section_nr, int nid)
{
}
@@ -816,7 +830,14 @@ int __meminit sparse_add_one_section(struct pglist_data *pgdat,
goto out;
}

- memset(memmap, 0, sizeof(struct page) * PAGES_PER_SECTION);
+#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_VM
+ /*
+ * poison uninitialized struct pages in order to catch invalid flags
+ * combinations.
+ */
+ memset(memmap, PAGE_POISON_PATTERN,
+ sizeof(struct page) * PAGES_PER_SECTION);
+#endif

section_mark_present(ms);

@@ -827,6 +848,8 @@ int __meminit sparse_add_one_section(struct pglist_data *pgdat,
if (ret <= 0) {
kfree(usemap);
__kfree_section_memmap(memmap, altmap);
+ } else {
+ set_section_nid(section_nr, pgdat->node_id);
}
return ret;
}
--
2.16.1
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