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SubjectRe: [PATCH 1/1] iommu/arm-smmu: Add support to use Last level cache
Hi Robin,

On Tue, Dec 4, 2018 at 8:51 PM Robin Murphy <robin.murphy@arm.com> wrote:
>
> On 04/12/2018 11:01, Vivek Gautam wrote:
> > Qualcomm SoCs have an additional level of cache called as
> > System cache, aka. Last level cache (LLC). This cache sits right
> > before the DDR, and is tightly coupled with the memory controller.
> > The cache is available to all the clients present in the SoC system.
> > The clients request their slices from this system cache, make it
> > active, and can then start using it.
> > For these clients with smmu, to start using the system cache for
> > buffers and, related page tables [1], memory attributes need to be
> > set accordingly.
> > This change updates the MAIR and TCR configurations with correct
> > attributes to use this system cache.
> >
> > To explain a little about memory attribute requirements here:
> >
> > Non-coherent I/O devices can't look-up into inner caches. However,
> > coherent I/O devices can. But both can allocate in the system cache
> > based on system policy and configured memory attributes in page
> > tables.
> > CPUs can access both inner and outer caches (including system cache,
> > aka. Last level cache), and can allocate into system cache too
> > based on memory attributes, and system policy.
> >
> > Further looking at memory types, we have following -
> > a) Normal uncached :- MAIR 0x44, inner non-cacheable,
> > outer non-cacheable;
> > b) Normal cached :- MAIR 0xff, inner read write-back non-transient,
> > outer read write-back non-transient;
> > attribute setting for coherenet I/O devices.
> >
> > and, for non-coherent i/o devices that can allocate in system cache
> > another type gets added -
> > c) Normal sys-cached/non-inner-cached :-
> > MAIR 0xf4, inner non-cacheable,
> > outer read write-back non-transient
> >
> > So, CPU will automatically use the system cache for memory marked as
> > normal cached. The normal sys-cached is downgraded to normal non-cached
> > memory for CPUs.
> > Coherent I/O devices can use system cache by marking the memory as
> > normal cached.
> > Non-coherent I/O devices, to use system cache, should mark the memory as
> > normal sys-cached in page tables.
> >
> > This change is a realisation of following changes
> > from downstream msm-4.9:
> > iommu: io-pgtable-arm: Support DOMAIN_ATTRIBUTE_USE_UPSTREAM_HINT[2]
> > iommu: io-pgtable-arm: Implement IOMMU_USE_UPSTREAM_HINT[3]
> >
> > [1] https://patchwork.kernel.org/patch/10302791/
> > [2] https://source.codeaurora.org/quic/la/kernel/msm-4.9/commit/?h=msm-4.9&id=bf762276796e79ca90014992f4d9da5593fa7d51
> > [3] https://source.codeaurora.org/quic/la/kernel/msm-4.9/commit/?h=msm-4.9&id=d4c72c413ea27c43f60825193d4de9cb8ffd9602
> >
> > Signed-off-by: Vivek Gautam <vivek.gautam@codeaurora.org>
> > ---
> >
> > Changes since v1:
> > - Addressed Tomasz's comments for basing the change on
> > "NO_INNER_CACHE" concept for non-coherent I/O devices
> > rather than capturing "SYS_CACHE". This is to indicate
> > clearly the intent of non-coherent I/O devices that
> > can't access inner caches.
>
> That seems backwards to me - there is already a fundamental assumption
> that non-coherent devices can't access caches. What we're adding here is
> a weird exception where they *can* use some level of cache despite still
> being non-coherent overall.
>
> In other words, it's not a case of downgrading coherent devices'
> accesses to bypass inner caches, it's upgrading non-coherent devices'
> accesses to hit the outer cache. That's certainly the understanding I
> got from talking with Pratik at Plumbers, and it does appear to fit with
> your explanation above despite the final conclusion you draw being
> different.

Thanks for the thorough review of the change.
Right, I guess it's rather an upgrade for non-coherent devices to use
an outer cache than a downgrade for coherent devices.

>
> I do see what Tomasz meant in terms of the TCR attributes, but what we
> currently do there is a little unintuitive and not at all representative
> of actual mapping attributes - I'll come back to that inline.
>
> > drivers/iommu/arm-smmu.c | 15 +++++++++++++++
> > drivers/iommu/dma-iommu.c | 3 +++
> > drivers/iommu/io-pgtable-arm.c | 22 +++++++++++++++++-----
> > drivers/iommu/io-pgtable.h | 5 +++++
> > include/linux/iommu.h | 3 +++
> > 5 files changed, 43 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)
>
> As a minor nit, I'd prefer this as at least two patches to separate the
> io-pgtable changes and arm-smmu changes - basically I'd expect it to
> look much the same as the non-strict mode support did.

Sure, will split the patch.

>
> > diff --git a/drivers/iommu/arm-smmu.c b/drivers/iommu/arm-smmu.c
> > index ba18d89d4732..047f7ff95b0d 100644
> > --- a/drivers/iommu/arm-smmu.c
> > +++ b/drivers/iommu/arm-smmu.c
> > @@ -255,6 +255,7 @@ struct arm_smmu_domain {
> > struct mutex init_mutex; /* Protects smmu pointer */
> > spinlock_t cb_lock; /* Serialises ATS1* ops and TLB syncs */
> > struct iommu_domain domain;
> > + bool no_inner_cache;
>
> Can we keep all the domain flags together please? In fact, I'd be
> inclined to implement an options bitmap as we do elsewhere rather than
> proliferate multiple bools.

Yea, changing this to bitmap makes sense. Will update this.

>
> > };
> >
> > struct arm_smmu_option_prop {
> > @@ -897,6 +898,9 @@ static int arm_smmu_init_domain_context(struct iommu_domain *domain,
> > if (smmu_domain->non_strict)
> > pgtbl_cfg.quirks |= IO_PGTABLE_QUIRK_NON_STRICT;
> >
> > + if (smmu_domain->no_inner_cache)
> > + pgtbl_cfg.quirks |= IO_PGTABLE_QUIRK_NO_IC;
>
> Maybe we need to be a bit cleverer about setting the quirk (and/or
> allowing the domain attribute to be set), since depending on
> configuration and hardware support the domain may end up picking a stage
> 2 or short-descriptor format and thus being rendered unusable.

I don't think I completely get you here.
But, do you mean that to set such quirks we should first check configurations
such as the domain's stage, and the format before deciding whether
we want to set this or not?

>
> > +
> > smmu_domain->smmu = smmu;
> > pgtbl_ops = alloc_io_pgtable_ops(fmt, &pgtbl_cfg, smmu_domain);
> > if (!pgtbl_ops) {
> > @@ -1579,6 +1583,9 @@ static int arm_smmu_domain_get_attr(struct iommu_domain *domain,
> > case DOMAIN_ATTR_NESTING:
> > *(int *)data = (smmu_domain->stage == ARM_SMMU_DOMAIN_NESTED);
> > return 0;
> > + case DOMAIN_ATTR_NO_IC:
> > + *((int *)data) = smmu_domain->no_inner_cache;
> > + return 0;
> > default:
> > return -ENODEV;
> > }
> > @@ -1619,6 +1626,14 @@ static int arm_smmu_domain_set_attr(struct iommu_domain *domain,
> > else
> > smmu_domain->stage = ARM_SMMU_DOMAIN_S1;
> > break;
> > + case DOMAIN_ATTR_NO_IC:
> > + if (smmu_domain->smmu) {
> > + ret = -EPERM;
> > + goto out_unlock;
> > + }
> > + if (*((int *)data))
> > + smmu_domain->no_inner_cache = true;
>
> This makes the attribute impossible to disable again, even before the
> domain is initialized - is that intentional? (and if so, why?)

Right. I should add for data = 0 as well. That should help to disable this
attribute again.

>
> > + break;
> > default:
> > ret = -ENODEV;
> > }
> > diff --git a/drivers/iommu/dma-iommu.c b/drivers/iommu/dma-iommu.c
> > index d1b04753b204..87c3d59c4a6c 100644
> > --- a/drivers/iommu/dma-iommu.c
> > +++ b/drivers/iommu/dma-iommu.c
> > @@ -354,6 +354,9 @@ int dma_info_to_prot(enum dma_data_direction dir, bool coherent,
> > {
> > int prot = coherent ? IOMMU_CACHE : 0;
> >
> > + if (!coherent && (attrs & DOMAIN_ATTR_NO_IC))
> > + prot |= IOMMU_NO_IC;
> > +
>
> Erm, that's going to be a hilariously unexpected interpretation of
> DMA_ATTR_FORCE_CONTIGUOUS...

Right. :)
I guess i will take your suggestion to have something like
DOMAIN_ATTR_QCOM_SYSTEM_CACHE.

>
> I'm not sure it would really makes sense to expose fine-grained controls
> at the DMA API level anyway, given the main point is to largely abstract
> away the notion of caches altogether.

But there are DMA devices (such as video) which use DMA mapping APIs only,
and which are non-coherent-upgraded-to-use-sytem-cache. Such devices
can't force set IOMMU quirks unless they do iommu_get_domain_for_dev()
and then set the domain attributes.
Will that be better way?

>
> > if (attrs & DMA_ATTR_PRIVILEGED)
> > prot |= IOMMU_PRIV;
> >
> > diff --git a/drivers/iommu/io-pgtable-arm.c b/drivers/iommu/io-pgtable-arm.c
> > index 237cacd4a62b..815b86067bcc 100644
> > --- a/drivers/iommu/io-pgtable-arm.c
> > +++ b/drivers/iommu/io-pgtable-arm.c
> > @@ -168,10 +168,12 @@
> > #define ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_MASK 0xff
> > #define ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_DEVICE 0x04
> > #define ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_NC 0x44
> > +#define ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_NO_IC 0xf4
> > #define ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_WBRWA 0xff
> > #define ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_IDX_NC 0
> > #define ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_IDX_CACHE 1
> > #define ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_IDX_DEV 2
> > +#define ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_IDX_NO_IC 3
> >
> > /* IOPTE accessors */
> > #define iopte_deref(pte,d) __va(iopte_to_paddr(pte, d))
> > @@ -443,6 +445,9 @@ static arm_lpae_iopte arm_lpae_prot_to_pte(struct arm_lpae_io_pgtable *data,
> > else if (prot & IOMMU_CACHE)
> > pte |= (ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_IDX_CACHE
> > << ARM_LPAE_PTE_ATTRINDX_SHIFT);
> > + else if (prot & IOMMU_NO_IC)
> > + pte |= (ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_IDX_NO_IC
> > + << ARM_LPAE_PTE_ATTRINDX_SHIFT);
> > } else {
> > pte = ARM_LPAE_PTE_HAP_FAULT;
> > if (prot & IOMMU_READ)
> > @@ -780,7 +785,8 @@ arm_64_lpae_alloc_pgtable_s1(struct io_pgtable_cfg *cfg, void *cookie)
> > struct arm_lpae_io_pgtable *data;
> >
> > if (cfg->quirks & ~(IO_PGTABLE_QUIRK_ARM_NS | IO_PGTABLE_QUIRK_NO_DMA |
> > - IO_PGTABLE_QUIRK_NON_STRICT))
> > + IO_PGTABLE_QUIRK_NON_STRICT |
> > + IO_PGTABLE_QUIRK_NO_IC))
> > return NULL;
> >
> > data = arm_lpae_alloc_pgtable(cfg);
> > @@ -788,9 +794,13 @@ arm_64_lpae_alloc_pgtable_s1(struct io_pgtable_cfg *cfg, void *cookie)
> > return NULL;
> >
> > /* TCR */
> > - reg = (ARM_LPAE_TCR_SH_IS << ARM_LPAE_TCR_SH0_SHIFT) |
> > - (ARM_LPAE_TCR_RGN_WBWA << ARM_LPAE_TCR_IRGN0_SHIFT) |
> > - (ARM_LPAE_TCR_RGN_WBWA << ARM_LPAE_TCR_ORGN0_SHIFT);
>
> The subtle assumption here is that if the SMMU is coherent then these
> are the attributes we actually want to use, but if it's non-coherent
> then the interconnect should ignore them anyway so it doesn't really
> matter. Does either of those aspects hold for qcom SoCs?

From the downstream [1] it's clear that default for smmu is set to
Non-cached access.
So, I don't think the interconnect helps us. OR, possibly we are just
forcing these
mappings be uncached.

>
> TBH if we're going to touch the TCR attributes at all then we should
> probably correct that sloppiness first - there's an occasional argument
> for using non-cacheable pagetables even on a coherent SMMU if reducing
> snoop traffic/latency on walks outweighs the cost of cache maintenance
> on PTE updates, but anyone thinking they can get that by overriding
> dma-coherent silently gets the worst of both worlds thanks to this
> current TCR value.

So, what do you suggest?
This is something that's smmu's implementation specific detail, not something
that's going to vary from one domain to another? Isn't that right?
So, in that case additional dt property can help setting a quirk?

>
> > + if (cfg->quirks & IO_PGTABLE_QUIRK_NO_IC)
> > + reg = ARM_LPAE_TCR_RGN_NC << ARM_LPAE_TCR_IRGN0_SHIFT;
> > + else
> > + reg = ARM_LPAE_TCR_RGN_WBWA << ARM_LPAE_TCR_IRGN0_SHIFT;
> > +
> > + reg |= (ARM_LPAE_TCR_SH_IS << ARM_LPAE_TCR_SH0_SHIFT) |
> > + (ARM_LPAE_TCR_RGN_WBWA << ARM_LPAE_TCR_ORGN0_SHIFT);
> >
> > switch (ARM_LPAE_GRANULE(data)) {
> > case SZ_4K:
> > @@ -842,7 +852,9 @@ arm_64_lpae_alloc_pgtable_s1(struct io_pgtable_cfg *cfg, void *cookie)
> > (ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_WBRWA
> > << ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_SHIFT(ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_IDX_CACHE)) |
> > (ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_DEVICE
> > - << ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_SHIFT(ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_IDX_DEV));
> > + << ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_SHIFT(ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_IDX_DEV)) |
> > + (ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_NO_IC
> > + << ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_SHIFT(ARM_LPAE_MAIR_ATTR_IDX_NO_IC));
> >
> > cfg->arm_lpae_s1_cfg.mair[0] = reg;
> > cfg->arm_lpae_s1_cfg.mair[1] = 0;
> > diff --git a/drivers/iommu/io-pgtable.h b/drivers/iommu/io-pgtable.h
> > index 47d5ae559329..450a4adf9052 100644
> > --- a/drivers/iommu/io-pgtable.h
> > +++ b/drivers/iommu/io-pgtable.h
> > @@ -75,6 +75,10 @@ struct io_pgtable_cfg {
> > * IO_PGTABLE_QUIRK_NON_STRICT: Skip issuing synchronous leaf TLBIs
> > * on unmap, for DMA domains using the flush queue mechanism for
> > * delayed invalidation.
> > + *
> > + * IO_PGTABLE_QUIRK_NO_IC: Override the attributes to use only the outer
> > + * cache, and not inner cache for non-coherent devices doing normal
> > + * sys-cached memory.
>
> As above, mappings for non-coherent devices would never be expected to
> have the inner cacheable attribute anyway, so the comment doesn't really
> make sense.

Right, will update this comment.

>
> > */
> > #define IO_PGTABLE_QUIRK_ARM_NS BIT(0)
> > #define IO_PGTABLE_QUIRK_NO_PERMS BIT(1)
> > @@ -82,6 +86,7 @@ struct io_pgtable_cfg {
> > #define IO_PGTABLE_QUIRK_ARM_MTK_4GB BIT(3)
> > #define IO_PGTABLE_QUIRK_NO_DMA BIT(4)
> > #define IO_PGTABLE_QUIRK_NON_STRICT BIT(5)
> > + #define IO_PGTABLE_QUIRK_NO_IC BIT(6)
> > unsigned long quirks;
> > unsigned long pgsize_bitmap;
> > unsigned int ias;
> > diff --git a/include/linux/iommu.h b/include/linux/iommu.h
> > index a1d28f42cb77..c30ee7f8d82d 100644
> > --- a/include/linux/iommu.h
> > +++ b/include/linux/iommu.h
> > @@ -41,6 +41,8 @@
> > * if the IOMMU page table format is equivalent.
> > */
> > #define IOMMU_PRIV (1 << 5)
> > +/* Don't use inner caches */
> > +#define IOMMU_NO_IC (1 << 6)
>
> As it stands, this sounds like it should only make sense when combined
> with IOMMU_CACHE, yet the implementation only affects mappings which
> would otherwise be INC-ONC anyway. It could really do with having some
> clearer expectations set.

Yea, the comment and a change in the string for this macro too can be updated
to clearly show the intent of using system cache for non-coherent devices.
Will do it.

>
> >
> > struct iommu_ops;
> > struct iommu_group;
> > @@ -125,6 +127,7 @@ enum iommu_attr {
> > DOMAIN_ATTR_FSL_PAMUV1,
> > DOMAIN_ATTR_NESTING, /* two stages of translation */
> > DOMAIN_ATTR_DMA_USE_FLUSH_QUEUE,
> > + DOMAIN_ATTR_NO_IC,
>
> At the IOMMU API level, nobody's going to have a clue what "NO_IC"
> means. For how non-generic a concept it really is, I'd personally name
> it something like DOMAIN_ATTR_QCOM_SYSTEM_CACHE.

Yea, will update this too.

>
> Robin.
>
> > DOMAIN_ATTR_MAX,
> > };
> >
> >

[1] https://source.codeaurora.org/quic/la/kernel/msm-4.9/tree/drivers/iommu/io-pgtable-arm.c?h=msm-4.9#n1028

Best regards
Vivek

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