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Subject[PATCH V5] KSM: allow dedup all tasks memory
Date
From: Timofey Titovets <nefelim4ag@gmail.com>

ksm by default working only on memory that added by
madvise().

And only way get that work on other applications:
* Use LD_PRELOAD and libraries
* Patch kernel

Lets use kernel task list and add logic to import VMAs from tasks.

That behaviour controlled by new attributes:
* mode:
I try mimic hugepages attribute, so mode have two states:
* madvise - old default behaviour
* always [new] - allow ksm to get tasks vma and
try working on that.
* seeker_sleep_millisecs:
Add pauses between imports tasks VMA

For rate limiting proporses and tasklist locking time,
ksm seeker thread only import VMAs from one task per loop.

For security proporses add VM_UNMERGEABLE flag,
that allow users who really care about security to
use MADV_UNMERGEABLE to forbid new ksm code to process their VMAs.

Some numbers from different not madvised workloads.
Formulas:
Percentage ratio = (pages_sharing - pages_shared)/pages_unshared
Memory saved = (pages_sharing - pages_shared)*4/1024 MiB
Memory used = free -h

* Name: My working laptop
Description: Many different chrome/electron apps + KDE
Ratio: 5%
Saved: ~100 MiB
Used: ~2000 MiB

* Name: K8s test VM
Description: Some small random running docker images
Ratio: 40%
Saved: ~160 MiB
Used: ~920 MiB

* Name: Ceph test VM
Description: Ceph Mon/OSD, some containers
Ratio: 20%
Saved: ~60 MiB
Used: ~600 MiB

* Name: BareMetal K8s backend server
Description: Different server apps in containers C, Java, GO & etc
Ratio: 72%
Saved: ~5800 MiB
Used: ~35.7 GiB

* Name: BareMetal K8s processing server
Description: Many instance of one CPU intensive application
Ratio: 55%
Saved: ~2600 MiB
Used: ~28.0 GiB

* Name: BareMetal Ceph node
Description: Only OSD storage daemons running
Raio: 2%
Saved: ~190 MiB
Used: ~11.7 GiB

Changes:
v1 -> v2:
* Rebase on v4.19.1 (must also apply on 4.20-rc2+)
v2 -> v3:
* Reformat patch description
* Rename mode normal to madvise
* Add some memory numbers
* Separate ksm vma seeker to another kthread
* Fix: "BUG: scheduling while atomic: ksmd"
by move seeker to another thread
v3 -> v4:
* Fix again "BUG: scheduling while atomic"
by get()/put() task API
* Remove unused variable error
v4 -> v5:
* That nowonly be available on 64-bit arch
because VM_UNMERGEABLE use 37 bit in vm_flags
* Add VM_UNMERGEABLE VMA flag to allow users
forbid ksm do anything with VMAs

Signed-off-by: Timofey Titovets <nefelim4ag@gmail.com>
CC: Matthew Wilcox <willy@infradead.org>
CC: Oleksandr Natalenko <oleksandr@natalenko.name>
CC: Pavel Tatashin <pasha.tatashin@soleen.com>
CC: linux-mm@kvack.org
CC: linux-doc@vger.kernel.org
---
Documentation/admin-guide/mm/ksm.rst | 15 ++
include/linux/mm.h | 7 +
include/trace/events/mmflags.h | 7 +
mm/ksm.c | 247 +++++++++++++++++++++++----
4 files changed, 245 insertions(+), 31 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/ksm.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/ksm.rst
index 9303786632d1..7cffd47f9b38 100644
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/ksm.rst
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/ksm.rst
@@ -116,6 +116,21 @@ run
Default: 0 (must be changed to 1 to activate KSM, except if
CONFIG_SYSFS is disabled)

+mode
+ * set always to allow ksm deduplicate memory of every process
+ * set madvise to use only madvised memory
+
+ Default: madvise (dedupulicate only madvised memory as in
+ earlier releases)
+
+seeker_sleep_millisecs
+ how many milliseconds ksmd task seeker should sleep try another
+ task.
+ e.g. ``echo 1000 > /sys/kernel/mm/ksm/seeker_sleep_millisecs``
+
+ Default: 1000 (chosen for rate limit purposes)
+
+
use_zero_pages
specifies whether empty pages (i.e. allocated pages that only
contain zeroes) should be treated specially. When set to 1,
diff --git a/include/linux/mm.h b/include/linux/mm.h
index 5411de93a363..3d8ee297d776 100644
--- a/include/linux/mm.h
+++ b/include/linux/mm.h
@@ -224,13 +224,20 @@ extern unsigned int kobjsize(const void *objp);
#define VM_HIGH_ARCH_BIT_2 34 /* bit only usable on 64-bit architectures */
#define VM_HIGH_ARCH_BIT_3 35 /* bit only usable on 64-bit architectures */
#define VM_HIGH_ARCH_BIT_4 36 /* bit only usable on 64-bit architectures */
+#define VM_HIGH_ARCH_BIT_5 37 /* bit only usable on 64-bit architectures */
#define VM_HIGH_ARCH_0 BIT(VM_HIGH_ARCH_BIT_0)
#define VM_HIGH_ARCH_1 BIT(VM_HIGH_ARCH_BIT_1)
#define VM_HIGH_ARCH_2 BIT(VM_HIGH_ARCH_BIT_2)
#define VM_HIGH_ARCH_3 BIT(VM_HIGH_ARCH_BIT_3)
#define VM_HIGH_ARCH_4 BIT(VM_HIGH_ARCH_BIT_4)
+#define VM_HIGH_ARCH_5 BIT(VM_HIGH_ARCH_BIT_5)
#endif /* CONFIG_ARCH_USES_HIGH_VMA_FLAGS */

+#ifdef VM_HIGH_ARCH_5
+/* Forbid ksm to autopickup VMA and try dedup it */
+#define VM_UNMERGEABLE VM_HIGH_ARCH_5
+#endif
+
#ifdef CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_PKEYS
# define VM_PKEY_SHIFT VM_HIGH_ARCH_BIT_0
# define VM_PKEY_BIT0 VM_HIGH_ARCH_0 /* A protection key is a 4-bit value */
diff --git a/include/trace/events/mmflags.h b/include/trace/events/mmflags.h
index a1675d43777e..e109a08e1e78 100644
--- a/include/trace/events/mmflags.h
+++ b/include/trace/events/mmflags.h
@@ -130,6 +130,12 @@ IF_HAVE_PG_IDLE(PG_idle, "idle" )
#define IF_HAVE_VM_SOFTDIRTY(flag,name)
#endif

+#ifdef CONFIG_ARCH_USES_HIGH_VMA_FLAGS
+#define IF_HAVE_HIGH_VMA_FLAGS(flag,name) {flag, name },
+#else
+#define IF_HAVE_HIGH_VMA_FLAGS(flag,name)
+#endif
+
#define __def_vmaflag_names \
{VM_READ, "read" }, \
{VM_WRITE, "write" }, \
@@ -161,6 +167,7 @@ IF_HAVE_VM_SOFTDIRTY(VM_SOFTDIRTY, "softdirty" ) \
{VM_MIXEDMAP, "mixedmap" }, \
{VM_HUGEPAGE, "hugepage" }, \
{VM_NOHUGEPAGE, "nohugepage" }, \
+IF_HAVE_HIGH_VMA_FLAGS(VM_UNMERGEABLE, "unmergeable" ) \
{VM_MERGEABLE, "mergeable" } \

#define show_vma_flags(flags) \
diff --git a/mm/ksm.c b/mm/ksm.c
index 5b0894b45ee5..1984e9371d9a 100644
--- a/mm/ksm.c
+++ b/mm/ksm.c
@@ -273,6 +273,11 @@ static unsigned int ksm_thread_pages_to_scan = 100;
/* Milliseconds ksmd should sleep between batches */
static unsigned int ksm_thread_sleep_millisecs = 20;

+#ifdef VM_UNMERGEABLE
+/* Milliseconds ksmd seeker should sleep between runs */
+static unsigned int ksm_thread_seeker_sleep_millisecs = 1000;
+#endif
+
/* Checksum of an empty (zeroed) page */
static unsigned int zero_checksum __read_mostly;

@@ -295,6 +300,13 @@ static int ksm_nr_node_ids = 1;
static unsigned long ksm_run = KSM_RUN_STOP;
static void wait_while_offlining(void);

+#ifdef VM_UNMERGEABLE
+#define KSM_MODE_MADVISE 0
+#define KSM_MODE_ALWAYS 1
+static unsigned long ksm_mode = KSM_MODE_MADVISE;
+static DECLARE_WAIT_QUEUE_HEAD(ksm_seeker_thread_wait);
+#endif
+
static DECLARE_WAIT_QUEUE_HEAD(ksm_thread_wait);
static DEFINE_MUTEX(ksm_thread_mutex);
static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(ksm_mmlist_lock);
@@ -303,6 +315,13 @@ static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(ksm_mmlist_lock);
sizeof(struct __struct), __alignof__(struct __struct),\
(__flags), NULL)

+#ifdef VM_UNMERGEABLE
+static inline int ksm_mode_always(void)
+{
+ return (ksm_mode == KSM_MODE_ALWAYS);
+}
+#endif
+
static int __init ksm_slab_init(void)
{
rmap_item_cache = KSM_KMEM_CACHE(rmap_item, 0);
@@ -2389,6 +2408,114 @@ static int ksmd_should_run(void)
return (ksm_run & KSM_RUN_MERGE) && !list_empty(&ksm_mm_head.mm_list);
}

+
+static int ksm_enter(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long *vm_flags)
+{
+ int err;
+
+ if (*vm_flags & (VM_MERGEABLE | VM_SHARED | VM_MAYSHARE |
+ VM_PFNMAP | VM_IO | VM_DONTEXPAND |
+ VM_HUGETLB | VM_MIXEDMAP))
+ return 0;
+
+#ifdef VM_SAO
+ if (*vm_flags & VM_SAO)
+ return 0;
+#endif
+#ifdef VM_SPARC_ADI
+ if (*vm_flags & VM_SPARC_ADI)
+ return 0;
+#endif
+#ifdef VM_UNMERGEABLE
+ if (*vm_flags & VM_UNMERGEABLE)
+ return 0;
+#endif
+ if (!test_bit(MMF_VM_MERGEABLE, &mm->flags)) {
+ err = __ksm_enter(mm);
+ if (err)
+ return err;
+ }
+
+ *vm_flags |= VM_MERGEABLE;
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+#ifdef VM_UNMERGEABLE
+/*
+ * Register all vmas for all processes in the system with KSM.
+ * Note that every call to ksm_, for a given vma, after the first
+ * does nothing but set flags.
+ */
+void ksm_import_task_vma(struct task_struct *task)
+{
+ struct vm_area_struct *vma;
+ struct mm_struct *mm;
+
+ mm = get_task_mm(task);
+ if (!mm)
+ return;
+ down_write(&mm->mmap_sem);
+ vma = mm->mmap;
+ while (vma) {
+ ksm_enter(vma->vm_mm, &vma->vm_flags);
+ vma = vma->vm_next;
+ }
+ up_write(&mm->mmap_sem);
+ mmput(mm);
+}
+
+static int ksm_seeker_thread(void *nothing)
+{
+ pid_t last_pid = 1;
+ pid_t curr_pid;
+ struct task_struct *task;
+
+ set_freezable();
+ set_user_nice(current, 5);
+
+ while (!kthread_should_stop()) {
+ wait_while_offlining();
+
+ try_to_freeze();
+
+ if (!ksm_mode_always()) {
+ wait_event_freezable(ksm_seeker_thread_wait,
+ ksm_mode_always() || kthread_should_stop());
+ continue;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * import one task's vma per run
+ */
+ read_lock(&tasklist_lock);
+
+ /* Try always get next task */
+ for_each_process(task) {
+ curr_pid = task_pid_nr(task);
+ if (curr_pid == last_pid) {
+ task = next_task(task);
+ break;
+ }
+
+ if (curr_pid > last_pid)
+ break;
+ }
+
+ get_task_struct(task);
+ read_unlock(&tasklist_lock);
+
+ last_pid = task_pid_nr(task);
+ ksm_import_task_vma(task);
+ put_task_struct(task);
+
+ schedule_timeout_interruptible(
+ msecs_to_jiffies(ksm_thread_seeker_sleep_millisecs));
+ }
+ return 0;
+}
+#endif
+
static int ksm_scan_thread(void *nothing)
{
set_freezable();
@@ -2422,36 +2549,18 @@ int ksm_madvise(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long start,

switch (advice) {
case MADV_MERGEABLE:
- /*
- * Be somewhat over-protective for now!
- */
- if (*vm_flags & (VM_MERGEABLE | VM_SHARED | VM_MAYSHARE |
- VM_PFNMAP | VM_IO | VM_DONTEXPAND |
- VM_HUGETLB | VM_MIXEDMAP))
- return 0; /* just ignore the advice */
-
- if (vma_is_dax(vma))
- return 0;
-
-#ifdef VM_SAO
- if (*vm_flags & VM_SAO)
- return 0;
-#endif
-#ifdef VM_SPARC_ADI
- if (*vm_flags & VM_SPARC_ADI)
- return 0;
+#ifdef VM_UNMERGEABLE
+ *vm_flags &= ~VM_UNMERGEABLE;
#endif
-
- if (!test_bit(MMF_VM_MERGEABLE, &mm->flags)) {
- err = __ksm_enter(mm);
- if (err)
- return err;
- }
-
- *vm_flags |= VM_MERGEABLE;
+ err = ksm_enter(mm, vm_flags);
+ if (err)
+ return err;
break;

case MADV_UNMERGEABLE:
+#ifdef VM_UNMERGEABLE
+ *vm_flags |= VM_UNMERGEABLE;
+#endif
if (!(*vm_flags & VM_MERGEABLE))
return 0; /* just ignore the advice */

@@ -2829,6 +2938,31 @@ static ssize_t sleep_millisecs_store(struct kobject *kobj,
}
KSM_ATTR(sleep_millisecs);

+#ifdef VM_UNMERGEABLE
+static ssize_t seeker_sleep_millisecs_show(struct kobject *kobj,
+ struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+ return sprintf(buf, "%u\n", ksm_thread_seeker_sleep_millisecs);
+}
+
+static ssize_t seeker_sleep_millisecs_store(struct kobject *kobj,
+ struct kobj_attribute *attr,
+ const char *buf, size_t count)
+{
+ unsigned long msecs;
+ int err;
+
+ err = kstrtoul(buf, 10, &msecs);
+ if (err || msecs > UINT_MAX)
+ return -EINVAL;
+
+ ksm_thread_seeker_sleep_millisecs = msecs;
+
+ return count;
+}
+KSM_ATTR(seeker_sleep_millisecs);
+#endif
+
static ssize_t pages_to_scan_show(struct kobject *kobj,
struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
{
@@ -2852,6 +2986,36 @@ static ssize_t pages_to_scan_store(struct kobject *kobj,
}
KSM_ATTR(pages_to_scan);

+#ifdef VM_UNMERGEABLE
+static ssize_t mode_show(struct kobject *kobj, struct kobj_attribute *attr,
+ char *buf)
+{
+ switch (ksm_mode) {
+ case KSM_MODE_ALWAYS:
+ return sprintf(buf, "[always] madvise\n");
+ case KSM_MODE_MADVISE:
+ return sprintf(buf, "always [madvise]\n");
+ }
+
+ return sprintf(buf, "always [madvise]\n");
+}
+
+static ssize_t mode_store(struct kobject *kobj, struct kobj_attribute *attr,
+ const char *buf, size_t count)
+{
+ if (!memcmp("always", buf, min(sizeof("always")-1, count))) {
+ ksm_mode = KSM_MODE_ALWAYS;
+ wake_up_interruptible(&ksm_seeker_thread_wait);
+ } else if (!memcmp("madvise", buf, min(sizeof("madvise")-1, count))) {
+ ksm_mode = KSM_MODE_MADVISE;
+ } else
+ return -EINVAL;
+
+ return count;
+}
+KSM_ATTR(mode);
+#endif
+
static ssize_t run_show(struct kobject *kobj, struct kobj_attribute *attr,
char *buf)
{
@@ -3108,6 +3272,10 @@ KSM_ATTR_RO(full_scans);

static struct attribute *ksm_attrs[] = {
&sleep_millisecs_attr.attr,
+#ifdef VM_UNMERGEABLE
+ &mode_attr.attr,
+ &seeker_sleep_millisecs_attr.attr,
+#endif
&pages_to_scan_attr.attr,
&run_attr.attr,
&pages_shared_attr.attr,
@@ -3134,7 +3302,11 @@ static const struct attribute_group ksm_attr_group = {

static int __init ksm_init(void)
{
- struct task_struct *ksm_thread;
+#ifdef VM_UNMERGEABLE
+ struct task_struct *ksm_thread[2];
+#else
+ struct task_struct *ksm_thread[1];
+#endif
int err;

/* The correct value depends on page size and endianness */
@@ -3146,18 +3318,31 @@ static int __init ksm_init(void)
if (err)
goto out;

- ksm_thread = kthread_run(ksm_scan_thread, NULL, "ksmd");
- if (IS_ERR(ksm_thread)) {
+ ksm_thread[0] = kthread_run(ksm_scan_thread, NULL, "ksmd");
+ if (IS_ERR(ksm_thread[0])) {
pr_err("ksm: creating kthread failed\n");
- err = PTR_ERR(ksm_thread);
+ err = PTR_ERR(ksm_thread[0]);
goto out_free;
}

+#ifdef VM_UNMERGEABLE
+ ksm_thread[1] = kthread_run(ksm_seeker_thread, NULL, "ksmd_seeker");
+ if (IS_ERR(ksm_thread[1])) {
+ pr_err("ksm: creating seeker kthread failed\n");
+ err = PTR_ERR(ksm_thread[1]);
+ kthread_stop(ksm_thread[0]);
+ goto out_free;
+ }
+#endif
+
#ifdef CONFIG_SYSFS
err = sysfs_create_group(mm_kobj, &ksm_attr_group);
if (err) {
pr_err("ksm: register sysfs failed\n");
- kthread_stop(ksm_thread);
+ kthread_stop(ksm_thread[0]);
+#ifdef VM_UNMERGEABLE
+ kthread_stop(ksm_thread[1]);
+#endif
goto out_free;
}
#else
--
2.19.1
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