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Subject[ANNOUNCE] Git v2.16.0-rc2
Date
A release candidate Git v2.16.0-rc2 is now available for testing
at the usual places. It is comprised of 483 non-merge commits
since v2.15.0, contributed by 80 people, 23 of which are new faces.

The tarballs are found at:

https://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/testing/

The following public repositories all have a copy of the
'v2.16.0-rc2' tag and the 'master' branch that the tag points at:

url = https://kernel.googlesource.com/pub/scm/git/git
url = git://repo.or.cz/alt-git.git
url = https://github.com/gitster/git

New contributors whose contributions weren't in v2.15.0 are as follows.
Welcome to the Git development community!

Albert Astals Cid, Antoine Beaupré, Damien Marié, Daniel
Bensoussan, Florian Klink, Gennady Kupava, Guillaume Castagnino,
Haaris Mehmood, Hans Jerry Illikainen, Ingo Ruhnke, Jakub
Bereżański, Jean Carlo Machado, Julien Dusser, J Wyman,
Kevin, Łukasz Stelmach, Marius Paliga, Olga Telezhnaya,
Rafael Ascensão, Robert Abel, Robert P. J. Day, Shuyu Wei,
and Wei Shuyu.

Returning contributors who helped this release are as follows.
Thanks for your continued support.

Adam Dinwoodie, Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason, Alex Vandiver,
Anders Kaseorg, Andrey Okoshkin, Ann T Ropea, Beat Bolli,
Ben Peart, Brandon Williams, brian m. carlson, Carlos Martín
Nieto, Charles Bailey, Christian Couder, Dave Borowitz, Dennis
Kaarsemaker, Derrick Stolee, Elijah Newren, Emily Xie, Eric
Sunshine, Eric Wong, Heiko Voigt, Jacob Keller, Jameson Miller,
Jean-Noel Avila, Jeff Hostetler, Jeff King, Johannes Schindelin,
Jonathan Nieder, Jonathan Tan, Junio C Hamano, Kaartic Sivaraam,
Kevin Daudt, Lars Schneider, Liam Beguin, Luke Diamand, Martin
Ågren, Michael Haggerty, Nicolas Morey-Chaisemartin, Phil Hord,
Phillip Wood, Pranit Bauva, Prathamesh Chavan, Ralf Thielow,
Ramsay Jones, Randall S. Becker, Rasmus Villemoes, René Scharfe,
Simon Ruderich, Stefan Beller, Steffen Prohaska, Stephan Beyer,
SZEDER Gábor, Thomas Braun, Thomas Gummerer, Todd Zullinger,
Torsten Bögershausen, and W. Trevor King.

----------------------------------------------------------------

Git 2.16 Release Notes (draft)
==============================

Backward compatibility notes and other notable changes.

* Use of an empty string as a pathspec element that is used for
'everything matches' is now an error.


Updates since v2.15
-------------------

UI, Workflows & Features

* An empty string as a pathspec element that means "everything"
i.e. 'git add ""', is now illegal. We started this by first
deprecating and warning a pathspec that has such an element in
2.11 (Nov 2016).

* A hook script that is set unexecutable is simply ignored. Git
notifies when such a file is ignored, unless the message is
squelched via advice.ignoredHook configuration.

* "git pull" has been taught to accept "--[no-]signoff" option and
pass it down to "git merge".

* The "--push-option=<string>" option to "git push" now defaults to a
list of strings configured via push.pushOption variable.

* "gitweb" checks if a directory is searchable with Perl's "-x"
operator, which can be enhanced by using "filetest 'access'"
pragma, which now we do.

* "git stash save" has been deprecated in favour of "git stash push".

* The set of paths output from "git status --ignored" was tied
closely with its "--untracked=<mode>" option, but now it can be
controlled more flexibly. Most notably, a directory that is
ignored because it is listed to be ignored in the ignore/exclude
mechanism can be handled differently from a directory that ends up
to be ignored only because all files in it are ignored.

* The remote-helper for talking to MediaWiki has been updated to
truncate an overlong pagename so that ".mw" suffix can still be
added.

* The remote-helper for talking to MediaWiki has been updated to
work with mediawiki namespaces.

* The "--format=..." option "git for-each-ref" takes learned to show
the name of the 'remote' repository and the ref at the remote side
that is affected for 'upstream' and 'push' via "%(push:remotename)"
and friends.

* Doc and message updates to teach users "bisect view" is a synonym
for "bisect visualize".

* "git bisect run" that did not specify any command to run used to go
ahead and treated all commits to be tested as 'good'. This has
been corrected by making the command error out.

* The SubmittingPatches document has been converted to produce an
HTML version via AsciiDoc/Asciidoctor.

* We learned to talk to watchman to speed up "git status" and other
operations that need to see which paths have been modified.

* The "diff" family of commands learned to ignore differences in
carriage return at the end of line.

* Places that know about "sendemail.to", like documentation and shell
completion (in contrib/) have been taught about "sendemail.tocmd",
too.

* "git add --renormalize ." is a new and safer way to record the fact
that you are correcting the end-of-line convention and other
"convert_to_git()" glitches in the in-repository data.

* "git branch" and "git checkout -b" are now forbidden from creating
a branch whose name is "HEAD".

* "git branch --list" learned to show its output through the pager by
default when the output is going to a terminal, which is controlled
by the pager.branch configuration variable. This is similar to a
recent change to "git tag --list".

* "git grep -W", "git diff -W" and their friends learned a heuristic
to extend a pre-context beyond the line that matches the "function
pattern" (aka "diff.*.xfuncname") to include a comment block, if
exists, that immediately precedes it.

* "git config --expiry-date gc.reflogexpire" can read "2.weeks" from
the configuration and report it as a timestamp, just like "--int"
would read "1k" and report 1024, to help consumption by scripts.

* The shell completion (in contrib/) learned that "git pull" can take
the "--autostash" option.

* The tagnames "git log --decorate" uses to annotate the commits can
now be limited to subset of available refs with the two additional
options, --decorate-refs[-exclude]=<pattern>.

* "git grep" compiled with libpcre2 sometimes triggered a segfault,
which is being fixed.

* "git send-email" tries to see if the sendmail program is available
in /usr/lib and /usr/sbin; extend the list of locations to be
checked to also include directories on $PATH.

* "git diff" learned, "--anchored", a variant of the "--patience"
algorithm, to which the user can specify which 'unique' line to be
used as anchoring points.

* The way "git worktree add" determines what branch to create from
where and checkout in the new worktree has been updated a bit.

* Ancient part of codebase still shows dots after an abbreviated
object name just to show that it is not a full object name, but
these ellipses are confusing to people who newly discovered Git
who are used to seeing abbreviated object names and find them
confusing with the range syntax.

* With a configuration variable rebase.abbreviateCommands set,
"git rebase -i" produces the todo list with a single-letter
command names.

* "git worktree add" learned to run the post-checkout hook, just like
"git checkout" does, after the initial checkout.

* "git svn" has been updated to strip CRs in the commit messages, as
recent versions of Subversion rejects them.

* "git imap-send" did not correctly quote the folder name when
making a request to the server, which has been corrected.

* Error messages from "git rebase" have been somewhat cleaned up.

* Git has been taught to support an https:// URL used for http.proxy
when using recent versions of libcurl.

* "git merge" learned to pay attention to merge.verifySignatures
configuration variable and pretend as if '--verify-signatures'
option was given from the command line.

* "git describe" was taught to dig trees deeper to find a
<commit-ish>:<path> that refers to a given blob object.


Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.

* An earlier update made it possible to use an on-stack in-core
lockfile structure (as opposed to having to deliberately leak an
on-heap one). Many codepaths have been updated to take advantage
of this new facility.

* Calling cmd_foo() as if it is a general purpose helper function is
a no-no. Correct two instances of such to set an example.

* We try to see if somebody runs our test suite with a shell that
does not support "local" like bash/dash does.

* An early part of piece-by-piece rewrite of "git bisect" in C.

* GSoC to piece-by-piece rewrite "git submodule" in C.

* Optimize the code to find shortest unique prefix of object names.

* Pathspec-limited revision traversal was taught not to keep finding
unneeded differences once it knows two trees are different inside
given pathspec.

* Conversion from uchar[20] to struct object_id continues.

* Code cleanup.

* A single-word "unsigned flags" in the diff options is being split
into a structure with many bitfields.

* TravisCI build updates.

* Parts of a test to drive the long-running content filter interface
has been split into its own module, hopefully to eventually become
reusable.

* Drop (perhaps overly cautious) sanity check before using the index
read from the filesystem at runtime.

* The build procedure has been taught to avoid some unnecessary
instability in the build products.

* A new mechanism to upgrade the wire protocol in place is proposed
and demonstrated that it works with the older versions of Git
without harming them.

* An infrastructure to define what hash function is used in Git is
introduced, and an effort to plumb that throughout various
codepaths has been started.

* The code to iterate over loose object files got optimized.

* An internal function that was left for backward compatibility has
been removed, as there is no remaining callers.

* Historically, the diff machinery for rename detection had a
hardcoded limit of 32k paths; this is being lifted to allow users
trade cycles with a (possibly) easier to read result.

* The tracing infrastructure has been optimized for cases where no
tracing is requested.

* In preparation for implementing narrow/partial clone, the object
walking machinery has been taught a way to tell it to "filter" some
objects from enumeration.

* A few structures and variables that are implementation details of
the decorate API have been renamed and then the API got documented
better.

* Assorted updates for TravisCI integration.
(merge 4f26366679 sg/travis-fixes later to maint).

* Introduce a helper to simplify code to parse a common pattern that
expects either "--key" or "--key=<something>".

* "git version --build-options" learned to report the host CPU and
the exact commit object name the binary was built from.

Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.


Fixes since v2.15
-----------------

* "auto" as a value for the columnar output configuration ought to
judge "is the output consumed by humans?" with the same criteria as
"auto" for coloured output configuration, i.e. either the standard
output stream is going to tty, or a pager is in use. We forgot the
latter, which has been fixed.

* The experimental "color moved lines differently in diff output"
feature was buggy around "ignore whitespace changes" edges, which
has been corrected.

* Instead of using custom line comparison and hashing functions to
implement "moved lines" coloring in the diff output, use the pair
of these functions from lower-layer xdiff/ code.

* Some codepaths did not check for errors when asking what branch the
HEAD points at, which have been fixed.

* "git commit", after making a commit, did not check for errors when
asking on what branch it made the commit, which has been corrected.

* "git status --ignored -u" did not stop at a working tree of a
separate project that is embedded in an ignored directory and
listed files in that other project, instead of just showing the
directory itself as ignored.

* A broken access to object databases in recent update to "git grep
--recurse-submodules" has been fixed.

* A recent regression in "git rebase -i" that broke execution of git
commands from subdirectories via "exec" instruction has been fixed.

* A (possibly flakey) test fix.

* "git check-ref-format --branch @{-1}" bit a "BUG()" when run
outside a repository for obvious reasons; clarify the documentation
and make sure we do not even try to expand the at-mark magic in
such a case, but still call the validation logic for branch names.

* "git fetch --recurse-submodules" now knows that submodules can be
moved around in the superproject in addition to getting updated,
and finds the ones that need to be fetched accordingly.

* Command line completion (in contrib/) update.

* Description of blame.{showroot,blankboundary,showemail,date}
configuration variables have been added to "git config --help".

* After an error from lstat(), diff_populate_filespec() function
sometimes still went ahead and used invalid data in struct stat,
which has been fixed.

* UNC paths are also relevant in Cygwin builds and they are now
tested just like Mingw builds.

* Correct start-up sequence so that a repository could be placed
immediately under the root directory again (which was broken at
around Git 2.13).

* The credential helper for libsecret (in contrib/) has been improved
to allow possibly prompting the end user to unlock secrets that are
currently locked (otherwise the secrets may not be loaded).

* MinGW updates.

* Error checking in "git imap-send" for empty response has been
improved.

* Recent update to the refs infrastructure implementation started
rewriting packed-refs file more often than before; this has been
optimized again for most trivial cases.

* Some error messages did not quote filenames shown in it, which have
been fixed.

* "git rebase -i" recently started misbehaving when a submodule that
is configured with 'submodule.<name>.ignore' is dirty; this has
been corrected.

* Building with NO_LIBPCRE1_JIT did not disable it, which has been fixed.

* We used to add an empty alternate object database to the system
that does not help anything; it has been corrected.

* Doc update around use of "format-patch --subject-prefix" etc.

* A fix for an ancient bug in "git apply --ignore-space-change" codepath.

* Clarify and enhance documentation for "merge-base --fork-point", as
it was clear what it computed but not why/what for.

* A few scripts (both in production and tests) incorrectly redirected
their error output. These have been corrected.

* "git notes" sent its error message to its standard output stream,
which was corrected.

* The three-way merge performed by "git cherry-pick" was confused
when a new submodule was added in the meantime, which has been
fixed (or "papered over").

* The sequencer machinery (used by "git cherry-pick A..B", and "git
rebase -i", among other things) would have lost a commit if stopped
due to an unlockable index file, which has been fixed.

* "git apply --inaccurate-eof" when used with "--ignore-space-change"
triggered an internal sanity check, which has been fixed.

* Command line completion (in contrib/) has been taught about the
"--copy" option of "git branch".

* When "git rebase" prepared an mailbox of changes and fed it to "git
am" to replay them, it was confused when a stray "From " happened
to be in the log message of one of the replayed changes. This has
been corrected.

* There was a recent semantic mismerge in the codepath to write out a
section of a configuration section, which has been corrected.

* Mentions of "git-rebase" and "git-am" (dashed form) still remained
in end-user visible strings emitted by the "git rebase" command;
they have been corrected.

* Contrary to the documentation, "git pull -4/-6 other-args" did not
ask the underlying "git fetch" to go over IPv4/IPv6, which has been
corrected.

* "git checkout --recursive" may overwrite and rewind the history of
the branch that happens to be checked out in submodule
repositories, which might not be desirable. Detach the HEAD but
still allow the recursive checkout to succeed in such a case.
(merge 57f22bf997 sb/submodule-recursive-checkout-detach-head later to maint).

* "git branch --set-upstream" has been deprecated and (sort of)
removed, as "--set-upstream-to" is the preferred one these days.
The documentation still had "--set-upstream" listed on its
synopsis section, which has been corrected.
(merge a060f3d3d8 tz/branch-doc-remove-set-upstream later to maint).

* Internally we use 0{40} as a placeholder object name to signal the
codepath that there is no such object (e.g. the fast-forward check
while "git fetch" stores a new remote-tracking ref says "we know
there is no 'old' thing pointed at by the ref, as we are creating
it anew" by passing 0{40} for the 'old' side), and expect that a
codepath to locate an in-core object to return NULL as a sign that
the object does not exist. A look-up for an object that does not
exist however is quite costly with a repository with large number
of packfiles. This access pattern has been optimized.
(merge 87b5e236a1 jk/fewer-pack-rescan later to maint).

* In addition to "git stash -m message", the command learned to
accept "git stash -mmessage" form.
(merge 5675473fcb ph/stash-save-m-option-fix later to maint).

* @{-N} in "git checkout @{-N}" may refer to a detached HEAD state,
but the documentation was not clear about it, which has been fixed.
(merge 75ce149575 ks/doc-checkout-previous later to maint).

* A regression in the progress eye-candy was fixed.
(merge 9c5951cacf jk/progress-delay-fix later to maint).

* The code internal to the recursive merge strategy was not fully
prepared to see a path that is renamed to try overwriting another
path that is only different in case on case insensitive systems.
This does not matter in the current code, but will start to matter
once the rename detection logic starts taking hints from nearby
paths moving to some directory and moves a new path along with them.
(merge 4cba2b0108 en/merge-recursive-icase-removal later to maint).

* An v2.12-era regression in pathspec match logic, which made it look
into submodule tree even when it is not desired, has been fixed.
(merge eef3df5a93 bw/pathspec-match-submodule-boundary later to maint).

* Amending commits in git-gui broke the author name that is non-ascii
due to incorrect enconding conversion.

* Recent update to the submodule configuration code broke "diff-tree"
by accidentally stopping to read from the index upfront.
(merge fd66bcc31f bw/submodule-config-cleanup later to maint).

* Git shows a message to tell the user that it is waiting for the
user to finish editing when spawning an editor, in case the editor
opens to a hidden window or somewhere obscure and the user gets
lost.
(merge abfb04d0c7 ls/editor-waiting-message later to maint).

* The "safe crlf" check incorrectly triggered for contents that does
not use CRLF as line endings, which has been corrected.
(merge 649f1f0948 tb/check-crlf-for-safe-crlf later to maint).

* "git clone --shared" to borrow from a (secondary) worktree did not
work, even though "git clone --local" did. Both are now accepted.
(merge b3b05971c1 es/clone-shared-worktree later to maint).

* The build procedure now allows not just the repositories but also
the refs to be used to take pre-formatted manpages and html
documents to install.
(merge 65289e9dcd rb/quick-install-doc later to maint).

* Update the shell prompt script (in contrib/) to strip trailing CR
from strings read from various "state" files.
(merge 041fe8fc83 ra/prompt-eread-fix later to maint).

* "git merge -s recursive" did not correctly abort when the index is
dirty, if the merged tree happened to be the same as the current
HEAD, which has been fixed.

* Bytes with high-bit set were encoded incorrectly and made
credential helper fail.
(merge 4c267f2ae3 jd/fix-strbuf-add-urlencode-bytes later to maint).

* "git rebase -p -X<option>" did not propagate the option properly
down to underlying merge strategy backend.
(merge dd6fb0053c js/fix-merge-arg-quoting-in-rebase-p later to maint).

* "git merge -s recursive" did not correctly abort when the index is
dirty, if the merged tree happened to be the same as the current
HEAD, which has been fixed.
(merge f309e8e768 ew/empty-merge-with-dirty-index-maint later to maint).

* Other minor doc, test and build updates and code cleanups.
(merge 1a1fc2d5b5 rd/man-prune-progress later to maint).
(merge 0ba014035a rd/man-reflog-add-n later to maint).
(merge e54b63359f rd/doc-notes-prune-fix later to maint).
(merge ff4c9b413a sp/doc-info-attributes later to maint).
(merge 7db2cbf4f1 jc/receive-pack-hook-doc later to maint).
(merge 5a0526264b tg/t-readme-updates later to maint).
(merge 5e83cca0b8 jk/no-optional-locks later to maint).
(merge 826c778f7c js/hashmap-update-sample later to maint).
(merge 176b2d328c sg/setup-doc-update later to maint).
(merge 1b09073514 rs/am-builtin-leakfix later to maint).
(merge addcf6cfde rs/fmt-merge-msg-string-leak-fix later to maint).
(merge c3ff8f6c14 rs/strbuf-read-once-reset-length later to maint).
(merge 6b0eb884f9 db/doc-workflows-neuter-the-maintainer later to maint).
(merge 8c87bdfb21 jk/cvsimport-quoting later to maint).
(merge 176cb979fe rs/fmt-merge-msg-leakfix later to maint).
(merge 5a03360e73 tb/delimit-pretty-trailers-args-with-comma later to maint).
(merge d0e6326026 ot/pretty later to maint).
(merge 44103f4197 sb/test-helper-excludes later to maint).
(merge 170078693f jt/transport-no-more-rsync later to maint).
(merge c07b3adff1 bw/path-doc later to maint).
(merge bf9d7df950 tz/lib-git-svn-svnserve-tests later to maint).
(merge dec366c9a8 sr/http-sslverify-config-doc later to maint).
(merge 3f824e91c8 jk/test-suite-tracing later to maint).
(merge 1feb061701 db/doc-config-section-names-with-bs later to maint).
(merge 74dea0e13c jh/memihash-opt later to maint).
(merge 2e9fdc795c ma/bisect-leakfix later to maint).

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