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SubjectRe: [PATCH v4] livepatch: introduce shadow variable API
On Mon 2017-08-14 16:02:43, Joe Lawrence wrote:
> Add exported API for livepatch modules:
>
> klp_shadow_get()
> klp_shadow_attach()
> klp_shadow_get_or_attach()
> klp_shadow_update_or_attach()
> klp_shadow_detach()
> klp_shadow_detach_all()
>
> that implement "shadow" variables, which allow callers to associate new
> shadow fields to existing data structures. This is intended to be used
> by livepatch modules seeking to emulate additions to data structure
> definitions.
>
> See Documentation/livepatch/shadow-vars.txt for a summary of the new
> shadow variable API, including a few common use cases.
>
> See samples/livepatch/livepatch-shadow-* for example modules that
> demonstrate shadow variables.
>
> diff --git a/kernel/livepatch/shadow.c b/kernel/livepatch/shadow.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..0ebd4b635e4f
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/kernel/livepatch/shadow.c
> +/**
> + * klp_shadow_match() - verify a shadow variable matches given <obj, id>
> + * @shadow: shadow variable to match
> + * @obj: pointer to parent object
> + * @id: data identifier
> + *
> + * Return: true if the shadow variable matches.
> + *
> + * Callers should hold the klp_shadow_lock.
> + */
> +static inline bool klp_shadow_match(struct klp_shadow *shadow, void *obj,
> + unsigned long id)
> +{
> + return shadow->obj == obj && shadow->id == id;
> +}

Do we really need this function? It is called only in situations
where shadow->obj == obj is always true. Especially the use in
klp_shadow_detach_all() is funny because we pass shadow->obj as
the shadow parameter.

> +
> +/**
> + * klp_shadow_get() - retrieve a shadow variable data pointer
> + * @obj: pointer to parent object
> + * @id: data identifier
> + *
> + * Return: the shadow variable data element, NULL on failure.
> + */
> +void *klp_shadow_get(void *obj, unsigned long id)
> +{
> + struct klp_shadow *shadow;
> +
> + rcu_read_lock();
> +
> + hash_for_each_possible_rcu(klp_shadow_hash, shadow, node,
> + (unsigned long)obj) {
> +
> + if (klp_shadow_match(shadow, obj, id)) {
> + rcu_read_unlock();
> + return shadow->data;
> + }
> + }
> +
> + rcu_read_unlock();
> +
> + return NULL;
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(klp_shadow_get);
> +
> +/*
> + * klp_shadow_set() - initialize a shadow variable
> + * @shadow: shadow variable to initialize
> + * @obj: pointer to parent object
> + * @id: data identifier
> + * @data: pointer to data to attach to parent
> + * @size: size of attached data
> + *
> + * Callers should hold the klp_shadow_lock.
> + */
> +static inline void klp_shadow_set(struct klp_shadow *shadow, void *obj,
> + unsigned long id, void *data, size_t size)
> +{
> + shadow->obj = obj;
> + shadow->id = id;
> +
> + if (data)
> + memcpy(shadow->data, data, size);
> +}

The function name suggests that it is a counterpart of
klp_shadow_get() but it is not. Which is a bit confusing.

Hmm, the purpose of this function is to reduce the size of cut&pasted
code between all that klp_shadow_*attach() variants. But there
is still too much cut&pasted code. In fact, the base logic of all
variants is basically the same. The only small difference should be
how they handle the situation when the variable is already there.

OK, there is a locking difference in the update variant but
it is questionable, see below.

I would suggest to do something like this:

static enum klp_shadow_attach_existing_handling {
KLP_SHADOW_EXISTING_RETURN,
KLP_SHADOW_EXISTING_WARN,
KLP_SHADOW_EXISING_UPDATE,
};

void *__klp_shadow_get_or_attach(void *obj, unsigned long id, void *data,
size_t size, gfp_t gfp_flags,
enum klp_shadow_attach_existing_handling existing_handling)
{
struct klp_shadow *new_shadow;
void *shadow_data;
unsigned long flags;

/* Check if the shadow variable if <obj, id> already exists */
shadow_data = klp_shadow_get(obj, id);
if (shadow_data)
goto exists;

/* Allocate a new shadow variable for use inside the lock below */
new_shadow = kzalloc(size + sizeof(*new_shadow), gfp_flags);
if (!new_shadow) {
pr_error("failed to allocate shadow variable <0x%p, %ul>\n",
obj, id);
return NULL;
}

new_shadow->obj = obj;
new_shadow->id = id;

/* initialize the shadow variable if if data provided */
if (data)
memcpy(new_shadow->data, data, size);

/* Look for <obj, id> again under the lock */
spin_lock_irqsave(&klp_shadow_lock, flags);
shadow_data = klp_shadow_get(obj, id);
if (unlikely(shadow_data)) {
/*
* Shadow variable was found, throw away speculative
* allocation and update/return the existing one.
*/
spin_unlock_irqrestore(&klp_shadow_lock, flags);
kfree(new_shadow);
goto exists;
}

/* No <obj, id> found, so attach the newly allocated one */
hash_add_rcu(klp_shadow_hash, &new_shadow->node,
(unsigned long)new_shadow->obj);
spin_unlock_irqrestore(&klp_shadow_lock, flags);

return new_shadow->data;

exists:
switch(existing_handling) {
case KLP_SHADOW_EXISTING_RETURN:
break;

case KLP_SHADOW_EXISTING_WARN:
WARN(1, "Duplicate shadow variable <%p, %lx>\n", obj, id);
shadow_data = NULL;
break;

case KLP_SHADOW_EXISING_UPDATE:
if (data)
memcpy(shadow_data, data, size);
break;
}
return shadow_data;
}

void *klp_shadow_attach(void *obj, unsigned long id, void *data,
size_t size, gfp_t gfp_flags)
{
return __klp_shadow_get_or_attach(obj, id, data, size,
gfp_flags, KLP_SHADOW_EXISTING_RETURN);
}

void *klp_shadow_get_or_attach(void *obj, unsigned long id, void *data,
size_t size, gfp_t gfp_flags)
{
return __klp_shadow_get_or_attach(obj, id, data, size,
gfp_flags, KLP_SHADOW_EXISTING_WARN);
}

void *klp_shadow_update_or_attach(void *obj, unsigned long id, void *data,
size_t size, gfp_t gfp_flags)
{
return __klp_shadow_get_or_attach(obj, id, data, size,
gfp_flags, KLP_SHADOW_EXISTING_UPDATE);
}

Note that the above code is not even compile tested.

It removes a lot of cut&pasted code and the difference
is more clear.

It updates the data outside klp_shadow_lock. But it should be fine.
The lock is there to keep the hast table consistent (avoid
duplicates). Users are responsible to synchronize the data
stored in the variables their own way.

Hmm, the more I think about it the more I would suggest to remove
klp_shadow_update_or_attach() variant. It has very weird logic.
IMHO, it is not obvious that it must be called under the locks
that synchronize the shadow data. IMHO, the other two variants
are much more clear and enough. Or do you have a good real life
example for it?



> +/**
> + * klp_shadow_add() - add a shadow variable to the hashtable
> + * @shadow: shadow variable to add
> + *
> + * Callers should hold the klp_shadow_lock.
> + */
> +static inline void klp_shadow_add(struct klp_shadow *shadow)
> +{
> + hash_add_rcu(klp_shadow_hash, &shadow->node,
> + (unsigned long)shadow->obj);
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * klp_shadow_attach() - allocate and add a new shadow variable
> + * @obj: pointer to parent object
> + * @id: data identifier
> + * @data: pointer to data to attach to parent
> + * @size: size of attached data
> + * @gfp_flags: GFP mask for allocation
> + *
> + * If an existing <obj, id> shadow variable can be found, this routine
> + * will issue a WARN, exit early and return NULL.
> + *
> + * Allocates @size bytes for new shadow variable data using @gfp_flags
> + * and copies @size bytes from @data into the new shadow variable's own
> + * data space. If @data is NULL, @size bytes are still allocated, but
> + * no copy is performed. The new shadow variable is then added to the
> + * global hashtable.

I would swap the two paragraphs. We should describe the main function
first and corner cases later.


> + * Return: the shadow variable data element, NULL on duplicate or
> + * failure.
> + */
> +void *klp_shadow_attach(void *obj, unsigned long id, void *data,
> + size_t size, gfp_t gfp_flags)
> +{
> + struct klp_shadow *new_shadow;
> + void *shadow_data;
> + unsigned long flags;
> +
> + /* Take error exit path if <obj, id> already exists */
> + if (unlikely(klp_shadow_get(obj, id)))
> + goto err_exists;
> +
> + /* Allocate a new shadow variable for use inside the lock below */
> + new_shadow = kzalloc(size + sizeof(*new_shadow), gfp_flags);

We should print an error message when the memory cannot be allocated.
Otherwise we will return NULL without explanation. It will be
especially helpful when a caller forgets to check for NULL.


> + if (!new_shadow)
> + goto err;
> + klp_shadow_set(new_shadow, obj, id, data, size);
> +
> + /* Look for <obj, id> again under the lock */
> + spin_lock_irqsave(&klp_shadow_lock, flags);
> + shadow_data = klp_shadow_get(obj, id);
> + if (unlikely(shadow_data)) {
> + /*
> + * Shadow variable was found, throw away speculative
> + * allocation and update/return the existing one.
> + */
> + spin_unlock_irqrestore(&klp_shadow_lock, flags);
> + kfree(new_shadow);
> + goto err_exists;
> + }
> +
> + /* No <obj, id> found, add the newly allocated one */
> + klp_shadow_add(new_shadow);
> + spin_unlock_irqrestore(&klp_shadow_lock, flags);
> +
> + return new_shadow->data;
> +
> +err_exists:
> + WARN(1, "Duplicate shadow variable <%p, %lx>\n", obj, id);
> +err:
> + return NULL;
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(klp_shadow_attach);
> +
> +/**
> + * klp_shadow_get_or_attach() - get existing or attach a new shadow variable
> + * @obj: pointer to parent object
> + * @id: data identifier
> + * @data: pointer to data to attach to parent
> + * @size: size of attached data
> + * @gfp_flags: GFP mask for allocation
> + *
> + * If an existing <obj, id> shadow variable can be found, it will be
> + * used (but *not* updated) in the return value of this function.
> + *
> + * Allocates @size bytes for new shadow variable data using @gfp_flags
> + * and copies @size bytes from @data into the new shadow variable's own
> + * data space. If @data is NULL, @size bytes are still allocated, but
> + * no copy is performed. The new shadow variable is then added to the
> + * global hashtable.

There is a lot of duplicated text here. Also you need to read the first
paragraph very carefully. Otherwise, you miss that the 2nd paragraph
is true only in special situation.

I would make it more clear, something like:

It returns pointer to the shadow data when they already exist.
Otherwise, it attaches and new shadow variable like
klp_shadow_attach().

It guarantees that only one shadow variable will exists with
the given @id for the given @obj. Also it guarantees that
the variable will be initialized by the given @data only when
it did not exist before.


> diff --git a/samples/livepatch/livepatch-shadow-fix1.c b/samples/livepatch/livepatch-shadow-fix1.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..5acc838463d1
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/samples/livepatch/livepatch-shadow-fix1.c
> +void livepatch_fix1_dummy_free(struct dummy *d)
> +{
> + void **shadow_leak;
> +
> + /*
> + * Patch: fetch the saved SV_LEAK shadow variable, detach and
> + * free it. Note: handle cases where this shadow variable does
> + * not exist (ie, dummy structures allocated before this livepatch
> + * was loaded.)
> + */
> + shadow_leak = klp_shadow_get(d, SV_LEAK);
> + if (shadow_leak) {
> + klp_shadow_detach(d, SV_LEAK);
> + kfree(*shadow_leak);

This should get removed. The buffer used for the shadow variable
is freed by kfree_rcu() called from klp_shadow_detach().

Same problem is also in the other livepatch.

> + pr_info("%s: dummy @ %p, prevented leak @ %p\n",
> + __func__, d, *shadow_leak);

This might access shadow_leak after it was (double) freed.

> + } else {
> + pr_info("%s: dummy @ %p leaked!\n", __func__, d);
> + }
> +
> + kfree(d);
> +}


I am sorry for the late review. I had vacation.

I know that this patch already got some acks. Most of my comments
are about code clean up and tiny bugs that might be fixed later.

But I would still suggests to re-evaluate the usefulness and
logic of klp_shadow_update_or_attach(). I think that it was
the primary reason for the many cut&pasted code. The locking
logic is weird there. It does too many things at once because
it also manipulates the existing data. All other functions just
get pointer to the data and eventually initialize them when
they did not exist before.

Best Regards,
Petr

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