An early preview release Git v2.14.0-rc0 is now available fortesting at the usual places.  It is comprised of 675 non-mergecommits since v2.13.0, contributed by 53 people, 14 of which arenew faces.The tarballs are found at:    https://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/testing/The following public repositories all have a copy of the'v2.14.0-rc0' tag and the 'master' branch that the tag points at:  url = https://kernel.googlesource.com/pub/scm/git/git  url = git://repo.or.cz/alt-git.git  url = https://github.com/gitster/gitNew contributors whose contributions weren't in v2.13.0 are as follows.Welcome to the Git development community!  A. Wilcox, Ben Peart, Brian Malehorn, James Clarke, Jeff Smith,  Kaartic Sivaraam, Liam Beguin, Phillip Wood, Rikard Falkeborn,  Sahil Dua, Samuel Lijin, Stephen Kent, Tyler Brazier, and  xiaoqiang zhao.Returning contributors who helped this release are as follows.Thanks for your continued support.  Adam Dinwoodie, Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason, Alejandro  R. Sedeño, Andreas Heiduk, Beat Bolli, Brandon Williams,  brian m. carlson, Christian Couder, David Aguilar, David  Turner, Dennis Kaarsemaker, Eric Wong, Jean-Noel Avila, Jeff  Hostetler, Jeff King, Johannes Schindelin, Johannes Sixt,  Jonathan Nieder, Jonathan Tan, Junio C Hamano, Kyle J. McKay,  Kyle Meyer, Lars Schneider, Marc Branchaud, Michael Haggerty,  Mike Hommey, Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy, Patrick Steinhardt,  Prathamesh Chavan, Ralf Thielow, Ramsay Jones, René Scharfe,  Stefan Beller, Štěpán Němec, Sven Strickroth, SZEDER Gábor,  Thomas Gummerer, Torsten Bögershausen, and Ville Skyttä.----------------------------------------------------------------Git 2.14 Release Notes (draft)==============================Backward compatibility notes. * Use of an empty string as a pathspec element that is used for   'everything matches' is still warned and Git asks users to use a   more explicit '.' for that instead.  The hope is that existing   users will not mind this change, and eventually the warning can be   turned into a hard error, upgrading the deprecation into removal of   this (mis)feature.  That is not scheduled to happen in the upcoming   release (yet). * Git now avoids blindly falling back to ".git" when the setup   sequence said we are _not_ in Git repository.  A corner case that   happens to work right now may be broken by a call to die("BUG").   We've tried hard to locate such cases and fixed them, but there   might still be cases that need to be addressed--bug reports are   greatly appreciated. * The experiment to improve the hunk-boundary selection of textual   diff output has finished, and the "indent heuristics" has now   become the default.Updates since v2.13-------------------UI, Workflows & Features * The colors in which "git status --short --branch" showed the names   of the current branch and its remote-tracking branch are now   configurable. * "git clone" learned the "--no-tags" option not to fetch all tags   initially, and also set up the tagopt not to follow any tags in   subsequent fetches. * "git archive --format=zip" learned to use zip64 extension when   necessary to go beyond the 4GB limit. * "git reset" learned "--recurse-submodules" option. * "git diff --submodule=diff" now recurses into nested submodules. * "git repack" learned to accept the --threads=<n> option and pass it   to pack-objects. * "git send-email" learned to run sendemail-validate hook to inspect   and reject a message before sending it out. * There is no good reason why "git fetch $there$sha1" should fail   when the $sha1 names an object at the tip of an advertised ref, even when the other side hasn't enabled allowTipSHA1InWant. * The recently introduced "[includeIf "gitdir:$dir"] path=..."   mechanism has further been taught to take symlinks into account.   The directory "$dir" specified in "gitdir:$dir" may be a symlink to   a real location, not something that $(getcwd) may return. In such a case, a realpath of "$dir" is compared with the real path of the   current repository to determine if the contents from the named path   should be included. * Make the "indent" heuristics the default in "diff" and diff.indentHeuristics   configuration variable an escape hatch for those who do no want it. * Many commands learned to pay attention to submodule.recurse   configuration. * The convention for a command line is to follow "git cmdname   --options" with revisions followed by an optional "--"   disambiguator and then finally pathspecs.  When "--" is not there,   we make sure early ones are all interpretable as revs (and do not   look like paths) and later ones are the other way around.  A   pathspec with "magic" (e.g. ":/p/a/t/h" that matches p/a/t/h from   the top-level of the working tree, no matter what subdirectory you   are working from) are conservatively judged as "not a path", which   required disambiguation more often.  The command line parser   learned to say "it's a pathspec" a bit more often when the syntax   looks like so. * Update "perl-compatible regular expression" support to enable JIT   and also allow linking with the newer PCRE v2 library. * "filter-branch" learned a pseudo filter "--setup" that can be used   to define common functions/variables that can be used by other   filters. * Using "git add d/i/r" when d/i/r is the top of the working tree of   a separate repository would create a gitlink in the index, which   would appear as a not-quite-initialized submodule to others.  We   learned to give warnings when this happens. * "git status" learned to optionally give how many stash entries the   user has in its output. * "git status" has long shown essentially the same message as "git   commit"; the message it gives while preparing for the root commit,   i.e. "Initial commit", was hard to understand for some new users.   Now it says "No commits yet" to stress more on the current status   (rather than the commit the user is preparing for, which is more in   line with the focus of "git commit"). * "git send-email" learned to overcome some SMTP server limitation   that does not allow many pieces of e-mails to be sent over a single   session. * An old message shown in the commit log template was removed, as it   has outlived its usefulness. * "git pull --rebase --recurse-submodules" learns to rebase the   branch in the submodules to an updated base.Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc. * The default packed-git limit value has been raised on larger   platforms to save "git fetch" from a (recoverable) failure while   "gc" is running in parallel. * Code to update the cache-tree has been tightened so that we won't   accidentally write out any 0{40} entry in the tree object. * Attempt to allow us notice "fishy" situation where we fail to   remove the temporary directory used during the test. * Travis CI gained a task to format the documentation with both   AsciiDoc and AsciiDoctor. * Some platforms have ulong that is smaller than time_t, and our   historical use of ulong for timestamp would mean they cannot   represent some timestamp that the platform allows.  Invent a   separate and dedicated timestamp_t (so that we can distingiuish   timestamps and a vanilla ulongs, which along is already a good   move), and then declare uintmax_t is the type to be used as the   timestamp_t. * We can trigger Windows auto-build tester (credits: Dscho &   Microsoft) from our existing Travis CI tester now. * Conversion from uchar[20] to struct object_id continues. * Simplify parse_pathspec() codepath and stop it from looking at the   default in-core index. * Add perf-test for wildmatch. * Code from "conversion using external process" codepath has been   extracted to a separate sub-process.[ch] module. * When "git checkout", "git merge", etc. manipulates the in-core   index, various pieces of information in the index extensions are   discarded from the original state, as it is usually not the case   that they are kept up-to-date and in-sync with the operation on the   main index.  The untracked cache extension is copied across these   operations now, which would speed up "git status" (as long as the   cache is properly invalidated). * The internal implementation of "git grep" has seen some clean-up. * Update the C style recommendation for notes for translators, as   recent versions of gettext tools can work with our style of   multi-line comments. * The implementation of "ref" API around the "packed refs" have been   cleaned up, in preparation for further changes. * The internal logic used in "git blame" has been libified to make it   easier to use by cgit. * Our code often opens a path to an optional file, to work on its   contents when we can successfully open it.  We can ignore a failure   to open if such an optional file does not exist, but we do want to   report a failure in opening for other reasons (e.g. we got an I/O   error, or the file is there, but we lack the permission to open).   The exact errors we need to ignore are ENOENT (obviously) and   ENOTDIR (less obvious).  Instead of repeating comparison of errno   with these two constants, introduce a helper function to do so. * We often try to open a file for reading whose existence is   optional, and silently ignore errors from open/fopen; report such   errors if they are not due to missing files. * When an existing repository is used for t/perf testing, we first   create bit-for-bit copy of it, which may grab a transient state of   the repository and freeze it into the repository used for testing,   which then may cause Git operations to fail.  Single out "the index   being locked" case and forcibly drop the lock from the copy. * Three instances of the same helper function have been consolidated   to one. * "fast-import" uses a default pack chain depth that is consistent   with other parts of the system. * A new test to show the interaction between the pattern [^a-z]   (which matches '/') and a slash in a path has been added.  The   pattern should not match the slash with "pathmatch", but should   with "wildmatch". * The 'diff-highlight' program (in contrib/) has been restructured   for easier reuse by an external project 'diff-so-fancy'. * A common pattern to free a piece of memory and assign NULL to the   pointer that used to point at it has been replaced with a new   FREE_AND_NULL() macro. * Traditionally, the default die() routine had a code to prevent it   from getting called multiple times, which interacted badly when a   threaded program used it (one downside is that the real error may   be hidden and instead the only error message given to the user may   end up being "die recursion detected", which is not very useful). * Introduce a "repository" object to eventually make it easier to   work in multiple repositories (the primary focus is to work with   the superproject and its submodules) in a single process. * Optimize "what are the object names already taken in an alternate   object database?" query that is used to derive the length of prefix   an object name is uniquely abbreviated to. * The hashmap API has been updated so that data to customize the   behaviour of the comparison function can be specified at the time a   hashmap is initialized.Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.Fixes since v2.13-----------------Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v2.13 in the maintenancetrack are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases'notes for details). * "git gc" did not interact well with "git worktree"-managed   per-worktree refs. * "git cherry-pick" and other uses of the sequencer machinery   mishandled a trailer block whose last line is an incomplete line.   This has been fixed so that an additional sign-off etc. are added   after completing the existing incomplete line. * The codepath in "git am" that is used when running "git rebase"   leaked memory held for the log message of the commits being rebased. * "git clone --config var=val" is a way to populate the   per-repository configuration file of the new repository, but it did   not work well when val is an empty string.  This has been fixed. * Setting "log.decorate=false" in the configuration file did not take   effect in v2.13, which has been corrected. * A few codepaths in "checkout" and "am" working on an unborn branch   tried to access an uninitialized piece of memory. * The Web interface to gmane news archive is long gone, even though   the articles are still accessible via NTTP.  Replace the links with   ones to public-inbox.org.  Because their message identification is   based on the actual message-id, it is likely that it will be easier   to migrate away from it if/when necessary. * The receive-pack program now makes sure that the push certificate   records the same set of push options used for pushing. * Tests have been updated to pass under GETTEXT_POISON (a mechanism   to ensure that output strings that should not be translated are   not translated by mistake), and TravisCI is told to run them. * "git checkout --recurse-submodules" did not quite work with a   submodule that itself has submodules. * "pack-objects" can stream a slice of an existing packfile out when   the pack bitmap can tell that the reachable objects are all needed   in the output, without inspecting individual objects.  This   strategy however would not work well when "--local" and other   options are in use, and need to be disabled. * Fix memory leaks pointed out by Coverity (and people). * "git read-tree -m" (no tree-ish) gave a nonsense suggestion "use   --empty if you want to clear the index".  With "-m", such a request   will still fail anyway, as you'd need to name at least one tree-ish   to be merged. * Make sure our tests would pass when the sources are checked out   with "platform native" line ending convention by default on   Windows.  Some "text" files out tests use and the test scripts   themselves that are meant to be run with /bin/sh, ought to be   checked out with eol=LF even on Windows. * Introduce the BUG() macro to improve die("BUG: ..."). * Clarify documentation for include.path and includeIf.<condition>.path   configuration variables. * Git sometimes gives an advice in a rhetorical question that does   not require an answer, which can confuse new users and non native   speakers.  Attempt to rephrase them. * A few http:// links that are redirected to https:// in the   documentation have been updated to https:// links. * "git for-each-ref --format=..." with %(HEAD) in the format used to   resolve the HEAD symref as many times as it had processed refs,   which was wasteful, and "git branch" shared the same problem. * Regression fix to topic recently merged to 'master'. * The shell completion script (in contrib/) learned "git stash" has   a new "push" subcommand. * "git interpret-trailers", when used as GIT_EDITOR for "git commit   -v", looked for and appended to a trailer block at the very end,   i.e. at the end of the "diff" output.  The command has been   corrected to pay attention to the cut-mark line "commit -v" adds to   the buffer---the real trailer block should appear just before it. * A test allowed both "git push" and "git receive-pack" on the other   end write their traces into the same file.  This is OK on platforms   that allows atomically appending to a file opened with O_APPEND,   but on other platforms led to a mangled output, causing   intermittent test failures.  This has been fixed by disabling   traces from "receive-pack" in the test. * Tag objects, which are not reachable from any ref, that point at   missing objects were mishandled by "git gc" and friends (they   should silently be ignored instead) * "git describe --contains" penalized light-weight tags so much that   they were almost never considered.  Instead, give them about the   same chance to be considered as an annotated tag that is the same   age as the underlying commit would. * The "run-command" API implementation has been made more robust   against dead-locking in a threaded environment. * A recent update to t5545-push-options.sh started skipping all the   tests in the script when a web server testing is disabled or   unavailable, not just the ones that require a web server.  Non HTTP   tests have been salvaged to always run in this script. * "git send-email" now uses Net::SMTP::SSL, which is obsolete, only   when needed.  Recent versions of Net::SMTP can do TLS natively. * "foo\bar\baz" in "git fetch foo\bar\baz", even though there is no   slashes in it, cannot be a nickname for a remote on Windows, as   that is likely to be a pathname on a local filesystem. * "git clean -d" used to clean directories that has ignored files,   even though the command should not lose ignored ones without "-x".   "git status --ignored"  did not list ignored and untracked files   without "-uall".  These have been corrected. * The result from "git diff" that compares two blobs, e.g. "git diff   $commit1:$path $commit2:$path", used to be shown with the full   object name as given on the command line, but it is more natural to   use the path in the output and use it to look up .gitattributes. * The "collision detecting" SHA-1 implementation shipped with 2.13 was quite broken on some big-endian platforms and/or platforms that do not like unaligned fetches. Update to the upstream code which has already fixed these issues. * "git am -h" triggered a BUG(). * The interaction of "url.*.insteadOf" and custom URL scheme's whitelisting is now documented better. * The timestamp of the index file is now taken after the file is closed, to help Windows, on which a stale timestamp is reported by fstat() on a file that is opened for writing and data was written but not yet closed. * "git pull --rebase --autostash" didn't auto-stash when the local history fast-forwards to the upstream. * A flaky test has been corrected. * "gitcmd -h" for builtin commands calls the implementation of the   command (i.e. cmd_$cmd() function) without doing any repository set-up, and the commands that expect RUN_SETUP is done by the Git potty needs to be prepared to show the help text without barfing. (merge d691551192 jk/consistent-h later to maint). * Help contributors that visit us at GitHub. * "git stash push <pathspec>" did not work from a subdirectory at all. Bugfix for a topic in v2.13 * As there is no portable way to pass timezone information to strftime, some output format from "git log" and friends are impossible to produce. Teach our own strbuf_addftime to replace %z and %Z with caller-supplied values to help working around this. (merge 6eced3ec5e rs/strbuf-addftime-zZ later to maint). * "git mergetool" learned to work around a wrapper MacOS X adds around underlying meld. * An example in documentation that does not work in multi worktree configuration has been corrected. * The pretty-format specifiers like '%h', '%t', etc. had an optimization that no longer works correctly. In preparation/hope of getting it correctly implemented, first discard the optimization that is broken. * The code to pick up and execute command alias definition from the configuration used to switch to the top of the working tree and then come back when the expanded alias was executed, which was unnecessarilyl complex. Attempt to simplify the logic by using the early-config mechanism that does not chdir around. * Fix configuration codepath to pay proper attention to commondir that is used in multi-worktree situation, and isolate config API into its own header file. (merge dc8441fdb4 bw/config-h later to maint). * "git add -p" were updated in 2.12 timeframe to cope with custom core.commentchar but the implementation was buggy and a metacharacter like$ and * did not work. * A recent regression in "git rebase -i" has been fixed and tests   that would have caught it and others have been added. * An unaligned 32-bit access in pack-bitmap code ahs been corrected. * Tighten error checks for invalid "git apply" input. * The split index code did not honor core.sharedrepository setting   correctly. * The Makefile rule in contrib/subtree for building documentation   learned to honour USE_ASCIIDOCTOR just like the main documentation   set does. * Update the sha1dc again to fix portability glitches. * Code clean-up to fix possible buffer over-reading.   (merge 2d105451c0 rs/apply-avoid-over-reading later to maint). * A few tests that tried to verify the contents of push certificates   did not use 'git rev-parse' to formulate the line to look for in   the certificate correctly. * Update the character width tables.   (merge 7560aacd7c bb/unicode-10.0 later to maint). * After "git branch --move" of the currently checked out branch, the   code to walk the reflog of HEAD via "log -g" and friends   incorrectly stopped at the reflog entry that records the renaming   of the branch. * The rewrite of "git branch --list" using for-each-ref's internals   that happened in v2.13 regressed its handling of color.branch.local;   this has been fixed. * The build procedure has been improved to allow building and testing   Git with address sanitizer more easily.   (merge 566cf0b3bd jk/build-with-asan later to maint). * Other minor doc, test and build updates and code cleanups.   (merge 3f9c637ec7 pw/unquote-path-in-git-pm later to maint).   (merge 5053313562 rs/urlmatch-cleanup later to maint).   (merge 42c78a216e rs/use-div-round-up later to maint).   (merge 5e8d2729ae rs/wt-status-cleanup later to maint).   (merge 01826066b0 ks/fix-rebase-doc-picture later to maint).----------------------------------------------------------------