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SubjectRe: [PATCH v2 01/22] docs: fpga: add a document for Intel FPGA driver overview
On Wed, Jul 12, 2017 at 09:51:32AM -0500, Alan Tull wrote:
> On Sun, Jun 25, 2017 at 8:51 PM, Wu Hao <hao.wu@intel.com> wrote:
>
> Hi Hao,
>
> > Add a document for Intel FPGA driver overview.
> >
> > Signed-off-by: Enno Luebbers <enno.luebbers@intel.com>
> > Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <guangrong.xiao@linux.intel.com>
> > Signed-off-by: Wu Hao <hao.wu@intel.com>
> > ----
> > v2: added FME fpga-mgr/bridge/region platform driver to driver organization.
> > updated open discussion per current implementation.
> > fixed some typos.
> > ---
> > Documentation/fpga/intel-fpga.txt | 256 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> > 1 file changed, 256 insertions(+)
> > create mode 100644 Documentation/fpga/intel-fpga.txt
> >
> > diff --git a/Documentation/fpga/intel-fpga.txt b/Documentation/fpga/intel-fpga.txt
> > new file mode 100644
> > index 0000000..4a29470
> > --- /dev/null
> > +++ b/Documentation/fpga/intel-fpga.txt
> > @@ -0,0 +1,256 @@
> > +===============================================================================
> > + Intel FPGA driver Overview
> > +-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > + Enno Luebbers <enno.luebbers@intel.com>
> > + Xiao Guangrong <guangrong.xiao@linux.intel.com>
> > + Wu Hao <hao.wu@intel.com>
> > +
> > +The Intel FPGA driver provides interfaces for userspace applications to
> > +configure, enumerate, open, and access FPGA accelerators on platforms equipped
> > +with Intel(R) FPGA PCIe based solutions and enables system level management
> > +functions such as FPGA reconfiguration, power management, and virtualization.
> > +
> > +HW Architecture
> > +===============
> > +From the OS's point of view, the FPGA hardware appears as a regular PCIe device.
> > +The FPGA device memory is organized using a predefined data structure (Device
> > +Feature List). Features supported by the particular FPGA device are exposed
> > +through these data structures, as illustrated below:
> > +
> > + +-------------------------------+ +-------------+
> > + | PF | | VF |
> > + +-------------------------------+ +-------------+
> > + ^ ^ ^ ^
> > + | | | |
> > ++-----|------------|---------|--------------|-------+
> > +| | | | | |
> > +| +-----+ +-------+ +-------+ +-------+ |
> > +| | FME | | Port0 | | Port1 | | Port2 | |
> > +| +-----+ +-------+ +-------+ +-------+ |
> > +| ^ ^ ^ |
> > +| | | | |
> > +| +-------+ +------+ +-------+ |
> > +| | AFU | | AFU | | AFU | |
> > +| +-------+ +------+ +-------+ |
> > +| |
> > +| FPGA PCIe Device |
> > ++---------------------------------------------------+
> > +
> > +The driver supports PCIe SR-IOV to create virtual functions (VFs) which can be
> > +used to assign individual accelerators to virtual machines.
> > +
> > +FME (FPGA Management Engine)
> > +============================
> > +The FPGA Management Engine performs power and thermal management, error
> > +reporting, reconfiguration, performance reporting, and other infrastructure
> > +functions. Each FPGA has one FME, which is always accessed through the physical
> > +function (PF).
> > +
> > +User-space applications can acquire exclusive access to the FME using open(),
> > +and release it using close().
> > +
> > +The following functions are exposed through ioctls:
> > +
> > + Get driver API version (FPGA_GET_API_VERSION)
> > + Check for extensions (FPGA_CHECK_EXTENSION)
> > + Assign port to PF (FPGA_FME_PORT_ASSIGN)
> > + Release port from PF (FPGA_FME_PORT_RELEASE)
> > + Program bitstream (FPGA_FME_PORT_PR)
> > +
>
> I was hoping the API mailing list might have an opinion about this,
> but I think adding ioctls to the kernel is discouraged. Could these
> be sysfs?

Hi Alan,

As you see below, we have defined a lot of sysfs interface for device
info, attributes and simple control operations. But for some actions
which requires complex inputs/outputs parameters (e.g a struct with
multiple items) with userspace, ioctls are used. I feel in such cases,
ioctls seem more suitable than sysfs.

>
> > +More functions are exposed through sysfs
> > +(/sys/class/fpga/fpga.n/intel-fpga-fme.n/):
> > +
> > + Read bitstream ID (bitstream_id)
> > + Read bitstream metadata (bitstream_metadata)
> > + Read number of ports (ports_num)
> > + Read socket ID (socket_id)
> > + Read performance counters (perf/)
> > + Power management (power_mgmt/)
> > + Thermal management (thermal_mgmt/)
> > + Error reporting (errors/)
> > +
> > +PORT
> > +====
> > +A port represents the interface between the static FPGA fabric (the "blue
> > +bitstream") and a partially reconfigurable region containing an AFU (the "green
> > +bitstream"). It controls the communication from SW to the accelerator and
> > +exposes features such as reset and debug.
> > +
> > +A PCIe device may have several ports and each port can be released from PF by
> > +FPGA_FME_PORT_RELEASE ioctl on FME, and exposed through a VF via PCIe sriov
> > +sysfs interface.
> > +
> > +AFU
> > +===
> > +An AFU is attached to a port and exposes a 256k MMIO region to be used for
> > +accelerator-specific control registers.
> > +
> > +User-space applications can acquire exclusive access to an AFU attached to a
> > +port by using open() on the port device node, and release it using close().
> > +
> > +The following functions are exposed through ioctls:
> > +
> > + Get driver API version (FPGA_GET_API_VERSION)
> > + Check for extensions (FPGA_CHECK_EXTENSION)
> > + Get port info (FPGA_PORT_GET_INFO)
> > + Get MMIO region info (FPGA_PORT_GET_REGION_INFO)
> > + Map DMA buffer (FPGA_PORT_DMA_MAP)
> > + Unmap DMA buffer (FPGA_PORT_DMA_UNMAP)
> > + Reset AFU (FPGA_PORT_RESET)
> > + Enable UMsg (FPGA_PORT_UMSG_ENABLE)
> > + Disable UMsg (FPGA_PORT_UMSG_DISABLE)
> > + Set UMsg mode (FPGA_PORT_UMSG_SET_MODE)
> > + Set UMsg base address (FPGA_PORT_UMSG_SET_BASE_ADDR)
> > +
> > +User-space applications can also mmap() accelerator MMIO regions.
> > +
> > +More functions are exposed through sysfs:
> > +(/sys/class/fpga/fpga.n/intel-fpga-port.m/):
> > +
> > + Read Accelerator GUID (afu_id)
> > + Error reporting (errors/)
> > +
> > +Partial Reconfiguration
> > +=======================
> > +As mentioned above, accelerators can be reconfigured through partial
> > +reconfiguration of a green bitstream file (GBS). The green bitstream must have
> > +been generated for the exact blue bitstream and targeted reconfigurable region
> > +(port) of the FPGA; otherwise, the reconfiguration operation will fail and
> > +possibly cause system instability. This compatibility can be checked by
> > +comparing the interface ID noted in the GBS header against the interface ID
> > +exposed by the FME through sysfs (see above). This check is usually done by
> > +user-space before calling the reconfiguration IOCTL.
> > +
> > +FPGA virtualization
> > +===================
> > +To enable accessing an accelerator from applications running in a VM, the
> > +respective AFU's port needs to be assigned to a VF using the following steps:
> > +
> > + a) The PF owns all AFU ports by default. Any port that needs to be reassigned
> > + to a VF must be released from PF firstly through the FPGA_FME_PORT_RELEASE
> > + ioctl on the FME device.
> > +
> > + b) Once N ports are released from PF, then user can use below command to
> > + enable SRIOV and VFs. Each VF owns only one Port with AFU.
> > +
> > + echo N > $PCI_DEVICE_PATH/sriov_numvfs
> > +
> > + c) Pass through the VFs to VMs
> > +
> > + d) The AFU under VF is accessible from applications in VM (using the same
> > + driver inside the VF).
> > +
> > +Note the an FME can't be assigned to a VF, thus PR and other management
> > +functions are only available via the PF.
> > +
> > +
> > +Driver organization
> > +===================
> > +
> > + +-------++------++------+ |
> > + | FME || FME || FME | |
> > + | FPGA || FPGA || FPGA | |
> > + |Manager||Bridge||Region| |
> > + +-------++------++------+ |
> > + +-----------------------+ +--------+ | +--------+
> > + | FME | | AFU | | | AFU |
> > + | Module | | Module | | | Module |
> > + +-----------------------+ +--------+ | +--------+
> > + +-----------------------+ | +-----------------------+
> > + | FPGA Container Device | | | FPGA Container Device |
> > + +-----------------------+ | +-----------------------+
> > + +------------------+ | +------------------+
> > + | FPGA PCIE Module | | Virtual | FPGA PCIE Module |
> > + +------------------+ Host | Machine +------------------+
> > + -------------------------------------- | ------------------------------
> > + +---------------+ | +---------------+
> > + | PCI PF Device | | | PCI VF Device |
> > + +---------------+ | +---------------+
> > +
> > +The FPGA devices appear as regular PCIe devices; thus, the FPGA PCIe device
> > +driver is always loaded first once a FPGA PCIE PF or VF device is detected. This
> > +driver plays an infrastructural role in the driver architecture. It:
> > +
> > + a) creates FPGA container device as parent of the feature devices.
> > + b) walks through the Device Feature List, which is implemented in PCIE
> > + device BAR memory, to discover feature devices and their sub features
> > + and create platform device for them under the container device.
> > + c) supports SRIOV.
> > + d) introduces the feature device infrastructure, which abstracts
> > + operations for sub features and exposes common functions to feature
> > + device drivers.
> > +
> > +The FPGA Management Engine (FME) driver is a platform driver which is loaded
> > +automatically after FME platform device creation from the PCIE driver. It
> > +provides the key features for FPGA management, including:
> > +
> > + a) Power and thermal management, error reporting, performance reporting
> > + and other infrastructure functions. Users can access these functions
> > + via sysfs interfaces exposed by FME driver.
> > + b) Partial Reconfiguration. The FME driver creates platform devices
> > + for FPGA manager, FPGA bridges and FPGA regions during PR sub
> > + feature initialization; Once it receives an FPGA_FME_PORT_PR ioctl
> > + from user, it invokes the common interface function from FPGA Region
> > + to complete the partial reconfiguration of the bitstream to the given
> > + port.
> > + c) Port management for virtualization. The FME driver introduces two
> > + ioctls, FPGA_FME_PORT_RELEASE (releases given port from PF) and
> > + FPGA_FME_PORT_ASSIGN (assigns the port back to PF). Once the port is
> > + released from the PF, it can be assigned to the VF through the SRIOV
> > + interfaces provided by PCIE driver. (Refer to "FPGA virtualization"
> > + for more details).
> > +
> > +Similar to the the FME driver, the FPGA Accelerated Function Unit (AFU) driver
> > +is probed once the AFU platform device is created. The main function of this
> > +module is to provide an interface for userspace applications to access the
> > +individual accelerators, including basic reset control on port, AFU MMIO region
> > +export, dma buffer mapping service, UMsg notification, and remote debug
> > +functions (see above).
> > +
> > +
> > +Device enumeration
> > +==================
> > +This section introduces how applications enumerate the fpga device from
> > +the sysfs hierarchy under /sys/class/fpga.
> > +
> > +In the example below, two Intel(R) FPGA devices are installed in the host. Each
> > +fpga device has one FME and two ports (AFUs).
> > +
> > +For each FPGA device, a device director is created under /sys/class/fpga/:
> > +
> > + /sys/class/fpga/fpga.0
> > + /sys/class/fpga/fpga.1
> > +
> > +The Intel(R) FPGA device driver exposes "intel-fpga-dev" as the FPGA's name.
> > +Application can retrieve name information via the sysfs interface:
> > +
> > + /sys/class/fpga/fpga.0/name
> > +
> > +Each node has one FME and two ports (AFUs) as child devices:
> > +
> > + /sys/class/fpga/fpga.0/intel-fpga-fme.0
> > + /sys/class/fpga/fpga.0/intel-fpga-port.0
> > + /sys/class/fpga/fpga.0/intel-fpga-port.1
> > +
> > + /sys/class/fpga/fpga.1/intel-fpga-fme.1
> > + /sys/class/fpga/fpga.1/intel-fpga-port.2
> > + /sys/class/fpga/fpga.1/intel-fpga-port.3
> > +
> > +In general, the FME/AFU sysfs interfaces are named as follows:
> > +
> > + /sys/class/fpga/<fpga.n>/<intel-fpga-fme.n>/
> > + /sys/class/fpga/<fpga.n>/<intel-fpga-port.m>/
> > +
> > +with 'n' consecutively numbering all FMEs and 'm' consecutively numbering all
> > +ports.
> > +
> > +The device nodes used for ioctl() or mmap() can be referenced through:
> > +
> > + /sys/class/fpga/<fpga.n>/<intel-fpga-port.n>/dev
> > + /sys/class/fpga/<fpga.n>/<intel-fpga-fme.n>/dev
> > +
> > +Open discussion
> > +===============
> > +FME driver exports one ioctl (FPGA_FME_PORT_PR) for partial reconfiguration to
> > +user now. In the future, if unified user interfaces for reconfiguration are
> > +added, FME driver should switch to them from ioctl interface.
>
> Adding an ioctl that will go away in the future?

Currently there is no common userspace interfaces for PR, so Intel FPGA
device driver implemented its own solution by adding one ioctl for now.
Do you think if this is acceptable for now?

As mentioned in 'open discussion', if common interfaces are introduced in
the future, we can adpat this driver for that, and encourage users to use
common interfaces instead. But if ioctl is used widely at that time, then
we may need to keep this ioctl for compatibility.

> I think we are going to have to find a different interface for doing
> partial reconfiguration. There was a recent conversation on the
> mailing list regarding adding a header to the raw bitstream and
> probably using sysfs to present that to the kernel. I'm working on
> getting an RFC together for that.

Great to know this. Looking forward to see that. : )

Thanks
Hao

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