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Subject[PATCH v2 1/1] Add Trusted Path Execution as a stackable LSM
Date
This patch was modified from Brad Spengler's Trusted Path Execution (TPE)
feature. It also adds features and config options that were found in Corey
Henderson's tpe-lkm project.

Modifications from Brad Spengler's implementation of TPE were made to
turn it into a stackable LSM using the existing LSM hook bprm_set_creds.
Also, a new denial logging function was used to simplify printing messages
to the kernel log. Additionally, mmap and mprotect restrictions were
taken from Corey Henderson's tpe-lkm project and implemented using the
LSM hooks mmap_file and file_mprotect.

Trusted Path Execution is not a new idea:

http://phrack.org/issues/52/6.html#article

| A trusted path is one that is inside a root owned directory that
| is not group or world writable. /bin, /usr/bin, /usr/local/bin, are
| (under normal circumstances) considered trusted. Any non-root
| users home directory is not trusted, nor is /tmp.

To be clear, Trusted Path Execution is no replacement for a MAC system
like SELinux, SMACK, or AppArmor. This LSM is designed to be good enough
without requiring a userland utility to configure policies. The fact
that TPE only requires the user to turn on a few sysctl options lowers
the barrier to implementing a security framework substantially.

Threat Models:

1. Attacker on system executing exploit on system vulnerability

* If attacker uses a binary as a part of their system exploit, TPE can
frustrate their efforts

* This protection can be more effective when an attacker does not yet
have an interactive shell on a system

* Issues:
* Can be bypassed by interpreted languages such as python. You can run
malicious code by doing: python -c 'evil code'

2. Attacker on system replaces binary used by a privileged user with a
malicious one

* This situation arises when the administrator of a system leaves a
binary as world writable.

* TPE is very effective against this threat model

This Trusted Path Execution implementation introduces the following
Kconfig options and sysctls. The Kconfig text and sysctl options are
taken heavily from Brad Spengler's implementation. Some extra sysctl
options were taken from Corey Henderson's implementation.

CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE (sysctl=kernel.tpe.enabled)

default: n

This option enables Trusted Path Execution. TPE blocks *untrusted*
users from executing files that meet the following conditions:

* file is not in a root-owned directory
* file is writable by a user other than root

NOTE: By default root is not restricted by TPE.

CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE_GID (sysctl=kernel.tpe.gid)

default: 0

This option defines a group id that, by default, is the trusted group.
If a user is not trusted then it has the checks described in
CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE applied. Otherwise, the user is trusted and the
checks are not applied. You can disable the trusted gid option by
setting it to 0. This makes all non-root users untrusted.

CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE_STRICT (sysctl=kernel.tpe.strict)

default: n

This option applies another set of restrictions to all non-root users
even if they are trusted. This only allows execution under the
following conditions:

* file is in a directory owned by the user that is not group or
world-writable
* file is in a directory owned by root and writable only by root

CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE_RESTRICT_ROOT (sysctl=kernel.tpe.restrict_root)

default: n

This option applies all enabled TPE restrictions to root.

CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE_INVERT_GID (sysctl=kernel.tpe.invert_gid)

default: n

This option reverses the trust logic of the gid option and makes
kernel.tpe.gid into the untrusted group. This means that all other groups
become trusted. This sysctl is helpful when you want TPE restrictions
to be limited to a small subset of users.

Signed-off-by: Matt Brown <matt@nmatt.com>
---
Documentation/security/tpe.txt | 59 +++++++++++
MAINTAINERS | 5 +
include/linux/lsm_hooks.h | 5 +
security/Kconfig | 1 +
security/Makefile | 2 +
security/security.c | 1 +
security/tpe/Kconfig | 64 ++++++++++++
security/tpe/Makefile | 3 +
security/tpe/tpe_lsm.c | 218 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
9 files changed, 358 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 Documentation/security/tpe.txt
create mode 100644 security/tpe/Kconfig
create mode 100644 security/tpe/Makefile
create mode 100644 security/tpe/tpe_lsm.c

diff --git a/Documentation/security/tpe.txt b/Documentation/security/tpe.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..226afcc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/security/tpe.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,59 @@
+Trusted Path Execution is a Linux Security Module that generally requires
+programs to be run from a trusted path. A trusted path is one that is owned by
+root and is not group/world writable. This prevents an attacker from executing
+their own malicious binaries from an unprivileged user on the system. This
+feature is enabled with CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE. When enabled, a set of sysctls
+are created in /proc/sys/kernel/tpe.
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Trusted Path Execution introduces the following Kconfig options and sysctls.
+
+CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE (sysctl=kernel.tpe.enabled)
+
+default: n
+
+This option enables Trusted Path Execution. TPE blocks *untrusted*
+users from executing files that meet the following conditions:
+
+* file is not in a root-owned directory
+* file is writable by a user other than root
+
+NOTE: By default root is not restricted by TPE.
+
+CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE_GID (sysctl=kernel.tpe.gid)
+
+default: 0
+
+This option defines a group id that, by default, is the trusted group.
+If a user is not trusted then it has the checks described in
+CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE applied. Otherwise, the user is trusted and the
+checks are not applied. You can disable the trusted gid option by
+setting it to 0. This makes all non-root users untrusted.
+
+CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE_STRICT (sysctl=kernel.tpe.strict)
+
+default: n
+
+This option applies another set of restrictions to all non-root users
+even if they are trusted. This only allows execution under the
+following conditions:
+
+* file is in a directory owned by the user that is not group or
+ world-writable
+* file is in a directory owned by root and writable only by root
+
+CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE_RESTRICT_ROOT (sysctl=kernel.tpe.restrict_root)
+
+default: n
+
+This option applies TPE restrictions to root.
+
+CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE_INVERT_GID (sysctl=kernel.tpe.invert_gid)
+
+default: n
+
+This option reverses the trust logic of the gid option and makes
+kernel.tpe.gid into the untrusted group. This means that all other groups
+become trusted. This sysctl is helpful when you want TPE restrictions
+to be limited to a small subset of users.
diff --git a/MAINTAINERS b/MAINTAINERS
index 9e98464..67e10c8 100644
--- a/MAINTAINERS
+++ b/MAINTAINERS
@@ -11574,6 +11574,11 @@ T: git git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/kees/linux.git yama/tip
S: Supported
F: security/yama/

+TPE SECURITY MODULE
+M: Matt Brown <matt@nmatt.com>
+S: Supported
+F: security/tpe/
+
SENSABLE PHANTOM
M: Jiri Slaby <jirislaby@gmail.com>
S: Maintained
diff --git a/include/linux/lsm_hooks.h b/include/linux/lsm_hooks.h
index 080f34e..4c165ce 100644
--- a/include/linux/lsm_hooks.h
+++ b/include/linux/lsm_hooks.h
@@ -1946,5 +1946,10 @@ void __init loadpin_add_hooks(void);
#else
static inline void loadpin_add_hooks(void) { };
#endif
+#ifdef CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE
+void __init tpe_add_hooks(void);
+#else
+static inline void tpe_add_hooks(void) { };
+#endif

#endif /* ! __LINUX_LSM_HOOKS_H */
diff --git a/security/Kconfig b/security/Kconfig
index bdcbb92..58c4216 100644
--- a/security/Kconfig
+++ b/security/Kconfig
@@ -195,6 +195,7 @@ source security/tomoyo/Kconfig
source security/apparmor/Kconfig
source security/loadpin/Kconfig
source security/yama/Kconfig
+source security/tpe/Kconfig

source security/integrity/Kconfig

diff --git a/security/Makefile b/security/Makefile
index f2d71cd..f8b5197 100644
--- a/security/Makefile
+++ b/security/Makefile
@@ -9,6 +9,7 @@ subdir-$(CONFIG_SECURITY_TOMOYO) += tomoyo
subdir-$(CONFIG_SECURITY_APPARMOR) += apparmor
subdir-$(CONFIG_SECURITY_YAMA) += yama
subdir-$(CONFIG_SECURITY_LOADPIN) += loadpin
+subdir-$(CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE) += tpe

# always enable default capabilities
obj-y += commoncap.o
@@ -24,6 +25,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_SECURITY_TOMOYO) += tomoyo/
obj-$(CONFIG_SECURITY_APPARMOR) += apparmor/
obj-$(CONFIG_SECURITY_YAMA) += yama/
obj-$(CONFIG_SECURITY_LOADPIN) += loadpin/
+obj-$(CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE) += tpe/
obj-$(CONFIG_CGROUP_DEVICE) += device_cgroup.o

# Object integrity file lists
diff --git a/security/security.c b/security/security.c
index 38316bb..36137a3 100644
--- a/security/security.c
+++ b/security/security.c
@@ -70,6 +70,7 @@ int __init security_init(void)
capability_add_hooks();
yama_add_hooks();
loadpin_add_hooks();
+ tpe_add_hooks();

/*
* Load all the remaining security modules.
diff --git a/security/tpe/Kconfig b/security/tpe/Kconfig
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a1b8f17
--- /dev/null
+++ b/security/tpe/Kconfig
@@ -0,0 +1,64 @@
+config SECURITY_TPE
+ bool "Trusted Path Execution (TPE)"
+ default n
+ help
+ If you say Y here, you will be able to choose a gid to add to the
+ supplementary groups of users you want to mark as "trusted."
+ Untrusted users will not be able to execute any files that are not in
+ root-owned directories writable only by root. If the sysctl option
+ is enabled, a sysctl option with name "tpe.enabled" is created.
+
+config SECURITY_TPE_GID
+ int
+ default SECURITY_TPE_TRUSTED_GID if (SECURITY_TPE && !SECURITY_TPE_INVERT_GID)
+ default SECURITY_TPE_UNTRUSTED_GID if (SECURITY_TPE && SECURITY_TPE_INVERT_GID)
+
+config SECURITY_TPE_TRUSTED_GID
+ int "GID for TPE-trusted users"
+ depends on SECURITY_TPE && !SECURITY_TPE_INVERT_GID
+ default 0
+ help
+ Setting this GID determines what group TPE restrictions will be
+ *disabled* for. If the sysctl option is enabled, a sysctl option
+ with name "tpe.gid" is created.
+
+config SECURITY_TPE_UNTRUSTED_GID
+ int "GID for TPE-untrusted users"
+ depends on SECURITY_TPE && SECURITY_TPE_INVERT_GID
+ default 0
+ help
+ Setting this GID determines what group TPE restrictions will be
+ *enabled* for. If the sysctl option is enabled, a sysctl option
+ with name "tpe.gid" is created.
+
+config SECURITY_TPE_INVERT_GID
+ bool "Invert GID option"
+ depends on SECURITY_TPE
+ help
+ If you say Y here, the group you specify in the TPE configuration will
+ decide what group TPE restrictions will be *enabled* for. This
+ option is useful if you want TPE restrictions to be restricted to a
+ small subset of users. If the sysctl option is enabled, a sysctl option
+ with name "tpe.invert_gid" is created.
+
+config SECURITY_TPE_STRICT
+ bool "Partially restrict all non-root users"
+ depends on SECURITY_TPE
+ help
+ If you say Y here, all non-root users will be covered under
+ a weaker TPE restriction. This is separate from, and in addition to,
+ the main TPE options that you have selected elsewhere. Thus, if a
+ "trusted" GID is chosen, this restriction applies to even that GID.
+ Under this restriction, all non-root users will only be allowed to
+ execute files in directories they own that are not group or
+ world-writable, or in directories owned by root and writable only by
+ root. If the sysctl option is enabled, a sysctl option with name
+ "tpe.strict" is created.
+
+config SECURITY_TPE_RESTRICT_ROOT
+ bool "Restrict root"
+ depends on SECURITY_TPE
+ help
+ If you say Y here, root will be marked as untrusted. This will require
+ root to pass all the same checks as any other untrusted user.
+
diff --git a/security/tpe/Makefile b/security/tpe/Makefile
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e1bd8ef
--- /dev/null
+++ b/security/tpe/Makefile
@@ -0,0 +1,3 @@
+obj-$(CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE) := tpe_lsm.o
+
+tpe-y := tpe_lsm.o
diff --git a/security/tpe/tpe_lsm.c b/security/tpe/tpe_lsm.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fda811a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/security/tpe/tpe_lsm.c
@@ -0,0 +1,218 @@
+/*
+ * Trusted Path Execution Security Module
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2017 Matt Brown
+ * Copyright (C) 2001-2014 Bradley Spengler, Open Source Security, Inc.
+ * http://www.grsecurity.net spender@grsecurity.net
+ * Copyright (C) 2011 Corey Henderson
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
+ * modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2
+ * as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ */
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/uidgid.h>
+#include <linux/ratelimit.h>
+#include <linux/limits.h>
+#include <linux/cred.h>
+#include <linux/slab.h>
+#include <linux/lsm_hooks.h>
+#include <linux/sysctl.h>
+#include <linux/binfmts.h>
+#include <linux/string_helpers.h>
+#include <linux/dcache.h>
+#include <uapi/asm-generic/mman-common.h>
+
+#define global_root(x) uid_eq((x), GLOBAL_ROOT_UID)
+#define global_nonroot(x) (!uid_eq((x), GLOBAL_ROOT_UID))
+#define global_root_gid(x) (gid_eq((x), GLOBAL_ROOT_GID))
+#define global_nonroot_gid(x) (!gid_eq((x), GLOBAL_ROOT_GID))
+
+static int tpe_enabled __read_mostly = IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE);
+static kgid_t tpe_gid __read_mostly = KGIDT_INIT(CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE_GID);
+static int tpe_invert_gid __read_mostly =
+ IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE_INVERT_GID);
+static int tpe_strict __read_mostly = IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE_STRICT);
+static int tpe_restrict_root __read_mostly =
+ IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_SECURITY_TPE_RESTRICT_ROOT);
+
+int print_tpe_error(struct file *file, char *reason1, char *reason2,
+ char *method)
+{
+ char *filepath;
+
+ filepath = kstrdup_quotable_file(file, GFP_KERNEL);
+
+ if (!filepath)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ pr_warn_ratelimited("TPE: Denied %s of %s Reason: %s%s%s\n", method,
+ (IS_ERR(filepath) ? "failed fetching file path" : filepath),
+ reason1, reason2 ? " and " : "", reason2 ?: "");
+ kfree(filepath);
+ return -EPERM;
+}
+
+static int tpe_check(struct file *file, char *method)
+{
+ struct inode *inode;
+ struct inode *file_inode;
+ struct dentry *dir;
+ const struct cred *cred = current_cred();
+ char *reason1 = NULL;
+ char *reason2 = NULL;
+
+ dir = dget_parent(file->f_path.dentry);
+ inode = d_backing_inode(dir);
+ file_inode = d_backing_inode(file->f_path.dentry);
+
+ if (!tpe_enabled)
+ return 0;
+
+ /* never restrict root unless restrict_root sysctl is 1*/
+ if (global_root(cred->uid) && !tpe_restrict_root)
+ return 0;
+
+ if (!tpe_strict)
+ goto general_tpe_check;
+
+ /* TPE_STRICT: restrictions enforced even if the gid is trusted */
+ if (global_nonroot(inode->i_uid) && !uid_eq(inode->i_uid, cred->uid))
+ reason1 = "directory not owned by user";
+ else if (inode->i_mode & 0002)
+ reason1 = "file in world-writable directory";
+ else if ((inode->i_mode & 0020) && global_nonroot_gid(inode->i_gid))
+ reason1 = "file in group-writable directory";
+ else if (file_inode->i_mode & 0002)
+ reason1 = "file is world-writable";
+
+ if (reason1)
+ goto end;
+
+general_tpe_check:
+ /* determine if group is trusted */
+ if (global_root_gid(tpe_gid))
+ goto next_check;
+ if (!tpe_invert_gid && !in_group_p(tpe_gid))
+ reason2 = "not in trusted group";
+ else if (tpe_invert_gid && in_group_p(tpe_gid))
+ reason2 = "in untrusted group";
+ else
+ return 0;
+
+next_check:
+ /* main TPE checks */
+ if (global_nonroot(inode->i_uid))
+ reason1 = "file in non-root-owned directory";
+ else if (inode->i_mode & 0002)
+ reason1 = "file in world-writable directory";
+ else if ((inode->i_mode & 0020) && global_nonroot_gid(inode->i_gid))
+ reason1 = "file in group-writable directory";
+ else if (file_inode->i_mode & 0002)
+ reason1 = "file is world-writable";
+
+end:
+ dput(dir);
+ if (reason1)
+ return print_tpe_error(file, reason1, reason2, method);
+ else
+ return 0;
+}
+
+int tpe_mmap_file(struct file *file, unsigned long reqprot,
+ unsigned long prot, unsigned long flags)
+{
+ if (!file || !(prot & PROT_EXEC))
+ return 0;
+
+ return tpe_check(file, "mmap");
+}
+
+int tpe_file_mprotect(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long reqprot,
+ unsigned long prot)
+{
+ if (!vma->vm_file)
+ return 0;
+ return tpe_check(vma->vm_file, "mprotect");
+}
+
+static int tpe_bprm_set_creds(struct linux_binprm *bprm)
+{
+ if (!bprm->file)
+ return 0;
+ return tpe_check(bprm->file, "exec");
+
+}
+
+static struct security_hook_list tpe_hooks[] = {
+ LSM_HOOK_INIT(mmap_file, tpe_mmap_file),
+ LSM_HOOK_INIT(file_mprotect, tpe_file_mprotect),
+ LSM_HOOK_INIT(bprm_set_creds, tpe_bprm_set_creds),
+};
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_SYSCTL
+struct ctl_path tpe_sysctl_path[] = {
+ { .procname = "kernel", },
+ { .procname = "tpe", },
+ { }
+};
+
+static struct ctl_table tpe_sysctl_table[] = {
+ {
+ .procname = "enabled",
+ .data = &tpe_enabled,
+ .maxlen = sizeof(int),
+ .mode = 0600,
+ .proc_handler = proc_dointvec,
+ },
+ {
+ .procname = "gid",
+ .data = &tpe_gid,
+ .maxlen = sizeof(int),
+ .mode = 0600,
+ .proc_handler = proc_dointvec,
+ },
+ {
+ .procname = "invert_gid",
+ .data = &tpe_invert_gid,
+ .maxlen = sizeof(int),
+ .mode = 0600,
+ .proc_handler = proc_dointvec,
+ },
+ {
+ .procname = "strict",
+ .data = &tpe_strict,
+ .maxlen = sizeof(int),
+ .mode = 0600,
+ .proc_handler = proc_dointvec,
+ },
+ {
+ .procname = "restrict_root",
+ .data = &tpe_restrict_root,
+ .maxlen = sizeof(int),
+ .mode = 0600,
+ .proc_handler = proc_dointvec,
+ },
+ { }
+};
+static void __init tpe_init_sysctl(void)
+{
+ if (!register_sysctl_paths(tpe_sysctl_path, tpe_sysctl_table))
+ panic("TPE: sysctl registration failed.\n");
+}
+#else
+static inline void tpe_init_sysctl(void) { }
+#endif /* CONFIG_SYSCTL */
+
+void __init tpe_add_hooks(void)
+{
+ pr_info("TPE: securing systems like it's 1998\n");
+ security_add_hooks(tpe_hooks, ARRAY_SIZE(tpe_hooks), "tpe");
+ tpe_init_sysctl();
+}
--
2.10.2
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