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Subject[PATCH 3.12 86/86] ftrace/x86: Fix triple fault with graph tracing and suspend-to-ram
From: Josh Poimboeuf <>

3.12-stable review patch. If anyone has any objections, please let me know.


commit 34a477e5297cbaa6ecc6e17c042a866e1cbe80d6 upstream.

On x86-32, with CONFIG_FIRMWARE and multiple CPUs, if you enable function
graph tracing and then suspend to RAM, it will triple fault and reboot when
it resumes.

The first fault happens when booting a secondary CPU:

(accesses 'kill_ftrace_graph')

The early head_32.S code calls into load_ucode_ap(), which has an an
ftrace hook, so it calls prepare_ftrace_return(), which calls
ftrace_graph_is_dead(), which tries to access the global
'kill_ftrace_graph' variable with a virtual address, causing a fault
because the CPU is still in real mode.

The fix is to add a check in prepare_ftrace_return() to make sure it's
running in protected mode before continuing. The check makes sure the
stack pointer is a virtual kernel address. It's a bit of a hack, but
it's not very intrusive and it works well enough.

For reference, here are a few other (more difficult) ways this could
have potentially been fixed:

- Move startup_32_smp()'s call to load_ucode_ap() down to *after* paging
is enabled. (No idea what that would break.)

- Track down load_ucode_ap()'s entire callee tree and mark all the
functions 'notrace'. (Probably not realistic.)

- Pause graph tracing in ftrace_suspend_notifier_call() or bringup_cpu()
or __cpu_up(), and ensure that the pause facility can be queried from
real mode.

Reported-by: Paul Menzel <>
Signed-off-by: Josh Poimboeuf <>
Tested-by: Paul Menzel <>
Reviewed-by: Steven Rostedt (VMware) <>
Cc: "Rafael J . Wysocki" <>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <>
Cc: Len Brown <>
Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <>
Signed-off-by: Jiri Slaby <>
arch/x86/kernel/ftrace.c | 12 ++++++++++++
1 file changed, 12 insertions(+)

diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/ftrace.c b/arch/x86/kernel/ftrace.c
index f8ab203fb676..b8162154e615 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/ftrace.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/ftrace.c
@@ -735,6 +735,18 @@ void prepare_ftrace_return(unsigned long *parent, unsigned long self_addr,
unsigned long return_hooker = (unsigned long)

+ /*
+ * When resuming from suspend-to-ram, this function can be indirectly
+ * called from early CPU startup code while the CPU is in real mode,
+ * which would fail miserably. Make sure the stack pointer is a
+ * virtual address.
+ *
+ * This check isn't as accurate as virt_addr_valid(), but it should be
+ * good enough for this purpose, and it's fast.
+ */
+ if (unlikely((long)__builtin_frame_address(0) >= 0))
+ return;
if (unlikely(atomic_read(&current->tracing_graph_pause)))

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