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Subject[PATCH V4 10/16] block, bfq: add Early Queue Merge (EQM)
Date
From: Arianna Avanzini <avanzini.arianna@gmail.com>

A set of processes may happen to perform interleaved reads, i.e.,
read requests whose union would give rise to a sequential read pattern.
There are two typical cases: first, processes reading fixed-size chunks
of data at a fixed distance from each other; second, processes reading
variable-size chunks at variable distances. The latter case occurs for
example with QEMU, which splits the I/O generated by a guest into
multiple chunks, and lets these chunks be served by a pool of I/O
threads, iteratively assigning the next chunk of I/O to the first
available thread. CFQ denotes as 'cooperating' a set of processes that
are doing interleaved I/O, and when it detects cooperating processes,
it merges their queues to obtain a sequential I/O pattern from the union
of their I/O requests, and hence boost the throughput.

Unfortunately, in the following frequent case, the mechanism
implemented in CFQ for detecting cooperating processes and merging
their queues is not responsive enough to handle also the fluctuating
I/O pattern of the second type of processes. Suppose that one process
of the second type issues a request close to the next request to serve
of another process of the same type. At that time the two processes
would be considered as cooperating. But, if the request issued by the
first process is to be merged with some other already-queued request,
then, from the moment at which this request arrives, to the moment
when CFQ controls whether the two processes are cooperating, the two
processes are likely to be already doing I/O in distant zones of the
disk surface or device memory.

CFQ uses however preemption to get a sequential read pattern out of
the read requests performed by the second type of processes too. As a
consequence, CFQ uses two different mechanisms to achieve the same
goal: boosting the throughput with interleaved I/O.

This patch introduces Early Queue Merge (EQM), a unified mechanism to
get a sequential read pattern with both types of processes. The main
idea is to immediately check whether a newly-arrived request lets some
pair of processes become cooperating, both in the case of actual
request insertion and, to be responsive with the second type of
processes, in the case of request merge. Both types of processes are
then handled by just merging their queues.

Signed-off-by: Arianna Avanzini <avanzini.arianna@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Mauro Andreolini <mauro.andreolini@unimore.it>
Signed-off-by: Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@linaro.org>
---
block/bfq-iosched.c | 881 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---
1 file changed, 840 insertions(+), 41 deletions(-)

diff --git a/block/bfq-iosched.c b/block/bfq-iosched.c
index deb1f21c..6e7388a 100644
--- a/block/bfq-iosched.c
+++ b/block/bfq-iosched.c
@@ -281,11 +281,12 @@ struct bfq_ttime {
* struct bfq_queue - leaf schedulable entity.
*
* A bfq_queue is a leaf request queue; it can be associated with an
- * io_context or more, if it is async. @cgroup holds a reference to
- * the cgroup, to be sure that it does not disappear while a bfqq
- * still references it (mostly to avoid races between request issuing
- * and task migration followed by cgroup destruction). All the fields
- * are protected by the queue lock of the containing bfqd.
+ * io_context or more, if it is async or shared between cooperating
+ * processes. @cgroup holds a reference to the cgroup, to be sure that it
+ * does not disappear while a bfqq still references it (mostly to avoid
+ * races between request issuing and task migration followed by cgroup
+ * destruction).
+ * All the fields are protected by the queue lock of the containing bfqd.
*/
struct bfq_queue {
/* reference counter */
@@ -298,6 +299,16 @@ struct bfq_queue {
/* next ioprio and ioprio class if a change is in progress */
unsigned short new_ioprio, new_ioprio_class;

+ /*
+ * Shared bfq_queue if queue is cooperating with one or more
+ * other queues.
+ */
+ struct bfq_queue *new_bfqq;
+ /* request-position tree member (see bfq_group's @rq_pos_tree) */
+ struct rb_node pos_node;
+ /* request-position tree root (see bfq_group's @rq_pos_tree) */
+ struct rb_root *pos_root;
+
/* sorted list of pending requests */
struct rb_root sort_list;
/* if fifo isn't expired, next request to serve */
@@ -347,6 +358,12 @@ struct bfq_queue {
/* pid of the process owning the queue, used for logging purposes */
pid_t pid;

+ /*
+ * Pointer to the bfq_io_cq owning the bfq_queue, set to %NULL
+ * if the queue is shared.
+ */
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic;
+
/* current maximum weight-raising time for this queue */
unsigned long wr_cur_max_time;
/*
@@ -375,10 +392,13 @@ struct bfq_queue {
* last transition from idle to backlogged.
*/
unsigned long service_from_backlogged;
+
/*
* Value of wr start time when switching to soft rt
*/
unsigned long wr_start_at_switch_to_srt;
+
+ unsigned long split_time; /* time of last split */
};

/**
@@ -394,6 +414,26 @@ struct bfq_io_cq {
#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
uint64_t blkcg_serial_nr; /* the current blkcg serial */
#endif
+ /*
+ * Snapshot of the idle window before merging; taken to
+ * remember this value while the queue is merged, so as to be
+ * able to restore it in case of split.
+ */
+ bool saved_idle_window;
+ /*
+ * Same purpose as the previous two fields for the I/O bound
+ * classification of a queue.
+ */
+ bool saved_IO_bound;
+
+ /*
+ * Similar to previous fields: save wr information.
+ */
+ unsigned long saved_wr_coeff;
+ unsigned long saved_last_wr_start_finish;
+ unsigned long saved_wr_start_at_switch_to_srt;
+ unsigned int saved_wr_cur_max_time;
+ struct bfq_ttime saved_ttime;
};

enum bfq_device_speed {
@@ -584,6 +624,15 @@ struct bfq_data {
struct bfq_io_cq *bio_bic;
/* bfqq associated with the task issuing current bio for merging */
struct bfq_queue *bio_bfqq;
+
+ /*
+ * io context to put right after bfqd->lock is released. This
+ * filed is used to perform put_io_context, when needed, to
+ * after the scheduler lock has been released, and thus
+ * prevent an ioc->lock from being possibly taken while the
+ * scheduler lock is being held.
+ */
+ struct io_context *ioc_to_put;
};

enum bfqq_state_flags {
@@ -605,6 +654,8 @@ enum bfqq_state_flags {
* may need softrt-next-start
* update
*/
+ BFQQF_coop, /* bfqq is shared */
+ BFQQF_split_coop /* shared bfqq will be split */
};

#define BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(name) \
@@ -628,6 +679,8 @@ BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(fifo_expire);
BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(idle_window);
BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(sync);
BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(IO_bound);
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(coop);
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(split_coop);
BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(softrt_update);
#undef BFQ_BFQQ_FNS

@@ -738,6 +791,9 @@ struct bfq_group_data {
* to avoid too many special cases during group creation/
* migration.
* @stats: stats for this bfqg.
+ * @rq_pos_tree: rbtree sorted by next_request position, used when
+ * determining if two or more queues have interleaving
+ * requests (see bfq_find_close_cooperator()).
*
* Each (device, cgroup) pair has its own bfq_group, i.e., for each cgroup
* there is a set of bfq_groups, each one collecting the lower-level
@@ -762,6 +818,8 @@ struct bfq_group {

struct bfq_entity *my_entity;

+ struct rb_root rq_pos_tree;
+
struct bfqg_stats stats;
};

@@ -811,6 +869,27 @@ static struct bfq_data *bic_to_bfqd(struct bfq_io_cq *bic)
return bic->icq.q->elevator->elevator_data;
}

+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+
+static struct bfq_group *bfq_bfqq_to_bfqg(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct bfq_entity *group_entity = bfqq->entity.parent;
+
+ if (!group_entity)
+ group_entity = &bfqq->bfqd->root_group->entity;
+
+ return container_of(group_entity, struct bfq_group, entity);
+}
+
+#else
+
+static struct bfq_group *bfq_bfqq_to_bfqg(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ return bfqq->bfqd->root_group;
+}
+
+#endif
+
static void bfq_check_ioprio_change(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, struct bio *bio);
static void bfq_put_queue(struct bfq_queue *bfqq);
static struct bfq_queue *bfq_get_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
@@ -975,6 +1054,34 @@ static void bfq_schedule_dispatch(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
}
}

+/*
+ * Next two functions release bfqd->lock and put the io context
+ * pointed by bfqd->ioc_to_put. This delayed put is used to not risk
+ * to take an ioc->lock while the scheduler lock is being held.
+ */
+static void bfq_unlock_put_ioc(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ struct io_context *ioc_to_put = bfqd->ioc_to_put;
+
+ bfqd->ioc_to_put = NULL;
+ spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+
+ if (ioc_to_put)
+ put_io_context(ioc_to_put);
+}
+
+static void bfq_unlock_put_ioc_restore(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ unsigned long flags)
+{
+ struct io_context *ioc_to_put = bfqd->ioc_to_put;
+
+ bfqd->ioc_to_put = NULL;
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(&bfqd->lock, flags);
+
+ if (ioc_to_put)
+ put_io_context(ioc_to_put);
+}
+
/**
* bfq_gt - compare two timestamps.
* @a: first ts.
@@ -2425,7 +2532,14 @@ static void __bfq_bfqd_reset_in_service(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
struct bfq_entity *entity = in_serv_entity;

if (bfqd->in_service_bic) {
- put_io_context(bfqd->in_service_bic->icq.ioc);
+ /*
+ * Schedule the release of a reference to
+ * bfqd->in_service_bic->icq.ioc to right after the
+ * scheduler lock is released. This ioc is not
+ * released immediately, to not risk to possibly take
+ * an ioc->lock while holding the scheduler lock.
+ */
+ bfqd->ioc_to_put = bfqd->in_service_bic->icq.ioc;
bfqd->in_service_bic = NULL;
}

@@ -2914,6 +3028,7 @@ static void bfq_pd_init(struct blkg_policy_data *pd)
* in bfq_init_queue()
*/
bfqg->bfqd = bfqd;
+ bfqg->rq_pos_tree = RB_ROOT;
}

static void bfq_pd_free(struct blkg_policy_data *pd)
@@ -2982,6 +3097,8 @@ static struct bfq_group *bfq_find_set_group(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
return bfqg;
}

+static void bfq_pos_tree_add_move(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq);
static void bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
bool compensate,
@@ -3030,8 +3147,10 @@ static void bfq_bfqq_move(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
entity->sched_data = &bfqg->sched_data;
bfqg_get(bfqg);

- if (bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq))
+ if (bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq)) {
+ bfq_pos_tree_add_move(bfqd, bfqq);
bfq_activate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
+ }

if (!bfqd->in_service_queue && !bfqd->rq_in_driver)
bfq_schedule_dispatch(bfqd);
@@ -3071,8 +3190,7 @@ static struct bfq_group *__bfq_bic_change_cgroup(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
bic_set_bfqq(bic, NULL, 0);
bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, async_bfqq,
"bic_change_group: %p %d",
- async_bfqq,
- async_bfqq->ref);
+ async_bfqq, async_bfqq->ref);
bfq_put_queue(async_bfqq);
}
}
@@ -3214,7 +3332,7 @@ static void bfq_pd_offline(struct blkg_policy_data *pd)
__bfq_deactivate_entity(entity, false);
bfq_put_async_queues(bfqd, bfqg);

- spin_unlock_irqrestore(&bfqd->lock, flags);
+ bfq_unlock_put_ioc_restore(bfqd, flags);
/*
* @blkg is going offline and will be ignored by
* blkg_[rw]stat_recursive_sum(). Transfer stats to the parent so
@@ -3731,6 +3849,72 @@ static struct request *bfq_choose_req(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
}
}

+static struct bfq_queue *
+bfq_rq_pos_tree_lookup(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct rb_root *root,
+ sector_t sector, struct rb_node **ret_parent,
+ struct rb_node ***rb_link)
+{
+ struct rb_node **p, *parent;
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = NULL;
+
+ parent = NULL;
+ p = &root->rb_node;
+ while (*p) {
+ struct rb_node **n;
+
+ parent = *p;
+ bfqq = rb_entry(parent, struct bfq_queue, pos_node);
+
+ /*
+ * Sort strictly based on sector. Smallest to the left,
+ * largest to the right.
+ */
+ if (sector > blk_rq_pos(bfqq->next_rq))
+ n = &(*p)->rb_right;
+ else if (sector < blk_rq_pos(bfqq->next_rq))
+ n = &(*p)->rb_left;
+ else
+ break;
+ p = n;
+ bfqq = NULL;
+ }
+
+ *ret_parent = parent;
+ if (rb_link)
+ *rb_link = p;
+
+ bfq_log(bfqd, "rq_pos_tree_lookup %llu: returning %d",
+ (unsigned long long)sector,
+ bfqq ? bfqq->pid : 0);
+
+ return bfqq;
+}
+
+static void bfq_pos_tree_add_move(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct rb_node **p, *parent;
+ struct bfq_queue *__bfqq;
+
+ if (bfqq->pos_root) {
+ rb_erase(&bfqq->pos_node, bfqq->pos_root);
+ bfqq->pos_root = NULL;
+ }
+
+ if (bfq_class_idle(bfqq))
+ return;
+ if (!bfqq->next_rq)
+ return;
+
+ bfqq->pos_root = &bfq_bfqq_to_bfqg(bfqq)->rq_pos_tree;
+ __bfqq = bfq_rq_pos_tree_lookup(bfqd, bfqq->pos_root,
+ blk_rq_pos(bfqq->next_rq), &parent, &p);
+ if (!__bfqq) {
+ rb_link_node(&bfqq->pos_node, parent, p);
+ rb_insert_color(&bfqq->pos_node, bfqq->pos_root);
+ } else
+ bfqq->pos_root = NULL;
+}
+
/*
* Return expired entry, or NULL to just start from scratch in rbtree.
*/
@@ -3837,6 +4021,43 @@ static void bfq_updated_next_req(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
}
}

+static void
+bfq_bfqq_resume_state(struct bfq_queue *bfqq, struct bfq_io_cq *bic)
+{
+ if (bic->saved_idle_window)
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
+ else
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
+
+ if (bic->saved_IO_bound)
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
+ else
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
+
+ bfqq->ttime = bic->saved_ttime;
+ bfqq->wr_coeff = bic->saved_wr_coeff;
+ bfqq->wr_start_at_switch_to_srt = bic->saved_wr_start_at_switch_to_srt;
+ bfqq->last_wr_start_finish = bic->saved_last_wr_start_finish;
+ bfqq->wr_cur_max_time = bic->saved_wr_cur_max_time;
+
+ if (bfqq->wr_coeff > 1 &&
+ time_is_before_jiffies(bfqq->last_wr_start_finish +
+ bfqq->wr_cur_max_time)) {
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
+ "resume state: switching off wr");
+
+ bfqq->wr_coeff = 1;
+ }
+
+ /* make sure weight will be updated, however we got here */
+ bfqq->entity.prio_changed = 1;
+}
+
+static int bfqq_process_refs(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ return bfqq->ref - bfqq->allocated - bfqq->entity.on_st;
+}
+
static int bfq_bfqq_budget_left(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
{
struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
@@ -4157,14 +4378,16 @@ static void bfq_bfqq_handle_idle_busy_switch(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
/*
* bfqq deserves to be weight-raised if:
* - it is sync,
- * - it has been idle for enough time or is soft real-time.
+ * - it has been idle for enough time or is soft real-time,
+ * - is linked to a bfq_io_cq (it is not shared in any sense).
*/
soft_rt = bfqd->bfq_wr_max_softrt_rate > 0 &&
time_is_before_jiffies(bfqq->soft_rt_next_start);
*interactive = idle_for_long_time;
wr_or_deserves_wr = bfqd->low_latency &&
(bfqq->wr_coeff > 1 ||
- (bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) && (*interactive || soft_rt)));
+ (bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) &&
+ bfqq->bic && (*interactive || soft_rt)));

/*
* Using the last flag, update budget and check whether bfqq
@@ -4186,14 +4409,22 @@ static void bfq_bfqq_handle_idle_busy_switch(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
}

if (bfqd->low_latency) {
- bfq_update_bfqq_wr_on_rq_arrival(bfqd, bfqq,
- old_wr_coeff,
- wr_or_deserves_wr,
- *interactive,
- soft_rt);
-
- if (old_wr_coeff != bfqq->wr_coeff)
- bfqq->entity.prio_changed = 1;
+ if (unlikely(time_is_after_jiffies(bfqq->split_time)))
+ /* wraparound */
+ bfqq->split_time =
+ jiffies - bfqd->bfq_wr_min_idle_time - 1;
+
+ if (time_is_before_jiffies(bfqq->split_time +
+ bfqd->bfq_wr_min_idle_time)) {
+ bfq_update_bfqq_wr_on_rq_arrival(bfqd, bfqq,
+ old_wr_coeff,
+ wr_or_deserves_wr,
+ *interactive,
+ soft_rt);
+
+ if (old_wr_coeff != bfqq->wr_coeff)
+ bfqq->entity.prio_changed = 1;
+ }
}

bfqq->last_idle_bklogged = jiffies;
@@ -4240,6 +4471,12 @@ static void bfq_add_request(struct request *rq)
next_rq = bfq_choose_req(bfqd, bfqq->next_rq, rq, bfqd->last_position);
bfqq->next_rq = next_rq;

+ /*
+ * Adjust priority tree position, if next_rq changes.
+ */
+ if (prev != bfqq->next_rq)
+ bfq_pos_tree_add_move(bfqd, bfqq);
+
if (!bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq)) /* switching to busy ... */
bfq_bfqq_handle_idle_busy_switch(bfqd, bfqq, old_wr_coeff,
rq, &interactive);
@@ -4368,6 +4605,14 @@ static void bfq_remove_request(struct request_queue *q,
*/
bfqq->entity.budget = bfqq->entity.service = 0;
}
+
+ /*
+ * Remove queue from request-position tree as it is empty.
+ */
+ if (bfqq->pos_root) {
+ rb_erase(&bfqq->pos_node, bfqq->pos_root);
+ bfqq->pos_root = NULL;
+ }
}

if (rq->cmd_flags & REQ_META)
@@ -4445,11 +4690,14 @@ static void bfq_request_merged(struct request_queue *q, struct request *req,
bfqd->last_position);
bfqq->next_rq = next_rq;
/*
- * If next_rq changes, update the queue's budget to fit
- * the new request.
+ * If next_rq changes, update both the queue's budget to
+ * fit the new request and the queue's position in its
+ * rq_pos_tree.
*/
- if (prev != bfqq->next_rq)
+ if (prev != bfqq->next_rq) {
bfq_updated_next_req(bfqd, bfqq);
+ bfq_pos_tree_add_move(bfqd, bfqq);
+ }
}
}

@@ -4532,12 +4780,364 @@ static void bfq_end_wr(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
}

+static sector_t bfq_io_struct_pos(void *io_struct, bool request)
+{
+ if (request)
+ return blk_rq_pos(io_struct);
+ else
+ return ((struct bio *)io_struct)->bi_iter.bi_sector;
+}
+
+static int bfq_rq_close_to_sector(void *io_struct, bool request,
+ sector_t sector)
+{
+ return abs(bfq_io_struct_pos(io_struct, request) - sector) <=
+ BFQQ_CLOSE_THR;
+}
+
+static struct bfq_queue *bfqq_find_close(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ sector_t sector)
+{
+ struct rb_root *root = &bfq_bfqq_to_bfqg(bfqq)->rq_pos_tree;
+ struct rb_node *parent, *node;
+ struct bfq_queue *__bfqq;
+
+ if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(root))
+ return NULL;
+
+ /*
+ * First, if we find a request starting at the end of the last
+ * request, choose it.
+ */
+ __bfqq = bfq_rq_pos_tree_lookup(bfqd, root, sector, &parent, NULL);
+ if (__bfqq)
+ return __bfqq;
+
+ /*
+ * If the exact sector wasn't found, the parent of the NULL leaf
+ * will contain the closest sector (rq_pos_tree sorted by
+ * next_request position).
+ */
+ __bfqq = rb_entry(parent, struct bfq_queue, pos_node);
+ if (bfq_rq_close_to_sector(__bfqq->next_rq, true, sector))
+ return __bfqq;
+
+ if (blk_rq_pos(__bfqq->next_rq) < sector)
+ node = rb_next(&__bfqq->pos_node);
+ else
+ node = rb_prev(&__bfqq->pos_node);
+ if (!node)
+ return NULL;
+
+ __bfqq = rb_entry(node, struct bfq_queue, pos_node);
+ if (bfq_rq_close_to_sector(__bfqq->next_rq, true, sector))
+ return __bfqq;
+
+ return NULL;
+}
+
+static struct bfq_queue *bfq_find_close_cooperator(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_queue *cur_bfqq,
+ sector_t sector)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
+
+ /*
+ * We shall notice if some of the queues are cooperating,
+ * e.g., working closely on the same area of the device. In
+ * that case, we can group them together and: 1) don't waste
+ * time idling, and 2) serve the union of their requests in
+ * the best possible order for throughput.
+ */
+ bfqq = bfqq_find_close(bfqd, cur_bfqq, sector);
+ if (!bfqq || bfqq == cur_bfqq)
+ return NULL;
+
+ return bfqq;
+}
+
+static struct bfq_queue *
+bfq_setup_merge(struct bfq_queue *bfqq, struct bfq_queue *new_bfqq)
+{
+ int process_refs, new_process_refs;
+ struct bfq_queue *__bfqq;
+
+ /*
+ * If there are no process references on the new_bfqq, then it is
+ * unsafe to follow the ->new_bfqq chain as other bfqq's in the chain
+ * may have dropped their last reference (not just their last process
+ * reference).
+ */
+ if (!bfqq_process_refs(new_bfqq))
+ return NULL;
+
+ /* Avoid a circular list and skip interim queue merges. */
+ while ((__bfqq = new_bfqq->new_bfqq)) {
+ if (__bfqq == bfqq)
+ return NULL;
+ new_bfqq = __bfqq;
+ }
+
+ process_refs = bfqq_process_refs(bfqq);
+ new_process_refs = bfqq_process_refs(new_bfqq);
+ /*
+ * If the process for the bfqq has gone away, there is no
+ * sense in merging the queues.
+ */
+ if (process_refs == 0 || new_process_refs == 0)
+ return NULL;
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "scheduling merge with queue %d",
+ new_bfqq->pid);
+
+ /*
+ * Merging is just a redirection: the requests of the process
+ * owning one of the two queues are redirected to the other queue.
+ * The latter queue, in its turn, is set as shared if this is the
+ * first time that the requests of some process are redirected to
+ * it.
+ *
+ * We redirect bfqq to new_bfqq and not the opposite, because we
+ * are in the context of the process owning bfqq, hence we have
+ * the io_cq of this process. So we can immediately configure this
+ * io_cq to redirect the requests of the process to new_bfqq.
+ *
+ * NOTE, even if new_bfqq coincides with the in-service queue, the
+ * io_cq of new_bfqq is not available, because, if the in-service
+ * queue is shared, bfqd->in_service_bic may not point to the
+ * io_cq of the in-service queue.
+ * Redirecting the requests of the process owning bfqq to the
+ * currently in-service queue is in any case the best option, as
+ * we feed the in-service queue with new requests close to the
+ * last request served and, by doing so, hopefully increase the
+ * throughput.
+ */
+ bfqq->new_bfqq = new_bfqq;
+ new_bfqq->ref += process_refs;
+ return new_bfqq;
+}
+
+static bool bfq_may_be_close_cooperator(struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ struct bfq_queue *new_bfqq)
+{
+ if (bfq_class_idle(bfqq) || bfq_class_idle(new_bfqq) ||
+ (bfqq->ioprio_class != new_bfqq->ioprio_class))
+ return false;
+
+ /*
+ * If either of the queues has already been detected as seeky,
+ * then merging it with the other queue is unlikely to lead to
+ * sequential I/O.
+ */
+ if (BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq) || BFQQ_SEEKY(new_bfqq))
+ return false;
+
+ /*
+ * Interleaved I/O is known to be done by (some) applications
+ * only for reads, so it does not make sense to merge async
+ * queues.
+ */
+ if (!bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) || !bfq_bfqq_sync(new_bfqq))
+ return false;
+
+ return true;
+}
+
+/*
+ * If this function returns true, then bfqq cannot be merged. The idea
+ * is that true cooperation happens very early after processes start
+ * to do I/O. Usually, late cooperations are just accidental false
+ * positives. In case bfqq is weight-raised, such false positives
+ * would evidently degrade latency guarantees for bfqq.
+ */
+static bool wr_from_too_long(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ return bfqq->wr_coeff > 1 &&
+ time_is_before_jiffies(bfqq->last_wr_start_finish +
+ msecs_to_jiffies(100));
+}
+
+/*
+ * Attempt to schedule a merge of bfqq with the currently in-service
+ * queue or with a close queue among the scheduled queues. Return
+ * NULL if no merge was scheduled, a pointer to the shared bfq_queue
+ * structure otherwise.
+ *
+ * The OOM queue is not allowed to participate to cooperation: in fact, since
+ * the requests temporarily redirected to the OOM queue could be redirected
+ * again to dedicated queues at any time, the state needed to correctly
+ * handle merging with the OOM queue would be quite complex and expensive
+ * to maintain. Besides, in such a critical condition as an out of memory,
+ * the benefits of queue merging may be little relevant, or even negligible.
+ *
+ * Weight-raised queues can be merged only if their weight-raising
+ * period has just started. In fact cooperating processes are usually
+ * started together. Thus, with this filter we avoid false positives
+ * that would jeopardize low-latency guarantees.
+ *
+ * WARNING: queue merging may impair fairness among non-weight raised
+ * queues, for at least two reasons: 1) the original weight of a
+ * merged queue may change during the merged state, 2) even being the
+ * weight the same, a merged queue may be bloated with many more
+ * requests than the ones produced by its originally-associated
+ * process.
+ */
+static struct bfq_queue *
+bfq_setup_cooperator(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+ void *io_struct, bool request)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *in_service_bfqq, *new_bfqq;
+
+ if (bfqq->new_bfqq)
+ return bfqq->new_bfqq;
+
+ if (!io_struct ||
+ wr_from_too_long(bfqq) ||
+ unlikely(bfqq == &bfqd->oom_bfqq))
+ return NULL;
+
+ /* If there is only one backlogged queue, don't search. */
+ if (bfqd->busy_queues == 1)
+ return NULL;
+
+ in_service_bfqq = bfqd->in_service_queue;
+
+ if (!in_service_bfqq || in_service_bfqq == bfqq ||
+ !bfqd->in_service_bic || wr_from_too_long(in_service_bfqq) ||
+ unlikely(in_service_bfqq == &bfqd->oom_bfqq))
+ goto check_scheduled;
+
+ if (bfq_rq_close_to_sector(io_struct, request, bfqd->last_position) &&
+ bfqq->entity.parent == in_service_bfqq->entity.parent &&
+ bfq_may_be_close_cooperator(bfqq, in_service_bfqq)) {
+ new_bfqq = bfq_setup_merge(bfqq, in_service_bfqq);
+ if (new_bfqq)
+ return new_bfqq;
+ }
+ /*
+ * Check whether there is a cooperator among currently scheduled
+ * queues. The only thing we need is that the bio/request is not
+ * NULL, as we need it to establish whether a cooperator exists.
+ */
+check_scheduled:
+ new_bfqq = bfq_find_close_cooperator(bfqd, bfqq,
+ bfq_io_struct_pos(io_struct, request));
+
+ if (new_bfqq && !wr_from_too_long(new_bfqq) &&
+ likely(new_bfqq != &bfqd->oom_bfqq) &&
+ bfq_may_be_close_cooperator(bfqq, new_bfqq))
+ return bfq_setup_merge(bfqq, new_bfqq);
+
+ return NULL;
+}
+
+static void bfq_bfqq_save_state(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic = bfqq->bic;
+
+ /*
+ * If !bfqq->bic, the queue is already shared or its requests
+ * have already been redirected to a shared queue; both idle window
+ * and weight raising state have already been saved. Do nothing.
+ */
+ if (!bic)
+ return;
+
+ bic->saved_ttime = bfqq->ttime;
+ bic->saved_idle_window = bfq_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
+ bic->saved_IO_bound = bfq_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
+ bic->saved_wr_coeff = bfqq->wr_coeff;
+ bic->saved_wr_start_at_switch_to_srt = bfqq->wr_start_at_switch_to_srt;
+ bic->saved_last_wr_start_finish = bfqq->last_wr_start_finish;
+ bic->saved_wr_cur_max_time = bfqq->wr_cur_max_time;
+}
+
+static void bfq_get_bic_reference(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ /*
+ * If bfqq->bic has a non-NULL value, the bic to which it belongs
+ * is about to begin using a shared bfq_queue.
+ */
+ if (bfqq->bic)
+ atomic_long_inc(&bfqq->bic->icq.ioc->refcount);
+}
+
+static void
+bfq_merge_bfqqs(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_io_cq *bic,
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq, struct bfq_queue *new_bfqq)
+{
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "merging with queue %lu",
+ (unsigned long)new_bfqq->pid);
+ /* Save weight raising and idle window of the merged queues */
+ bfq_bfqq_save_state(bfqq);
+ bfq_bfqq_save_state(new_bfqq);
+ if (bfq_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq))
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_IO_bound(new_bfqq);
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
+
+ /*
+ * If bfqq is weight-raised, then let new_bfqq inherit
+ * weight-raising. To reduce false positives, neglect the case
+ * where bfqq has just been created, but has not yet made it
+ * to be weight-raised (which may happen because EQM may merge
+ * bfqq even before bfq_add_request is executed for the first
+ * time for bfqq).
+ */
+ if (new_bfqq->wr_coeff == 1 && bfqq->wr_coeff > 1) {
+ new_bfqq->wr_coeff = bfqq->wr_coeff;
+ new_bfqq->wr_cur_max_time = bfqq->wr_cur_max_time;
+ new_bfqq->last_wr_start_finish = bfqq->last_wr_start_finish;
+ new_bfqq->wr_start_at_switch_to_srt =
+ bfqq->wr_start_at_switch_to_srt;
+ if (bfq_bfqq_busy(new_bfqq))
+ bfqd->wr_busy_queues++;
+ new_bfqq->entity.prio_changed = 1;
+ }
+
+ if (bfqq->wr_coeff > 1) { /* bfqq has given its wr to new_bfqq */
+ bfqq->wr_coeff = 1;
+ bfqq->entity.prio_changed = 1;
+ if (bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq))
+ bfqd->wr_busy_queues--;
+ }
+
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, new_bfqq, "merge_bfqqs: wr_busy %d",
+ bfqd->wr_busy_queues);
+
+ /*
+ * Grab a reference to the bic, to prevent it from being destroyed
+ * before being possibly touched by a bfq_split_bfqq().
+ */
+ bfq_get_bic_reference(bfqq);
+ bfq_get_bic_reference(new_bfqq);
+ /*
+ * Merge queues (that is, let bic redirect its requests to new_bfqq)
+ */
+ bic_set_bfqq(bic, new_bfqq, 1);
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_coop(new_bfqq);
+ /*
+ * new_bfqq now belongs to at least two bics (it is a shared queue):
+ * set new_bfqq->bic to NULL. bfqq either:
+ * - does not belong to any bic any more, and hence bfqq->bic must
+ * be set to NULL, or
+ * - is a queue whose owning bics have already been redirected to a
+ * different queue, hence the queue is destined to not belong to
+ * any bic soon and bfqq->bic is already NULL (therefore the next
+ * assignment causes no harm).
+ */
+ new_bfqq->bic = NULL;
+ bfqq->bic = NULL;
+ /* release process reference to bfqq */
+ bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
+}
+
static bool bfq_allow_bio_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
struct bio *bio)
{
struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
bool is_sync = op_is_sync(bio->bi_opf);
- struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfqd->bio_bfqq;
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfqd->bio_bfqq, *new_bfqq;

/*
* Disallow merge of a sync bio into an async request.
@@ -4552,6 +5152,37 @@ static bool bfq_allow_bio_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
if (!bfqq)
return false;

+ /*
+ * We take advantage of this function to perform an early merge
+ * of the queues of possible cooperating processes.
+ */
+ new_bfqq = bfq_setup_cooperator(bfqd, bfqq, bio, false);
+ if (new_bfqq) {
+ /*
+ * bic still points to bfqq, then it has not yet been
+ * redirected to some other bfq_queue, and a queue
+ * merge beween bfqq and new_bfqq can be safely
+ * fulfillled, i.e., bic can be redirected to new_bfqq
+ * and bfqq can be put.
+ */
+ bfq_merge_bfqqs(bfqd, bfqd->bio_bic, bfqq,
+ new_bfqq);
+ /*
+ * If we get here, bio will be queued into new_queue,
+ * so use new_bfqq to decide whether bio and rq can be
+ * merged.
+ */
+ bfqq = new_bfqq;
+
+ /*
+ * Change also bqfd->bio_bfqq, as
+ * bfqd->bio_bic now points to new_bfqq, and
+ * this function may be invoked again (and then may
+ * use again bqfd->bio_bfqq).
+ */
+ bfqd->bio_bfqq = bfqq;
+ }
+
return bfqq == RQ_BFQQ(rq);
}

@@ -4959,6 +5590,15 @@ static void bfq_dispatch_remove(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)

static void __bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
{
+ /*
+ * If this bfqq is shared between multiple processes, check
+ * to make sure that those processes are still issuing I/Os
+ * within the mean seek distance. If not, it may be time to
+ * break the queues apart again.
+ */
+ if (bfq_bfqq_coop(bfqq) && BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq))
+ bfq_mark_bfqq_split_coop(bfqq);
+
if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list)) {
if (bfqq->dispatched == 0)
/*
@@ -4970,8 +5610,13 @@ static void __bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
bfqq->budget_timeout = jiffies;

bfq_del_bfqq_busy(bfqd, bfqq, true);
- } else
+ } else {
bfq_requeue_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
+ /*
+ * Resort priority tree of potential close cooperators.
+ */
+ bfq_pos_tree_add_move(bfqd, bfqq);
+ }

/*
* All in-service entities must have been properly deactivated
@@ -5792,8 +6437,7 @@ static void bfq_update_wr_data(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)

/*
* If too much time has elapsed from the beginning of
- * this weight-raising period, then end weight
- * raising.
+ * this weight-raising period, then end weight raising.
*/
if (time_is_before_jiffies(bfqq->last_wr_start_finish +
bfqq->wr_cur_max_time)) {
@@ -5969,8 +6613,9 @@ static struct request *bfq_dispatch_request(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx)
struct request *rq;

spin_lock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+
rq = __bfq_dispatch_request(hctx);
- spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+ bfq_unlock_put_ioc(bfqd);

return rq;
}
@@ -6004,6 +6649,25 @@ static void bfq_put_queue(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
#endif
}

+static void bfq_put_cooperator(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *__bfqq, *next;
+
+ /*
+ * If this queue was scheduled to merge with another queue, be
+ * sure to drop the reference taken on that queue (and others in
+ * the merge chain). See bfq_setup_merge and bfq_merge_bfqqs.
+ */
+ __bfqq = bfqq->new_bfqq;
+ while (__bfqq) {
+ if (__bfqq == bfqq)
+ break;
+ next = __bfqq->new_bfqq;
+ bfq_put_queue(__bfqq);
+ __bfqq = next;
+ }
+}
+
static void bfq_exit_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
{
if (bfqq == bfqd->in_service_queue) {
@@ -6013,6 +6677,8 @@ static void bfq_exit_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)

bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "exit_bfqq: %p, %d", bfqq, bfqq->ref);

+ bfq_put_cooperator(bfqq);
+
bfq_put_queue(bfqq); /* release process reference */
}

@@ -6028,9 +6694,20 @@ static void bfq_exit_icq_bfqq(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, bool is_sync)
unsigned long flags;

spin_lock_irqsave(&bfqd->lock, flags);
+ /*
+ * If the bic is using a shared queue, put the
+ * reference taken on the io_context when the bic
+ * started using a shared bfq_queue. This put cannot
+ * make ioc->ref_count reach 0, then no ioc->lock
+ * risks to be taken (leading to possible deadlock
+ * scenarios).
+ */
+ if (is_sync && bfq_bfqq_coop(bfqq))
+ put_io_context(bic->icq.ioc);
+
bfq_exit_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
bic_set_bfqq(bic, NULL, is_sync);
- spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+ bfq_unlock_put_ioc_restore(bfqd, flags);
}
}

@@ -6152,8 +6829,9 @@ static void bfq_init_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
bfqq->budget_timeout = bfq_smallest_from_now();

bfqq->wr_coeff = 1;
- bfqq->last_wr_start_finish = bfq_smallest_from_now();
+ bfqq->last_wr_start_finish = jiffies;
bfqq->wr_start_at_switch_to_srt = bfq_smallest_from_now();
+ bfqq->split_time = bfq_smallest_from_now();

/*
* Set to the value for which bfqq will not be deemed as
@@ -6288,6 +6966,11 @@ static void bfq_update_idle_window(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
if (!bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) || bfq_class_idle(bfqq))
return;

+ /* Idle window just restored, statistics are meaningless. */
+ if (time_is_after_eq_jiffies(bfqq->split_time +
+ bfqd->bfq_wr_min_idle_time))
+ return;
+
enable_idle = bfq_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);

if (atomic_read(&bic->icq.ioc->active_ref) == 0 ||
@@ -6383,7 +7066,38 @@ static void bfq_rq_enqueued(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,

static void __bfq_insert_request(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct request *rq)
{
- struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq);
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq),
+ *new_bfqq = bfq_setup_cooperator(bfqd, bfqq, rq, true);
+
+ if (new_bfqq) {
+ if (bic_to_bfqq(RQ_BIC(rq), 1) != bfqq)
+ new_bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(RQ_BIC(rq), 1);
+ /*
+ * Release the request's reference to the old bfqq
+ * and make sure one is taken to the shared queue.
+ */
+ new_bfqq->allocated++;
+ bfqq->allocated--;
+ new_bfqq->ref++;
+ /*
+ * If the bic associated with the process
+ * issuing this request still points to bfqq
+ * (and thus has not been already redirected
+ * to new_bfqq or even some other bfq_queue),
+ * then complete the merge and redirect it to
+ * new_bfqq.
+ */
+ if (bic_to_bfqq(RQ_BIC(rq), 1) == bfqq)
+ bfq_merge_bfqqs(bfqd, RQ_BIC(rq),
+ bfqq, new_bfqq);
+ /*
+ * rq is about to be enqueued into new_bfqq,
+ * release rq reference on bfqq
+ */
+ bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
+ rq->elv.priv[1] = new_bfqq;
+ bfqq = new_bfqq;
+ }

bfq_add_request(rq);

@@ -6425,7 +7139,7 @@ static void bfq_insert_request(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx, struct request *rq,
}
}

- spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+ bfq_unlock_put_ioc(bfqd);
}

static void bfq_insert_requests(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx,
@@ -6576,7 +7290,7 @@ static void bfq_put_rq_private(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
bfq_completed_request(bfqq, bfqd);
bfq_put_rq_priv_body(bfqq);

- spin_unlock_irqrestore(&bfqd->lock, flags);
+ bfq_unlock_put_ioc_restore(bfqd, flags);
} else {
/*
* Request rq may be still/already in the scheduler,
@@ -6600,6 +7314,55 @@ static void bfq_put_rq_private(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
}

/*
+ * Returns NULL if a new bfqq should be allocated, or the old bfqq if this
+ * was the last process referring to that bfqq.
+ */
+static struct bfq_queue *
+bfq_split_bfqq(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "splitting queue");
+
+ if (bfqq_process_refs(bfqq) == 1) {
+ bfqq->pid = current->pid;
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_coop(bfqq);
+ bfq_clear_bfqq_split_coop(bfqq);
+ return bfqq;
+ }
+
+ bic_set_bfqq(bic, NULL, 1);
+
+ bfq_put_cooperator(bfqq);
+
+ bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
+ return NULL;
+}
+
+static struct bfq_queue *bfq_get_bfqq_handle_split(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_io_cq *bic,
+ struct bio *bio,
+ bool split, bool is_sync,
+ bool *new_queue)
+{
+ struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, is_sync);
+
+ if (likely(bfqq && bfqq != &bfqd->oom_bfqq))
+ return bfqq;
+
+ if (new_queue)
+ *new_queue = true;
+
+ if (bfqq)
+ bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
+ bfqq = bfq_get_queue(bfqd, bio, is_sync, bic);
+
+ bic_set_bfqq(bic, bfqq, is_sync);
+ if (split && is_sync)
+ bfqq->split_time = jiffies;
+
+ return bfqq;
+}
+
+/*
* Allocate bfq data structures associated with this request.
*/
static int bfq_get_rq_private(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
@@ -6609,6 +7372,7 @@ static int bfq_get_rq_private(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
struct bfq_io_cq *bic = icq_to_bic(rq->elv.icq);
const int is_sync = rq_is_sync(rq);
struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
+ bool new_queue = false;

spin_lock_irq(&bfqd->lock);

@@ -6619,12 +7383,28 @@ static int bfq_get_rq_private(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,

bfq_bic_update_cgroup(bic, bio);

- bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, is_sync);
- if (!bfqq || bfqq == &bfqd->oom_bfqq) {
- if (bfqq)
- bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
- bfqq = bfq_get_queue(bfqd, bio, is_sync, bic);
- bic_set_bfqq(bic, bfqq, is_sync);
+ bfqq = bfq_get_bfqq_handle_split(bfqd, bic, bio, false, is_sync,
+ &new_queue);
+
+ if (likely(!new_queue)) {
+ /* If the queue was seeky for too long, break it apart. */
+ if (bfq_bfqq_coop(bfqq) && bfq_bfqq_split_coop(bfqq)) {
+ bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "breaking apart bfqq");
+ bfqq = bfq_split_bfqq(bic, bfqq);
+ /*
+ * A reference to bic->icq.ioc needs to be
+ * released after a queue split. Do not do it
+ * immediately, to not risk to possibly take
+ * an ioc->lock while holding the scheduler
+ * lock.
+ */
+ bfqd->ioc_to_put = bic->icq.ioc;
+
+ if (!bfqq)
+ bfqq = bfq_get_bfqq_handle_split(bfqd, bic, bio,
+ true, is_sync,
+ NULL);
+ }
}

bfqq->allocated++;
@@ -6635,7 +7415,25 @@ static int bfq_get_rq_private(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
rq->elv.priv[0] = bic;
rq->elv.priv[1] = bfqq;

- spin_unlock_irq(&bfqd->lock);
+ /*
+ * If a bfq_queue has only one process reference, it is owned
+ * by only this bic: we can then set bfqq->bic = bic. in
+ * addition, if the queue has also just been split, we have to
+ * resume its state.
+ */
+ if (likely(bfqq != &bfqd->oom_bfqq) && bfqq_process_refs(bfqq) == 1) {
+ bfqq->bic = bic;
+ if (bfqd->ioc_to_put) { /* if true, there has been a split */
+ /*
+ * The queue has just been split from a shared
+ * queue: restore the idle window and the
+ * possible weight raising period.
+ */
+ bfq_bfqq_resume_state(bfqq, bic);
+ }
+ }
+
+ bfq_unlock_put_ioc(bfqd);

return 0;

@@ -6680,7 +7478,7 @@ static void bfq_idle_slice_timer_body(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqq, true, reason);

schedule_dispatch:
- spin_unlock_irqrestore(&bfqd->lock, flags);
+ bfq_unlock_put_ioc_restore(bfqd, flags);
bfq_schedule_dispatch(bfqd);
}

@@ -6777,6 +7575,7 @@ static void bfq_init_root_group(struct bfq_group *root_group,
root_group->my_entity = NULL;
root_group->bfqd = bfqd;
#endif
+ root_group->rq_pos_tree = RB_ROOT;
for (i = 0; i < BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES; i++)
root_group->sched_data.service_tree[i] = BFQ_SERVICE_TREE_INIT;
root_group->sched_data.bfq_class_idle_last_service = jiffies;
--
2.10.0
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