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Subject[PATCH V4 11/16] block, bfq: reduce idling only in symmetric scenarios
Date
From: Arianna Avanzini <avanzini.arianna@gmail.com>

A seeky queue (i..e, a queue containing random requests) is assigned a
very small device-idling slice, for throughput issues. Unfortunately,
given the process associated with a seeky queue, this behavior causes
the following problem: if the process, say P, performs sync I/O and
has a higher weight than some other processes doing I/O and associated
with non-seeky queues, then BFQ may fail to guarantee to P its
reserved share of the throughput. The reason is that idling is key
for providing service guarantees to processes doing sync I/O [1].

This commit addresses this issue by allowing the device-idling slice
to be reduced for a seeky queue only if the scenario happens to be
symmetric, i.e., if all the queues are to receive the same share of
the throughput.

[1] P. Valente, A. Avanzini, "Evolution of the BFQ Storage I/O
Scheduler", Proceedings of the First Workshop on Mobile System
Technologies (MST-2015), May 2015.
http://algogroup.unimore.it/people/paolo/disk_sched/mst-2015.pdf

Signed-off-by: Arianna Avanzini <avanzini.arianna@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Riccardo Pizzetti <riccardo.pizzetti@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Samuele Zecchini <samuele.zecchini92@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@linaro.org>
---
block/bfq-iosched.c | 287 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
1 file changed, 280 insertions(+), 7 deletions(-)

diff --git a/block/bfq-iosched.c b/block/bfq-iosched.c
index 6e7388a..b97801f 100644
--- a/block/bfq-iosched.c
+++ b/block/bfq-iosched.c
@@ -183,6 +183,20 @@ struct bfq_sched_data {
};

/**
+ * struct bfq_weight_counter - counter of the number of all active entities
+ * with a given weight.
+ */
+struct bfq_weight_counter {
+ unsigned int weight; /* weight of the entities this counter refers to */
+ unsigned int num_active; /* nr of active entities with this weight */
+ /*
+ * Weights tree member (see bfq_data's @queue_weights_tree and
+ * @group_weights_tree)
+ */
+ struct rb_node weights_node;
+};
+
+/**
* struct bfq_entity - schedulable entity.
*
* A bfq_entity is used to represent either a bfq_queue (leaf node in the
@@ -212,6 +226,8 @@ struct bfq_sched_data {
struct bfq_entity {
/* service_tree member */
struct rb_node rb_node;
+ /* pointer to the weight counter associated with this entity */
+ struct bfq_weight_counter *weight_counter;

/*
* Flag, true if the entity is on a tree (either the active or
@@ -456,6 +472,25 @@ struct bfq_data {
struct bfq_group *root_group;

/*
+ * rbtree of weight counters of @bfq_queues, sorted by
+ * weight. Used to keep track of whether all @bfq_queues have
+ * the same weight. The tree contains one counter for each
+ * distinct weight associated to some active and not
+ * weight-raised @bfq_queue (see the comments to the functions
+ * bfq_weights_tree_[add|remove] for further details).
+ */
+ struct rb_root queue_weights_tree;
+ /*
+ * rbtree of non-queue @bfq_entity weight counters, sorted by
+ * weight. Used to keep track of whether all @bfq_groups have
+ * the same weight. The tree contains one counter for each
+ * distinct weight associated to some active @bfq_group (see
+ * the comments to the functions bfq_weights_tree_[add|remove]
+ * for further details).
+ */
+ struct rb_root group_weights_tree;
+
+ /*
* Number of bfq_queues containing requests (including the
* queue in service, even if it is idling).
*/
@@ -791,6 +826,11 @@ struct bfq_group_data {
* to avoid too many special cases during group creation/
* migration.
* @stats: stats for this bfqg.
+ * @active_entities: number of active entities belonging to the group;
+ * unused for the root group. Used to know whether there
+ * are groups with more than one active @bfq_entity
+ * (see the comments to the function
+ * bfq_bfqq_may_idle()).
* @rq_pos_tree: rbtree sorted by next_request position, used when
* determining if two or more queues have interleaving
* requests (see bfq_find_close_cooperator()).
@@ -818,6 +858,8 @@ struct bfq_group {

struct bfq_entity *my_entity;

+ int active_entities;
+
struct rb_root rq_pos_tree;

struct bfqg_stats stats;
@@ -1254,12 +1296,27 @@ static bool bfq_update_parent_budget(struct bfq_entity *next_in_service)
* a candidate for next service (i.e, a candidate entity to serve
* after the in-service entity is expired). The function then returns
* true.
+ *
+ * In contrast, the entity could stil be a candidate for next service
+ * if it is not a queue, and has more than one child. In fact, even if
+ * one of its children is about to be set in service, other children
+ * may still be the next to serve. As a consequence, a non-queue
+ * entity is not a candidate for next-service only if it has only one
+ * child. And only if this condition holds, then the function returns
+ * true for a non-queue entity.
*/
static bool bfq_no_longer_next_in_service(struct bfq_entity *entity)
{
+ struct bfq_group *bfqg;
+
if (bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity))
return true;

+ bfqg = container_of(entity, struct bfq_group, entity);
+
+ if (bfqg->active_entities == 1)
+ return true;
+
return false;
}

@@ -1498,6 +1555,15 @@ static void bfq_update_active_tree(struct rb_node *node)
goto up;
}

+static void bfq_weights_tree_add(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_entity *entity,
+ struct rb_root *root);
+
+static void bfq_weights_tree_remove(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_entity *entity,
+ struct rb_root *root);
+
+
/**
* bfq_active_insert - insert an entity in the active tree of its
* group/device.
@@ -1536,6 +1602,13 @@ static void bfq_active_insert(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
#endif
if (bfqq)
list_add(&bfqq->bfqq_list, &bfqq->bfqd->active_list);
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+ else /* bfq_group */
+ bfq_weights_tree_add(bfqd, entity, &bfqd->group_weights_tree);
+
+ if (bfqg != bfqd->root_group)
+ bfqg->active_entities++;
+#endif
}

/**
@@ -1631,6 +1704,14 @@ static void bfq_active_extract(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
#endif
if (bfqq)
list_del(&bfqq->bfqq_list);
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+ else /* bfq_group */
+ bfq_weights_tree_remove(bfqd, entity,
+ &bfqd->group_weights_tree);
+
+ if (bfqg != bfqd->root_group)
+ bfqg->active_entities--;
+#endif
}

/**
@@ -1731,6 +1812,7 @@ __bfq_entity_update_weight_prio(struct bfq_service_tree *old_st,
struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
unsigned int prev_weight, new_weight;
struct bfq_data *bfqd = NULL;
+ struct rb_root *root;
#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
struct bfq_sched_data *sd;
struct bfq_group *bfqg;
@@ -1780,7 +1862,26 @@ __bfq_entity_update_weight_prio(struct bfq_service_tree *old_st,
prev_weight = entity->weight;
new_weight = entity->orig_weight *
(bfqq ? bfqq->wr_coeff : 1);
+ /*
+ * If the weight of the entity changes, remove the entity
+ * from its old weight counter (if there is a counter
+ * associated with the entity), and add it to the counter
+ * associated with its new weight.
+ */
+ if (prev_weight != new_weight) {
+ root = bfqq ? &bfqd->queue_weights_tree :
+ &bfqd->group_weights_tree;
+ bfq_weights_tree_remove(bfqd, entity, root);
+ }
entity->weight = new_weight;
+ /*
+ * Add the entity to its weights tree only if it is
+ * not associated with a weight-raised queue.
+ */
+ if (prev_weight != new_weight &&
+ (bfqq ? bfqq->wr_coeff == 1 : 1))
+ /* If we get here, root has been initialized. */
+ bfq_weights_tree_add(bfqd, entity, root);

new_st->wsum += entity->weight;

@@ -2606,6 +2707,10 @@ static void bfq_del_bfqq_busy(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,

bfqd->busy_queues--;

+ if (!bfqq->dispatched)
+ bfq_weights_tree_remove(bfqd, &bfqq->entity,
+ &bfqd->queue_weights_tree);
+
if (bfqq->wr_coeff > 1)
bfqd->wr_busy_queues--;

@@ -2626,6 +2731,11 @@ static void bfq_add_bfqq_busy(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
bfq_mark_bfqq_busy(bfqq);
bfqd->busy_queues++;

+ if (!bfqq->dispatched)
+ if (bfqq->wr_coeff == 1)
+ bfq_weights_tree_add(bfqd, &bfqq->entity,
+ &bfqd->queue_weights_tree);
+
if (bfqq->wr_coeff > 1)
bfqd->wr_busy_queues++;
}
@@ -3028,6 +3138,7 @@ static void bfq_pd_init(struct blkg_policy_data *pd)
* in bfq_init_queue()
*/
bfqg->bfqd = bfqd;
+ bfqg->active_entities = 0;
bfqg->rq_pos_tree = RB_ROOT;
}

@@ -3916,6 +4027,158 @@ static void bfq_pos_tree_add_move(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
}

/*
+ * Tell whether there are active queues or groups with differentiated weights.
+ */
+static bool bfq_differentiated_weights(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ /*
+ * For weights to differ, at least one of the trees must contain
+ * at least two nodes.
+ */
+ return (!RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqd->queue_weights_tree) &&
+ (bfqd->queue_weights_tree.rb_node->rb_left ||
+ bfqd->queue_weights_tree.rb_node->rb_right)
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+ ) ||
+ (!RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqd->group_weights_tree) &&
+ (bfqd->group_weights_tree.rb_node->rb_left ||
+ bfqd->group_weights_tree.rb_node->rb_right)
+#endif
+ );
+}
+
+/*
+ * The following function returns true if every queue must receive the
+ * same share of the throughput (this condition is used when deciding
+ * whether idling may be disabled, see the comments in the function
+ * bfq_bfqq_may_idle()).
+ *
+ * Such a scenario occurs when:
+ * 1) all active queues have the same weight,
+ * 2) all active groups at the same level in the groups tree have the same
+ * weight,
+ * 3) all active groups at the same level in the groups tree have the same
+ * number of children.
+ *
+ * Unfortunately, keeping the necessary state for evaluating exactly the
+ * above symmetry conditions would be quite complex and time-consuming.
+ * Therefore this function evaluates, instead, the following stronger
+ * sub-conditions, for which it is much easier to maintain the needed
+ * state:
+ * 1) all active queues have the same weight,
+ * 2) all active groups have the same weight,
+ * 3) all active groups have at most one active child each.
+ * In particular, the last two conditions are always true if hierarchical
+ * support and the cgroups interface are not enabled, thus no state needs
+ * to be maintained in this case.
+ */
+static bool bfq_symmetric_scenario(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+ return !bfq_differentiated_weights(bfqd);
+}
+
+/*
+ * If the weight-counter tree passed as input contains no counter for
+ * the weight of the input entity, then add that counter; otherwise just
+ * increment the existing counter.
+ *
+ * Note that weight-counter trees contain few nodes in mostly symmetric
+ * scenarios. For example, if all queues have the same weight, then the
+ * weight-counter tree for the queues may contain at most one node.
+ * This holds even if low_latency is on, because weight-raised queues
+ * are not inserted in the tree.
+ * In most scenarios, the rate at which nodes are created/destroyed
+ * should be low too.
+ */
+static void bfq_weights_tree_add(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_entity *entity,
+ struct rb_root *root)
+{
+ struct rb_node **new = &(root->rb_node), *parent = NULL;
+
+ /*
+ * Do not insert if the entity is already associated with a
+ * counter, which happens if:
+ * 1) the entity is associated with a queue,
+ * 2) a request arrival has caused the queue to become both
+ * non-weight-raised, and hence change its weight, and
+ * backlogged; in this respect, each of the two events
+ * causes an invocation of this function,
+ * 3) this is the invocation of this function caused by the
+ * second event. This second invocation is actually useless,
+ * and we handle this fact by exiting immediately. More
+ * efficient or clearer solutions might possibly be adopted.
+ */
+ if (entity->weight_counter)
+ return;
+
+ while (*new) {
+ struct bfq_weight_counter *__counter = container_of(*new,
+ struct bfq_weight_counter,
+ weights_node);
+ parent = *new;
+
+ if (entity->weight == __counter->weight) {
+ entity->weight_counter = __counter;
+ goto inc_counter;
+ }
+ if (entity->weight < __counter->weight)
+ new = &((*new)->rb_left);
+ else
+ new = &((*new)->rb_right);
+ }
+
+ entity->weight_counter = kzalloc(sizeof(struct bfq_weight_counter),
+ GFP_ATOMIC);
+
+ /*
+ * In the unlucky event of an allocation failure, we just
+ * exit. This will cause the weight of entity to not be
+ * considered in bfq_differentiated_weights, which, in its
+ * turn, causes the scenario to be deemed wrongly symmetric in
+ * case entity's weight would have been the only weight making
+ * the scenario asymmetric. On the bright side, no unbalance
+ * will however occur when entity becomes inactive again (the
+ * invocation of this function is triggered by an activation
+ * of entity). In fact, bfq_weights_tree_remove does nothing
+ * if !entity->weight_counter.
+ */
+ if (unlikely(!entity->weight_counter))
+ return;
+
+ entity->weight_counter->weight = entity->weight;
+ rb_link_node(&entity->weight_counter->weights_node, parent, new);
+ rb_insert_color(&entity->weight_counter->weights_node, root);
+
+inc_counter:
+ entity->weight_counter->num_active++;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Decrement the weight counter associated with the entity, and, if the
+ * counter reaches 0, remove the counter from the tree.
+ * See the comments to the function bfq_weights_tree_add() for considerations
+ * about overhead.
+ */
+static void bfq_weights_tree_remove(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+ struct bfq_entity *entity,
+ struct rb_root *root)
+{
+ if (!entity->weight_counter)
+ return;
+
+ entity->weight_counter->num_active--;
+ if (entity->weight_counter->num_active > 0)
+ goto reset_entity_pointer;
+
+ rb_erase(&entity->weight_counter->weights_node, root);
+ kfree(entity->weight_counter);
+
+reset_entity_pointer:
+ entity->weight_counter = NULL;
+}
+
+/*
* Return expired entry, or NULL to just start from scratch in rbtree.
*/
static struct request *bfq_check_fifo(struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
@@ -5293,13 +5556,17 @@ static void bfq_arm_slice_timer(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
*/
sl = bfqd->bfq_slice_idle;
/*
- * Unless the queue is being weight-raised, grant only minimum
- * idle time if the queue is seeky. A long idling is preserved
- * for a weight-raised queue, because it is needed for
- * guaranteeing to the queue its reserved share of the
- * throughput.
- */
- if (BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq) && bfqq->wr_coeff == 1)
+ * Unless the queue is being weight-raised or the scenario is
+ * asymmetric, grant only minimum idle time if the queue
+ * is seeky. A long idling is preserved for a weight-raised
+ * queue, or, more in general, in an asymmetric scenario,
+ * because a long idling is needed for guaranteeing to a queue
+ * its reserved share of the throughput (in particular, it is
+ * needed if the queue has a higher weight than some other
+ * queue).
+ */
+ if (BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq) && bfqq->wr_coeff == 1 &&
+ bfq_symmetric_scenario(bfqd))
sl = min_t(u64, sl, BFQ_MIN_TT);

bfqd->last_idling_start = ktime_get();
@@ -7197,6 +7464,9 @@ static void bfq_completed_request(struct bfq_queue *bfqq, struct bfq_data *bfqd)
* mechanism).
*/
bfqq->budget_timeout = jiffies;
+
+ bfq_weights_tree_remove(bfqd, &bfqq->entity,
+ &bfqd->queue_weights_tree);
}

now_ns = ktime_get_ns();
@@ -7627,6 +7897,9 @@ static int bfq_init_queue(struct request_queue *q, struct elevator_type *e)
HRTIMER_MODE_REL);
bfqd->idle_slice_timer.function = bfq_idle_slice_timer;

+ bfqd->queue_weights_tree = RB_ROOT;
+ bfqd->group_weights_tree = RB_ROOT;
+
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bfqd->active_list);
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bfqd->idle_list);

--
2.10.0
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