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SubjectRe: [PATCH] riscv/ftrace: Add basic support
On Thu, Nov 30, 2017 at 03:24:21PM -0500, Steven Rostedt wrote:
> On Thu, 30 Nov 2017 16:53:35 +0800
> Alan Kao <nonerkao@gmail.com> wrote:
>
> > This patch contains basic ftrace support for RV64I platform.
> > Specifically, function tracer (HAVE_FUNCTION_TRACER), function graph
> > tracer (HAVE_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER), and a frame pointer test
> > (HAVE_FUNCTION_GRAPH_FP_TEST) are implemented following the
> > instructions in Documentation/trace/ftrace-design.txt.
>
> Hmm, that document is somewhat out of date. Hopefully it was good
> enough. I'm going to need some time to update it.
>
> >
> > Note that the functions in both ftrace.c and setup.c should not be
> > hooked with the compiler's -pg option: to prevent infinite self-
> > referencing for the former, and to ignore early setup stuff for the latter.
>
> I'm curious to what is in setup.c that ftrace uses.

In the scenario for some embedded systems, the __init prefix does not give
us the notrace feature without the MODULE config. Therefore, all functions
would have been hooked with the _mcount trampoline if the -pg flag was not
specifically disabled.

And a terrible result would have happened after function setup_vm called
_mcount. As _mcount compared the value of ftrace_trace_function and
the position of ftrace_stub, it crashed the kernel because one of them
was a physical address while the other was a virtual address but
actually they pointed to the same.

Adding notrace to setup_vm can solve the described issue, but it might be
redundant once the MODULE config becomes stable and default on most
platforms. To be honest, nobody really needs those init procedures to be
ftrace-able.

>
> >
> > Signed-off-by: Alan Kao <alankao@andestech.com>
> > ---
> > arch/riscv/Kconfig | 8 +++
> > arch/riscv/include/asm/Kbuild | 1 -
> > arch/riscv/include/asm/ftrace.h | 23 +++++++
> > arch/riscv/kernel/Makefile | 7 ++
> > arch/riscv/kernel/ftrace.c | 56 ++++++++++++++++
> > arch/riscv/kernel/mcount.S | 139 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> > 6 files changed, 233 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
> > create mode 100644 arch/riscv/include/asm/ftrace.h
> > create mode 100644 arch/riscv/kernel/ftrace.c
> > create mode 100644 arch/riscv/kernel/mcount.S
> >
> > diff --git a/arch/riscv/Kconfig b/arch/riscv/Kconfig
> > index 2e15e85c8f7e..07c3df0919b7 100644
> > --- a/arch/riscv/Kconfig
> > +++ b/arch/riscv/Kconfig
> > @@ -60,6 +60,12 @@ config PAGE_OFFSET
> > config STACKTRACE_SUPPORT
> > def_bool y
> >
> > +config TRACE_IRQFLAGS_SUPPORT
> > + def_bool y
> > +
> > +config LOCKDEP_SUPPORT
> > + def_bool y
>
> Hmm, not sure the above is needed for function tracing.
>

FTRACE depends on TRACING_SUPPORT, and TRACING_SUPPORT depends on
TRACE_IRQFLAGS_SUPPORT. But LOCKDEP_SUPPORT is not actually needed
for any of the ftrace features implemented in this patch.

The LOCKDEP_SUPPORT will be removed in the next version.

> > +
> > config RWSEM_GENERIC_SPINLOCK
> > def_bool y
> >
> > @@ -112,6 +118,8 @@ config ARCH_RV64I
> > bool "RV64I"
> > select CPU_SUPPORTS_64BIT_KERNEL
> > select 64BIT
> > + select HAVE_FUNCTION_TRACER
> > + select HAVE_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
> >
> > endchoice
> >
> > diff --git a/arch/riscv/include/asm/Kbuild b/arch/riscv/include/asm/Kbuild
> > index 18158be62a2b..680301bfbc4b 100644
> > --- a/arch/riscv/include/asm/Kbuild
> > +++ b/arch/riscv/include/asm/Kbuild
> > @@ -12,7 +12,6 @@ generic-y += errno.h
> > generic-y += exec.h
> > generic-y += fb.h
> > generic-y += fcntl.h
> > -generic-y += ftrace.h
> > generic-y += futex.h
> > generic-y += hardirq.h
> > generic-y += hash.h
> > diff --git a/arch/riscv/include/asm/ftrace.h b/arch/riscv/include/asm/ftrace.h
> > new file mode 100644
> > index 000000000000..38beadb07ad5
> > --- /dev/null
> > +++ b/arch/riscv/include/asm/ftrace.h
> > @@ -0,0 +1,23 @@
> > +/*
> > + * Copyright (C) 2017 Andes Technology Corporation
> > + *
> > + * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
> > + * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
> > + * published by the Free Software Foundation.
> > + *
> > + * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
> > + * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
> > + * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
> > + * GNU General Public License for more details.
> > + *
> > + * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
> > + * along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
> > + */
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * The graph frame test is not possible if CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER is not enabled.
> > + * Check arch/riscv/kernel/mcount.S for detail.
> > + */
> > +#if defined(CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER) && defined(CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER)
> > +#define HAVE_FUNCTION_GRAPH_FP_TEST
> > +#endif
> > diff --git a/arch/riscv/kernel/Makefile b/arch/riscv/kernel/Makefile
> > index ab8baf7bd142..15941f3b8363 100644
> > --- a/arch/riscv/kernel/Makefile
> > +++ b/arch/riscv/kernel/Makefile
> > @@ -2,6 +2,11 @@
> > # Makefile for the RISC-V Linux kernel
> > #
> >
> > +#ifdef CONFIG_FTRACE
> > +CFLAGS_REMOVE_ftrace.o = -pg
> > +CFLAGS_REMOVE_setup.o = -pg
> > +#endif
> > +
> > extra-y += head.o
> > extra-y += vmlinux.lds
> >
> > @@ -29,5 +34,7 @@ CFLAGS_setup.o := -mcmodel=medany
> > obj-$(CONFIG_SMP) += smpboot.o
> > obj-$(CONFIG_SMP) += smp.o
> > obj-$(CONFIG_MODULES) += module.o
> > +obj-$(CONFIG_FUNCTION_TRACER) += mcount.o
> > +obj-$(CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER) += ftrace.o
> >
> > clean:
> > diff --git a/arch/riscv/kernel/ftrace.c b/arch/riscv/kernel/ftrace.c
> > new file mode 100644
> > index 000000000000..e425c8f3f1cd
> > --- /dev/null
> > +++ b/arch/riscv/kernel/ftrace.c
> > @@ -0,0 +1,56 @@
> > +/*
> > + * arch/riscv/kernel/ftrace.c
> > + *
> > + * Copyright (C) 2013 Linaro Limited
> > + * Author: AKASHI Takahiro <takahiro.akashi@linaro.org>
> > + * Copyright (C) 2017 Andes Technology Corporation
> > + *
> > + * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
> > + * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
> > + * published by the Free Software Foundation.
> > + *
> > + * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
> > + * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
> > + * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
> > + * GNU General Public License for more details.
> > + *
> > + * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
> > + * along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
> > + */
> > +
> > +#include <linux/ftrace.h>
> > +
> > +#ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
>
> This file only gets compiled when that config is set. This #ifdef is
> somewhat redundant.
>

OK.

> > +/*
> > + * Most of this file is copied from arm64.
> > + */
> > +void prepare_ftrace_return(unsigned long *parent, unsigned long self_addr,
> > + unsigned long frame_pointer)
> > +{
> > + unsigned long return_hooker = (unsigned long)&return_to_handler;
> > + unsigned long old;
> > + struct ftrace_graph_ent trace;
> > + int err;
> > +
> > + if (unlikely(atomic_read(&current->tracing_graph_pause)))
> > + return;
> > +
> > + /*
> > + * We don't suffer access faults, so no extra fault-recovery assembly
> > + * is needed here.
> > + */
> > + old = *parent;
> > +
> > + trace.func = self_addr;
> > + trace.depth = current->curr_ret_stack + 1;
> > +
> > + if (!ftrace_graph_entry(&trace))
> > + return;
> > +
> > + err = ftrace_push_return_trace(old, self_addr, &trace.depth,
> > + frame_pointer, NULL);
> > + if (err == -EBUSY)
> > + return;
> > + *parent = return_hooker;
> > +}
> > +#endif /* CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER */
> > diff --git a/arch/riscv/kernel/mcount.S b/arch/riscv/kernel/mcount.S
> > new file mode 100644
> > index 000000000000..5307358219bf
> > --- /dev/null
> > +++ b/arch/riscv/kernel/mcount.S
> > @@ -0,0 +1,139 @@
> > +/*
> > + * Copyright (C) 2017 Andes Technology Corporation
> > + * Author: Alan Kao <alankao@andestech.com>
> > + *
> > + * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
> > + * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
> > + * published by the Free Software Foundation.
> > + *
> > + * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
> > + * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
> > + * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
> > + * GNU General Public License for more details.
> > + *
> > + * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
> > + * along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
> > + */
> > +#include <linux/init.h>
> > +#include <linux/linkage.h>
> > +#include <asm/asm.h>
> > +#include <asm/csr.h>
> > +#include <asm/unistd.h>
> > +#include <asm/thread_info.h>
> > +#include <asm/asm-offsets.h>
> > +#include <asm-generic/export.h>
> > +#include <asm/ftrace.h>
> > +
> > + .text
> > +
> > + .macro SAVE_ABI_STATE
> > + addi sp, sp, -16
> > + sd s0, 0(sp)
> > + sd ra, 8(sp)
> > + addi s0, sp, 16
> > + .endm
> > +
> > + /*
> > + * The call to ftrace_return_to_handler would overwrite the return
> > + * register if a0 was not saved.
> > + */
> > + .macro SAVE_RET_ABI_STATE
> > + addi sp, sp, -32
> > + sd s0, 16(sp)
> > + sd ra, 24(sp)
> > + sd a0, 8(sp)
> > + addi s0, sp, 32
> > + .endm
> > +
> > + .macro STORE_ABI_STATE
> > + ld ra, 8(sp)
> > + ld s0, 0(sp)
> > + addi sp, sp, 16
> > + .endm
> > +
> > + .macro STORE_RET_ABI_STATE
> > + ld ra, 24(sp)
> > + ld s0, 16(sp)
> > + ld a0, 8(sp)
> > + addi sp, sp, 32
> > + .endm
> > +
> > +ENTRY(ftrace_stub)
> > + ret
> > +ENDPROC(ftrace_stub)
> > +
> > +#ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
> > +ENTRY(return_to_handler)
> > +/*
> > + * On implementing the frame point test, the ideal way is to compare the
> > + * s0 (frame pointer, if enabled) on entry and the sp (stack pointer) on return.
> > + * However, the psABI of variable-length-argument functions does not allow this.
> > + *
> > + * So alternatively we check the *old* frame pointer position, that is, the
> > + * value stored in -16(s0) on entry, and the s0 on return.
> > + */
> > +#ifdef HAVE_FUNCTION_GRAPH_FP_TEST
> > + mv t6, s0
> > +#endif
> > + SAVE_RET_ABI_STATE
> > +#ifdef HAVE_FUNCTION_GRAPH_FP_TEST
> > + mv a0, t6
> > +#endif
> > + la t0, ftrace_return_to_handler
> > + jalr t0
> > + mv a1, a0
> > + STORE_RET_ABI_STATE
> > + jr a1
> > +ENDPROC(return_to_handler)
> > +EXPORT_SYMBOL(return_to_handler)
> > +#endif
> > +
> > +ENTRY(_mcount)
> > + la t4, ftrace_stub
> > +#ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
> > + la t0, ftrace_graph_return
> > + ld t1, 0(t0)
> > + bne t1, t4, do_ftrace_graph_caller
>
> If function graph is enabled, you jump straight to the graph tracer,
> but never return back to here?
>

Because prepare_ftrace_return function can return to the caller of
_mcount directly without messing up the stack.

> > +
> > + la t3, ftrace_graph_entry
> > + ld t2, 0(t3)
> > + la t6, ftrace_graph_entry_stub
> > + bne t2, t6, do_ftrace_graph_caller
> > +#endif
> > + la t3, ftrace_trace_function
> > + ld t5, 0(t3)
> > + bne t5, t4, do_trace
> > + ret
> > +
> > +#ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
> > +/*
> > + * A pseudo representation for the function graph tracer:
> > + * prepare_to_return(&ra_to_caller_of_caller, ra_to_caller)
> > + */
> > +do_ftrace_graph_caller:
> > + addi a0, s0, -8
> > + mv a1, ra
> > +#ifdef HAVE_FUNCTION_GRAPH_FP_TEST
> > + ld a2, -16(s0)
> > +#endif
> > + SAVE_ABI_STATE
> > + la t0, prepare_ftrace_return
> > + jalr t0
> > + STORE_ABI_STATE
>
> I'm guessing you don't support function tracer and function graph
> tracer running at the same time?
>
> -- Steve
>

This code section implements similar logic as those for arm, arm64,
blackfin, and others. Also, according to Documentation/trace/ftrace.txt,
the current_tracer is introduced as singular.

Is it necessary to support simultaneous tracers?

> > + ret
> > +#endif
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * A pseudo representation for the function tracer:
> > + * (*ftrace_trace_function)(ra_to_caller, ra_to_caller_of_caller)
> > + */
> > +do_trace:
> > + ld a1, -8(s0)
> > + mv a0, ra
> > +
> > + SAVE_ABI_STATE
> > + jalr t5
> > + STORE_ABI_STATE
> > + ret
> > +ENDPROC(_mcount)
> > +EXPORT_SYMBOL(_mcount)
>

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