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SubjectRe: [PATCH v6 03/11] mm, x86: Add support for eXclusive Page Frame Ownership (XPFO)
Hi Dave,

On Wed, Sep 20, 2017 at 05:27:02PM -0700, Dave Hansen wrote:
> On 09/20/2017 05:09 PM, Tycho Andersen wrote:
> >> I think the only thing that will really help here is if you batch the
> >> allocations. For instance, you could make sure that the per-cpu-pageset
> >> lists always contain either all kernel or all user data. Then remap the
> >> entire list at once and do a single flush after the entire list is consumed.
> > Just so I understand, the idea would be that we only flush when the
> > type of allocation alternates, so:
> >
> > kmalloc(..., GFP_KERNEL);
> > kmalloc(..., GFP_KERNEL);
> > /* remap+flush here */
> > kmalloc(..., GFP_HIGHUSER);
> > /* remap+flush here */
> > kmalloc(..., GFP_KERNEL);
>
> Not really. We keep a free list per migrate type, and a per_cpu_pages
> (pcp) list per migratetype:
>
> > struct per_cpu_pages {
> > int count; /* number of pages in the list */
> > int high; /* high watermark, emptying needed */
> > int batch; /* chunk size for buddy add/remove */
> >
> > /* Lists of pages, one per migrate type stored on the pcp-lists */
> > struct list_head lists[MIGRATE_PCPTYPES];
> > };
>
> The migratetype is derived from the GFP flags in
> gfpflags_to_migratetype(). In general, GFP_HIGHUSER and GFP_KERNEL come
> from different migratetypes, so they come from different free lists.
>
> In your case above, the GFP_HIGHUSER allocation come through the
> MIGRATE_MOVABLE pcp list while the GFP_KERNEL ones come from the
> MIGRATE_UNMOVABLE one. Since we add a bunch of pages to those lists at
> once, you could do all the mapping/unmapping/flushing on a bunch of
> pages at once

So I've been playing around with an implementation of this, which is basically:

diff --git a/mm/page_alloc.c b/mm/page_alloc.c
index 3d9c1b486e1f..47b46ff1148a 100644
--- a/mm/page_alloc.c
+++ b/mm/page_alloc.c
@@ -2348,6 +2348,7 @@ static int rmqueue_bulk(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order,
if (is_migrate_cma(get_pcppage_migratetype(page)))
__mod_zone_page_state(zone, NR_FREE_CMA_PAGES,
-(1 << order));
+ xpfo_pcp_refill(page, migratetype, order);
}

/*
diff --git a/mm/xpfo.c b/mm/xpfo.c
index 080235a2f129..b381d83c6e78 100644
--- a/mm/xpfo.c
+++ b/mm/xpfo.c
@@ -260,3 +265,85 @@ void xpfo_temp_unmap(const void *addr, size_t size, void **mapping,
kunmap_atomic(mapping[i]);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(xpfo_temp_unmap);
+
+void xpfo_pcp_refill(struct page *page, enum migratetype migratetype, int order)
+{
+ int i;
+ bool flush_tlb = false;
+
+ if (!static_branch_unlikely(&xpfo_initialized))
+ return;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < 1 << order; i++) {
+ struct xpfo *xpfo;
+
+ xpfo = lookup_xpfo(page + i);
+ if (!xpfo)
+ continue;
+
+ if (unlikely(!xpfo->initialized)) {
+ spin_lock_init(&xpfo->maplock);
+ atomic_set(&xpfo->mapcount, 0);
+ xpfo->initialized = true;
+ }
+
+ xpfo->trace.max_entries = 20;
+ xpfo->trace.skip = 1;
+ xpfo->trace.entries = xpfo->entries;
+ xpfo->trace.nr_entries = 0;
+ xpfo->trace2.max_entries = 20;
+ xpfo->trace2.skip = 1;
+ xpfo->trace2.entries = xpfo->entries2;
+ xpfo->trace2.nr_entries = 0;
+
+ xpfo->migratetype = migratetype;
+
+ save_stack_trace(&xpfo->trace);
+
+ if (migratetype == MIGRATE_MOVABLE) {
+ /* GPF_HIGHUSER */
+ set_kpte(page_address(page + i), page + i, __pgprot(0));
+ if (!test_and_set_bit(XPFO_PAGE_UNMAPPED, &xpfo->flags))
+ flush_tlb = true;
+ set_bit(XPFO_PAGE_USER, &xpfo->flags);
+ } else {
+ /*
+ * GFP_KERNEL and everything else; for now we just
+ * leave it mapped
+ */
+ set_kpte(page_address(page + i), page + i, PAGE_KERNEL);
+ if (test_and_clear_bit(XPFO_PAGE_UNMAPPED, &xpfo->flags))
+ flush_tlb = true;
+ clear_bit(XPFO_PAGE_USER, &xpfo->flags);
+ }
+ }
+
+ if (flush_tlb)
+ xpfo_flush_kernel_tlb(page, order);
+}
+
But I'm getting some faults:

[ 1.897311] BUG: unable to handle kernel paging request at ffff880139b75012
[ 1.898244] IP: ext4_fill_super+0x2f3b/0x33c0
[ 1.898827] PGD 1ea6067
[ 1.898828] P4D 1ea6067
[ 1.899170] PUD 1ea9067
[ 1.899508] PMD 119478063
[ 1.899850] PTE 139b75000
[ 1.900211]
[ 1.900760] Oops: 0000 [#1] SMP
[ 1.901160] Modules linked in:
[ 1.901565] CPU: 3 PID: 990 Comm: exe Not tainted 4.13.0+ #85
[ 1.902348] Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS 1.10.2-1ubuntu1 04/01/2014
[ 1.903420] task: ffff88011ae7cb00 task.stack: ffffc9001a338000
[ 1.904108] RIP: 0010:ext4_fill_super+0x2f3b/0x33c0
[ 1.904649] RSP: 0018:ffffc9001a33bce0 EFLAGS: 00010246
[ 1.905240] RAX: 00000000000000f0 RBX: ffff880139b75000 RCX: ffffffff81c456b8
[ 1.906047] RDX: 0000000000000001 RSI: 0000000000000082 RDI: 0000000000000246
[ 1.906874] RBP: ffffc9001a33bda8 R08: 0000000000000000 R09: 0000000000000183
[ 1.908053] R10: ffff88011a9e0800 R11: ffffffff818493e0 R12: ffff88011a9e0800
[ 1.908920] R13: ffff88011a9e6800 R14: 000000000077fefa R15: 0000000000000000
[ 1.909775] FS: 00007f8169747700(0000) GS:ffff880139d80000(0000) knlGS:0000000000000000
[ 1.910667] CS: 0010 DS: 0000 ES: 0000 CR0: 0000000080050033
[ 1.911293] CR2: ffff880139b75012 CR3: 000000011a965000 CR4: 00000000000006e0
[ 1.912050] Call Trace:
[ 1.912356] ? register_shrinker+0x80/0x90
[ 1.912826] mount_bdev+0x177/0x1b0
[ 1.913234] ? ext4_calculate_overhead+0x4a0/0x4a0
[ 1.913744] ext4_mount+0x10/0x20
[ 1.914115] mount_fs+0x2d/0x140
[ 1.914490] ? __alloc_percpu+0x10/0x20
[ 1.914903] vfs_kern_mount.part.20+0x58/0x110
[ 1.915394] do_mount+0x1cc/0xca0
[ 1.915758] ? _copy_from_user+0x6b/0xa0
[ 1.916198] ? memdup_user+0x3d/0x70
[ 1.916576] SyS_mount+0x93/0xe0
[ 1.916915] entry_SYSCALL_64_fastpath+0x1a/0xa5
[ 1.917401] RIP: 0033:0x7f8169264b5a
[ 1.917777] RSP: 002b:00007fff6ce82bc8 EFLAGS: 00000202 ORIG_RAX: 00000000000000a5
[ 1.918576] RAX: ffffffffffffffda RBX: 0000000000fb2030 RCX: 00007f8169264b5a
[ 1.919313] RDX: 00007fff6ce84e61 RSI: 00007fff6ce84e70 RDI: 00007fff6ce84e66
[ 1.920042] RBP: 0000000000008000 R08: 0000000000000000 R09: 0000000000000000
[ 1.920771] R10: 0000000000008001 R11: 0000000000000202 R12: 0000000000000000
[ 1.921512] R13: 0000000000000000 R14: 00007fff6ce82c70 R15: 0000000000445c20
[ 1.922254] Code: 83 ee 01 48 c7 c7 70 e6 97 81 e8 1d 0c e2 ff 48 89 de 48 c7 c7 a4 48 96 81 e8 0e 0c e2 ff 8b 85 5c ff ff ff 41 39 44 24 40 75 0e <f6> 43 12 04 41 0f 44 c7 89 85 5c ff ff ff 48 c7 c7 ad 48 96 81
[ 1.924489] RIP: ext4_fill_super+0x2f3b/0x33c0 RSP: ffffc9001a33bce0
[ 1.925334] CR2: ffff880139b75012
[ 1.942161] ---[ end trace fe884f328a0a7338 ]---
This is the code:

if ((grp == sbi->s_groups_count) &&
!(gdp->bg_flags & cpu_to_le16(EXT4_BG_INODE_ZEROED)))
in fs/ext4/super.c:ext4_check_descriptors() that's ultimately failing. It looks
like this allocation comes from sb_bread_unmovable(), which although it says
unmovable, seems to allocate the memory with:

MOVABLE
IO
NOFAIL
HARDWALL
DIRECT_RECLAIM
KSWAPD_RECLAIM

which I guess is from the additional flags in grow_dev_page() somewhere down
the stack. Anyway... it seems this is a kernel allocation that's using
MIGRATE_MOVABLE, so perhaps we need some more fine tuned heuristic than just
all MOVABLE allocations are un-mapped via xpfo, and all the others are mapped.

Do you have any ideas?

> Or, you could hook your code into the places where the migratetype of
> memory is changed (set_pageblock_migratetype(), plus where we fall
> back). Those changes are much more rare than page allocation.

I guess this has the same issue, that sometimes the kernel allocates MOVABLE
stuff that it wants to use.

Thanks,

Tycho

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