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Subject[PATCH 43/43] x86/mm/kaiser: Add Kconfig
From: Dave Hansen <>

PARAVIRT generally requires that the kernel not manage its own page
tables. It also means that the hypervisor and kernel must agree
wholeheartedly about what format the page tables are in and what
they contain. KAISER, unfortunately, changes the rules and they
can not be used together.

I've seen conflicting feedback from maintainers lately about whether
they want the Kconfig magic to go first or last in a patch series.
It's going last here because the partially-applied series leads to
kernels that can not boot in a bunch of cases. I did a run through
the entire series with CONFIG_KAISER=y to look for build errors,

Note from Hugh Dickins on why it depends on SMP:

It is absurd that KAISER should depend on SMP, but
apparently nobody has tried a UP build before: which
breaks on implicit declaration of function
'per_cpu_offset' in arch/x86/mm/kaiser.c.

Now, you would expect that to be trivially fixed up; but
looking at the when that block is #ifdef'ed
out of kaiser_init(), I see that in a UP build
__per_cpu_user_mapped_end is precisely at
__per_cpu_user_mapped_start, and the items carefully
gathered into that section for user-mapping on SMP,
dispersed elsewhere on UP.

Signed-off-by: Dave Hansen <>
Cc: Andy Lutomirski <>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <>
Cc: Brian Gerst <>
Cc: Daniel Gruss <>
Cc: Denys Vlasenko <>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <>
Cc: Josh Poimboeuf <>
Cc: Kees Cook <>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <>
Cc: Michael Schwarz <>
Cc: Moritz Lipp <>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <>
Cc: Richard Fellner <>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <>
security/Kconfig | 10 ++++++++++
1 file changed, 10 insertions(+)

diff --git a/security/Kconfig b/security/Kconfig
index e8e449444e65..99b530d0dd9e 100644
--- a/security/Kconfig
+++ b/security/Kconfig
@@ -54,6 +54,16 @@ config SECURITY_NETWORK
implement socket and networking access controls.
If you are unsure how to answer this question, answer N.

+config KAISER
+ bool "Remove the kernel mapping in user mode"
+ depends on X86_64 && SMP && !PARAVIRT
+ help
+ This feature reduces the number of hardware side channels by
+ ensuring that the majority of kernel addresses are not mapped
+ into userspace.
+ See Documentation/x86/kaiser.txt for more details.
bool "Infiniband Security Hooks"
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