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SubjectRe: [kernel-hardening] [PATCH v4] scripts: add leaking_addresses.pl
On Fri, Nov 10, 2017 at 07:26:34PM +0530, kaiwan.billimoria@gmail.com wrote:
> On Tue, 2017-11-07 at 21:32 +1100, Tobin C. Harding wrote:
> > Currently we are leaking addresses from the kernel to user space.
> > This
> > script is an attempt to find some of those leakages. Script parses
> > `dmesg` output and /proc and /sys files for hex strings that look
> > like
> > kernel addresses.
> >
> > Only works for 64 bit kernels, the reason being that kernel addresses
> > on 64 bit kernels have 'ffff' as the leading bit pattern making
> > greping
> > possible. On 32 kernels we don't have this luxury.
>
> Tobin C. Harding <me@tobin.cc> wrote:
> >Only works for 64 bit kernels, the reason being that kernel addresses
> >on 64 bit kernels have 'ffff' as the leading bit pattern making greping
> >possible. On 32 kernels we don't have this luxury.
>
> [RFC] leaking_addresses.pl - enhance it to work for 32-bit kernels as well
>
> (Firstly, apologies if I've got the protocol horribly wrong- should this
> be a new thread altogether?)

I think this patch will need to wait until the patch set that is
currently in flight is either merged or dropped.

> Ok so, I was interested in figuring - why not have this useful script work
> for 32-bit kernel virtual addresses as well (and those systems by
> extension).

Awesome.

> The approach am considering, pl correct me if I'm way off:
> on 32-bit, the kernel macro PAGE_OFFSET will give us the user-kernel split;
> (alternatively, could also script up CONFIG_VMSPLIT_[n]G and figure the
> split from there.)
>
> For the time being, lets say we go with the "use PAGE_OFFSET" approach and
> PAGE_OFFSET = 0xc0000000 , whch implies we have a 3:1 GB user:kernel split.
> So any virtual addresses >= PAGE_OFFSET are kernel virtual addresses (i
> know, untrue on some ARM-32 systems!).
>
> As a very early and *far-from-perfect* start, I've enhanced Tobin's Perl
> script to take into account 32-bit address space by passing the
> parameter '--bit-size='.

We can work this out pragmatically, Perl can give us an architecture
string then a few regexs can ascertain which architecture we are running
on. This is in the inflight patch set.

> The patch below does Not take into account (yet) stuff like:
> - exactly which files & dirs should be skipped on 32-bit (will it be
> identical to 64-bit?; unsure..)

As per discussion later in this thread we may need to consider
architecture specific lists for files/directories to skip.

> - it currently hard-codes a global 'PAGE_OFFSET_32BIT=0xc0000000' , just
> so I can test quickly; must figure whether to query it or pass it;
> Suggestions?

Perhaps we should have a command line option for this.

--kernel-base-address

> - the 'false positives'; again, what differs for 32-bit?
> (BTW, shouldn't the dmesg 'root=UUID=<...>' line be a false positive
> & skipped?).

We could probably do with architecture specific false
positives. Inflight patch set refactors false_positive() so adding to
this should be easy.

> Also, I must point out that I'm a complete newbie to Perl :-) so, pl excuse
> my highly inadequate perl-foo; I rely on you perl gurus out there to fix
> and optimize :)

I'm no Perl guru but following are a few tips I have picked up over the
last month.

> Yes, I've **Very Minimally** tested the patch in it's current form on:
> a) a regular (Fedora 26) x86_64 desktop,
> b) a (Debian 7) 32-bit kernel (VM) with PAGE_OFFSET=3 Gb
> and it seems all right, considering...
>
> Some sample output from test (b), if interested:
> =====
> dmesg: [ 0.000000] found SMP MP-table at [c00f1280] f1280
> dmesg: [ 0.000000] Base memory trampoline at [c009b000] 9b000 size 16384
> dmesg: [ 0.000000] ACPI: Local APIC address 0xfee00000
> dmesg: [ 0.000000] free_area_init_node: node 0, pgdat c1418bc0, node_mem_map dfbfa200
> dmesg: [ 0.000000] ACPI: Local APIC address 0xfee00000
> dmesg: [ 0.000000] ACPI: IOAPIC (id[0x00] address[0xfec00000] gsi_base[0])
> dmesg: [ 0.000000] IOAPIC[0]: apic_id 0, version 17, address 0xfec00000, GSI 0-23
> dmesg: [ 0.000000] PERCPU: Embedded 14 pages/cpu @dfbe8000 s33344 r0 d24000 u57344
> dmesg: [ 0.000000] fixmap : 0xffd36000 - 0xfffff000 (2852 kB)
> dmesg: [ 0.000000] pkmap : 0xffa00000 - 0xffc00000 (2048 kB)
> dmesg: [ 0.000000] vmalloc : 0xe07fb000 - 0xff9fe000 ( 498 MB)
> dmesg: [ 0.000000] lowmem : 0xc0000000 - 0xdfffb000 ( 511 MB)
> dmesg: [ 0.000000] .init : 0xc1421000 - 0xc148c000 ( 428 kB)
>
> [...]
>
> /proc/kallsyms: c10010e8 T _stext
> /proc/kallsyms: c1002000 T hypercall_page
> /proc/kallsyms: c1003000 t arch_local_save_flags
> /proc/kallsyms: c1003007 t arch_local_irq_enable
> /proc/kallsyms: c100300e T do_one_initcall
>
> << ... plenty more kallsyms of course (92.5% of the output to be precise!) ... >>
>
> /proc/modules: loop 17803 0 - Live 0xe097c000
> /proc/modules: crc32c_intel 12659 0 - Live 0xe096e000
> /proc/modules: snd_pcm 53461 0 - Live 0xe09f5000
> /proc/modules: snd_page_alloc 12867 1 snd_pcm, Live 0xe0957000
> /proc/modules: snd_timer 22401 1 snd_pcm, Live 0xe093c000
>
> [...]
>
> /proc/modules: usb_common 12338 1 usbcore, Live 0xe0860000
> /proc/timer_list: .base: dfbeb8b0
> /proc/timer_list: #0: <dfbeb954>, tick_sched_timer, S:01, hrtimer_start_range_ns, swapper/0/0
>
> [...]
>
> /proc/iomem: f8000000-fbffffff : 0000:00:02.0
> /proc/iomem: fc000000-fcffffff : 0000:00:02.0
> /proc/iomem: fd000000-fd03ffff : 0000:00:03.0
>
> [...]
>
> /proc/11422/syscall: 7 0xffffffff 0xbf814618 0xa 0xa 0x0 0x1 0xbf8145b8 0xb7780428
> /proc/11422/stack: [<c102953f>] kmap_atomic_prot+0x2f/0xe0
> /proc/11422/stack: [<c1125213>] security_task_wait+0xc/0xd
>
> [...]
>
> /proc/bus/input/devices: B: KEY=4 2000000 3803078 f800d001 feffffdf ffefffff ffffffff fffffffe
> /proc/1/net/ipv6_route: 00000000000000000000000000000000 00 00000000000000000000000000000000 00 00000000000000000000000000000000 ffffffff 00000001 0000000f 00200200 lo
>
> [...]
>
> /proc/2/net/unix: dce872c0: 00000005 00000000 00000000 0002 01 4978 /dev/log
> /proc/2/net/unix: dce87a40: 00000002 00000000 00010000 0001 01 5006 /var/run/acpid.socket
> /proc/2/net/unix: dce87540: 00000002 00000000 00010000 0005 01 3246 /run/udev/control
>
> [...]
> =====
> etc etc.
>
>
> Finally, unsure if am working against the latest ver of your script Tobin, apologies if not.

This was answered in private mail but for the list, v3 of this patch set
was merged into Linus' mainline. There is a patch set inflight also
on top of that.

https://lkml.org/lkml/2017/11/9/11

> Signed-off-by: Kaiwan N Billimoria <kaiwan@kaiwantech.com>
> ---
>
> diff --git a/scripts/leaking_addresses.pl b/scripts/leaking_addresses.pl
> index 2977371b2956..b6280dca8c46 100755
> --- a/scripts/leaking_addresses.pl
> +++ b/scripts/leaking_addresses.pl
> @@ -45,6 +45,7 @@ my $P = $0;
> my $V = '0.01';
>
> # Directories to scan.
> +#my @DIRS = ('/home/kai/0tmp/addr32_pl');

Cleaner without this :)

> my @DIRS = ('/proc', '/sys');
>
> # Command line options.
> @@ -52,6 +53,7 @@ my $help = 0;
> my $debug = 0;
> my @dont_walk = ();
> my @dont_parse = ();
> +my $bit_size = 64;

As commented on above, it might be better to plug into the arch specific
infrastructure implemented in the inflight patch set if it gets
merged. If not we can still set this variable pragmatically.

> # Do not parse these files (absolute path).
> my @skip_parse_files_abs = ('/proc/kmsg',
> @@ -86,6 +88,8 @@ my @skip_walk_dirs_any = ('self',
> 'stdin',
> 'stdout');
>
> +my $PAGE_OFFSET_32BIT = 0xc0000000;
> +
> sub help
> {
> my ($exitcode) = @_;
> @@ -96,10 +100,12 @@ Version: $V
>
> Options:
>
> + --bit-size= 32|[64] Checks for 64-bit kernel addresses by default;
> + change to check for 32-bit kernel addresses by passing 32 here
> --dont-walk=<dir> Don't walk tree starting at <dir>.
> --dont-parse=<file> Don't parse <file>.
> - -d, --debug Display debugging output.
> - -h, --help, --version Display this help and exit.
> + -d, --debug Display debugging output.
> + -h, --help, --version Display this help and exit.

It is easier to read your patch if these white space changes aren't here.

> If an absolute path is passed to --dont_XXX then this path is skipped. If a
> single filename is passed then this file/directory will be skipped when
> @@ -117,8 +123,9 @@ EOM
> }
>
> GetOptions(
> - 'dont-walk=s' => \@dont_walk,
> - 'dont-parse=s' => \@dont_parse,
> + 'dont-walk=s' => \@dont_walk,
> + 'dont-parse=s' => \@dont_parse,

And these ones.

> + 'bit-size=i' => \$bit_size,
> 'd|debug' => \$debug,
> 'h|help' => \$help,
> 'version' => \$help
> @@ -126,6 +133,10 @@ GetOptions(
>
> help(0) if ($help);
>
> +if ($bit_size != 64 && $bit_size != 32) {
> + help(1);
> +}

In order to make parsing easier, kernel Perl scripts tend to be written
with the same code layout as we write C. So indentation is 8 characters.

> push_to_global();
>
> parse_dmesg();
> @@ -168,6 +179,7 @@ sub push_to_global
> push_in_abs_any(\@dont_parse, \@skip_parse_files_abs, \@skip_parse_files_any);
> }
>
> +# NOT updated for 32-bit kernel addresses yet
> sub is_false_positive
> {
> my ($match) = @_;
> @@ -183,6 +195,7 @@ sub is_false_positive
> return 1;
> }
>
> +# TODO - skip the 'root=UUID=<...>' line as well
> return 0;
> }
>
> @@ -190,7 +203,8 @@ sub is_false_positive
> sub may_leak_address
> {
> my ($line) = @_;
> - my $address = '\b(0x)?ffff[[:xdigit:]]{12}\b';
> + my $address64 = '\b(0x)?ffff[[:xdigit:]]{12}\b';
> + my $address32 = '\b(0x)?[[:xdigit:]]{8}\b';

Cool.

> # Signal masks.
> if ($line =~ '^SigBlk:' or
> @@ -202,11 +216,23 @@ sub may_leak_address
> $line =~ '\b[[:xdigit:]]{14} [[:xdigit:]]{16} [[:xdigit:]]{16}\b') {
> return 0;
> }
> -
> - while (/($address)/g) {
> +
> + if ($bit_size == 64) {
> + while (/($address64)/g) {
> if (!is_false_positive($1)) {
> return 1;
> }
> + }
> + } elsif ($bit_size == 32) {
> + while (/($address32)/g) {
> + my $addr32 = eval hex($1);
> + if ($addr32 < $PAGE_OFFSET_32BIT) {
> + return 0;
> + }
> + if (!is_false_positive($addr32)) {
> + return 1;
> + }
> + }
> }
>
> return 0;
>
> scripts/leaking_addresses.pl | 40 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-------

Conceptually your ideas look good to me. If there is some reason this
approach won't work hopefully someone else will jump in and say so.

Nice work, thanks for putting in effort to get 32 bit machines
supported. Let's see what happens with the inflight patch set then work
on getting these ideas in.

thanks,
Tobin.

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