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SubjectRe: [PATCH v9 05/12] RISC-V: Atomic and Locking Code
Hi Palmer,

Some late comments on this which you might want to address as you get the
chance.

On Tue, Sep 26, 2017 at 06:56:31PM -0700, Palmer Dabbelt wrote:
> This contains all the code that directly interfaces with the RISC-V
> memory model. While this code corforms to the current RISC-V ISA
> specifications (user 2.2 and priv 1.10), the memory model is somewhat
> underspecified in those documents. There is a working group that hopes
> to produce a formal memory model by the end of the year, but my
> understanding is that the basic definitions we're relying on here won't
> change significantly.
>
> Reviewed-by: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
> Signed-off-by: Palmer Dabbelt <palmer@dabbelt.com>
> ---
> arch/riscv/include/asm/atomic.h | 375 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> arch/riscv/include/asm/barrier.h | 68 ++++++
> arch/riscv/include/asm/bitops.h | 218 +++++++++++++++++++
> arch/riscv/include/asm/cacheflush.h | 39 ++++
> arch/riscv/include/asm/cmpxchg.h | 134 ++++++++++++
> arch/riscv/include/asm/io.h | 303 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> arch/riscv/include/asm/spinlock.h | 165 ++++++++++++++
> arch/riscv/include/asm/spinlock_types.h | 33 +++
> arch/riscv/include/asm/tlb.h | 24 ++
> arch/riscv/include/asm/tlbflush.h | 64 ++++++
> 10 files changed, 1423 insertions(+)
> create mode 100644 arch/riscv/include/asm/atomic.h
> create mode 100644 arch/riscv/include/asm/barrier.h
> create mode 100644 arch/riscv/include/asm/bitops.h
> create mode 100644 arch/riscv/include/asm/cacheflush.h
> create mode 100644 arch/riscv/include/asm/cmpxchg.h
> create mode 100644 arch/riscv/include/asm/io.h
> create mode 100644 arch/riscv/include/asm/spinlock.h
> create mode 100644 arch/riscv/include/asm/spinlock_types.h
> create mode 100644 arch/riscv/include/asm/tlb.h
> create mode 100644 arch/riscv/include/asm/tlbflush.h
>
> diff --git a/arch/riscv/include/asm/atomic.h b/arch/riscv/include/asm/atomic.h
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..e2e37c57cbeb
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/arch/riscv/include/asm/atomic.h
> @@ -0,0 +1,375 @@
> +/*
> + * Copyright (C) 2007 Red Hat, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
> + * Copyright (C) 2012 Regents of the University of California
> + * Copyright (C) 2017 SiFive
> + *
> + * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
> + * modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public Licence
> + * as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version
> + * 2 of the Licence, or (at your option) any later version.
> + */
> +
> +#ifndef _ASM_RISCV_ATOMIC_H
> +#define _ASM_RISCV_ATOMIC_H
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_GENERIC_ATOMIC64
> +# include <asm-generic/atomic64.h>
> +#else
> +# if (__riscv_xlen < 64)
> +# error "64-bit atomics require XLEN to be at least 64"
> +# endif
> +#endif
> +
> +#include <asm/cmpxchg.h>
> +#include <asm/barrier.h>
> +
> +#define ATOMIC_INIT(i) { (i) }
> +static __always_inline int atomic_read(const atomic_t *v)
> +{
> + return READ_ONCE(v->counter);
> +}
> +static __always_inline void atomic_set(atomic_t *v, int i)
> +{
> + WRITE_ONCE(v->counter, i);
> +}
> +
> +#ifndef CONFIG_GENERIC_ATOMIC64
> +#define ATOMIC64_INIT(i) { (i) }
> +static __always_inline long atomic64_read(const atomic64_t *v)
> +{
> + return READ_ONCE(v->counter);
> +}
> +static __always_inline void atomic64_set(atomic64_t *v, long i)
> +{
> + WRITE_ONCE(v->counter, i);
> +}
> +#endif
> +
> +/*
> + * First, the atomic ops that have no ordering constraints and therefor don't
> + * have the AQ or RL bits set. These don't return anything, so there's only
> + * one version to worry about.
> + */
> +#define ATOMIC_OP(op, asm_op, c_op, I, asm_type, c_type, prefix) \
> +static __always_inline void atomic##prefix##_##op(c_type i, atomic##prefix##_t *v) \
> +{ \
> + __asm__ __volatile__ ( \
> + "amo" #asm_op "." #asm_type " zero, %1, %0" \
> + : "+A" (v->counter) \
> + : "r" (I) \
> + : "memory"); \
> +}
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_GENERIC_ATOMIC64
> +#define ATOMIC_OPS(op, asm_op, c_op, I) \
> + ATOMIC_OP (op, asm_op, c_op, I, w, int, )
> +#else
> +#define ATOMIC_OPS(op, asm_op, c_op, I) \
> + ATOMIC_OP (op, asm_op, c_op, I, w, int, ) \
> + ATOMIC_OP (op, asm_op, c_op, I, d, long, 64)
> +#endif
> +
> +ATOMIC_OPS(add, add, +, i)
> +ATOMIC_OPS(sub, add, +, -i)
> +ATOMIC_OPS(and, and, &, i)
> +ATOMIC_OPS( or, or, |, i)
> +ATOMIC_OPS(xor, xor, ^, i)

What is the point in the c_op parameter to these things?

> +/*
> + * Atomic ops that have ordered, relaxed, acquire, and relese variants.
> + * There's two flavors of these: the arithmatic ops have both fetch and return
> + * versions, while the logical ops only have fetch versions.
> + */
> +#define ATOMIC_FETCH_OP(op, asm_op, c_op, I, asm_or, c_or, asm_type, c_type, prefix) \
> +static __always_inline c_type atomic##prefix##_fetch_##op##c_or(c_type i, atomic##prefix##_t *v) \
> +{ \
> + register c_type ret; \
> + __asm__ __volatile__ ( \
> + "amo" #asm_op "." #asm_type #asm_or " %1, %2, %0" \
> + : "+A" (v->counter), "=r" (ret) \
> + : "r" (I) \
> + : "memory"); \
> + return ret; \
> +}
> +
> +#define ATOMIC_OP_RETURN(op, asm_op, c_op, I, asm_or, c_or, asm_type, c_type, prefix) \
> +static __always_inline c_type atomic##prefix##_##op##_return##c_or(c_type i, atomic##prefix##_t *v) \
> +{ \
> + return atomic##prefix##_fetch_##op##c_or(i, v) c_op I; \
> +}
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_GENERIC_ATOMIC64
> +#define ATOMIC_OPS(op, asm_op, c_op, I, asm_or, c_or) \
> + ATOMIC_FETCH_OP (op, asm_op, c_op, I, asm_or, c_or, w, int, ) \
> + ATOMIC_OP_RETURN(op, asm_op, c_op, I, asm_or, c_or, w, int, )
> +#else
> +#define ATOMIC_OPS(op, asm_op, c_op, I, asm_or, c_or) \
> + ATOMIC_FETCH_OP (op, asm_op, c_op, I, asm_or, c_or, w, int, ) \
> + ATOMIC_OP_RETURN(op, asm_op, c_op, I, asm_or, c_or, w, int, ) \
> + ATOMIC_FETCH_OP (op, asm_op, c_op, I, asm_or, c_or, d, long, 64) \
> + ATOMIC_OP_RETURN(op, asm_op, c_op, I, asm_or, c_or, d, long, 64)
> +#endif
> +
> +ATOMIC_OPS(add, add, +, i, , _relaxed)
> +ATOMIC_OPS(add, add, +, i, .aq , _acquire)
> +ATOMIC_OPS(add, add, +, i, .rl , _release)
> +ATOMIC_OPS(add, add, +, i, .aqrl, )

Have you checked that .aqrl is equivalent to "ordered", since there are
interpretations where that isn't the case. Specifically:

// all variables zero at start of time
P0:
WRITE_ONCE(x) = 1;
atomic_add_return(y, 1);
WRITE_ONCE(z) = 1;

P1:
READ_ONCE(z) // reads 1
smp_rmb();
READ_ONCE(x) // must not read 0

> +/*
> + * atomic_{cmp,}xchg is required to have exactly the same ordering semantics as
> + * {cmp,}xchg and the operations that return, so they need a barrier. We just
> + * use the other implementations directly.
> + */

We also have relaxed/acquire/release versions of cmpxchg and xchg, if you
want to implement them.

> +#define ATOMIC_OP(c_t, prefix, c_or, size, asm_or) \
> +static __always_inline c_t atomic##prefix##_cmpxchg##c_or(atomic##prefix##_t *v, c_t o, c_t n) \
> +{ \
> + return __cmpxchg(&(v->counter), o, n, size, asm_or, asm_or); \
> +} \
> +static __always_inline c_t atomic##prefix##_xchg##c_or(atomic##prefix##_t *v, c_t n) \
> +{ \
> + return __xchg(n, &(v->counter), size, asm_or); \
> +}
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_GENERIC_ATOMIC64
> +#define ATOMIC_OPS(c_or, asm_or) \
> + ATOMIC_OP( int, , c_or, 4, asm_or)
> +#else
> +#define ATOMIC_OPS(c_or, asm_or) \
> + ATOMIC_OP( int, , c_or, 4, asm_or) \
> + ATOMIC_OP(long, 64, c_or, 8, asm_or)
> +#endif
> +
> +ATOMIC_OPS( , .aqrl)
> +ATOMIC_OPS(_acquire, .aq)
> +ATOMIC_OPS(_release, .rl)
> +ATOMIC_OPS(_relaxed, )
> +
> +#undef ATOMIC_OPS
> +#undef ATOMIC_OP
> +
> +static __always_inline int atomic_sub_if_positive(atomic_t *v, int offset)
> +{
> + int prev, rc;
> +
> + __asm__ __volatile__ (
> + "0:\n\t"
> + "lr.w.aqrl %[p], %[c]\n\t"
> + "sub %[rc], %[p], %[o]\n\t"
> + "bltz %[rc], 1f\n\t"
> + "sc.w.aqrl %[rc], %[rc], %[c]\n\t"
> + "bnez %[rc], 0b\n\t"
> + "1:"
> + : [p]"=&r" (prev), [rc]"=&r" (rc), [c]"+A" (v->counter)
> + : [o]"r" (offset)
> + : "memory");
> + return prev - offset;
> +}
> +
> +#define atomic_dec_if_positive(v) atomic_sub_if_positive(v, 1)
> +
> +#ifndef CONFIG_GENERIC_ATOMIC64
> +static __always_inline long atomic64_sub_if_positive(atomic64_t *v, int offset)
> +{
> + long prev, rc;
> +
> + __asm__ __volatile__ (
> + "0:\n\t"
> + "lr.d.aqrl %[p], %[c]\n\t"
> + "sub %[rc], %[p], %[o]\n\t"
> + "bltz %[rc], 1f\n\t"
> + "sc.d.aqrl %[rc], %[rc], %[c]\n\t"
> + "bnez %[rc], 0b\n\t"
> + "1:"
> + : [p]"=&r" (prev), [rc]"=&r" (rc), [c]"+A" (v->counter)
> + : [o]"r" (offset)
> + : "memory");
> + return prev - offset;
> +}
> +
> +#define atomic64_dec_if_positive(v) atomic64_sub_if_positive(v, 1)
> +#endif
> +
> +#endif /* _ASM_RISCV_ATOMIC_H */
> diff --git a/arch/riscv/include/asm/barrier.h b/arch/riscv/include/asm/barrier.h
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..183534b7c39b
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/arch/riscv/include/asm/barrier.h
> @@ -0,0 +1,68 @@
> +/*
> + * Based on arch/arm/include/asm/barrier.h
> + *
> + * Copyright (C) 2012 ARM Ltd.
> + * Copyright (C) 2013 Regents of the University of California
> + * Copyright (C) 2017 SiFive
> + *
> + * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
> + * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
> + * published by the Free Software Foundation.
> + *
> + * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
> + * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
> + * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
> + * GNU General Public License for more details.
> + *
> + * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
> + * along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
> + */
> +
> +#ifndef _ASM_RISCV_BARRIER_H
> +#define _ASM_RISCV_BARRIER_H
> +
> +#ifndef __ASSEMBLY__
> +
> +#define nop() __asm__ __volatile__ ("nop")
> +
> +#define RISCV_FENCE(p, s) \
> + __asm__ __volatile__ ("fence " #p "," #s : : : "memory")
> +
> +/* These barriers need to enforce ordering on both devices or memory. */
> +#define mb() RISCV_FENCE(iorw,iorw)
> +#define rmb() RISCV_FENCE(ir,ir)
> +#define wmb() RISCV_FENCE(ow,ow)
> +
> +/* These barriers do not need to enforce ordering on devices, just memory. */
> +#define smp_mb() RISCV_FENCE(rw,rw)
> +#define smp_rmb() RISCV_FENCE(r,r)
> +#define smp_wmb() RISCV_FENCE(w,w)
> +
> +/*
> + * These fences exist to enforce ordering around the relaxed AMOs. The
> + * documentation defines that
> + * "
> + * atomic_fetch_add();
> + * is equivalent to:
> + * smp_mb__before_atomic();
> + * atomic_fetch_add_relaxed();
> + * smp_mb__after_atomic();
> + * "
> + * So we emit full fences on both sides.
> + */
> +#define __smb_mb__before_atomic() smp_mb()
> +#define __smb_mb__after_atomic() smp_mb()
Now I'm confused, because you're also spitting out .aqrl for those afaict.
Do you really need full barriers *and* .aqrl, or am I misunderstanding
something here?

> +
> +/*
> + * These barriers prevent accesses performed outside a spinlock from being moved
> + * inside a spinlock. Since RISC-V sets the aq/rl bits on our spinlock only
> + * enforce release consistency, we need full fences here.
> + */
> +#define smb_mb__before_spinlock() smp_mb()

We killed this macro, so you don't need to define it.

> +#define smb_mb__after_spinlock() smp_mb()
> +
> +#include <asm-generic/barrier.h>
> +
> +#endif /* __ASSEMBLY__ */
> +
> +#endif /* _ASM_RISCV_BARRIER_H */
> diff --git a/arch/riscv/include/asm/bitops.h b/arch/riscv/include/asm/bitops.h
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..7c281ef1d583
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/arch/riscv/include/asm/bitops.h
> @@ -0,0 +1,218 @@
> +/*
> + * Copyright (C) 2012 Regents of the University of California
> + *
> + * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
> + * modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
> + * as published by the Free Software Foundation, version 2.
> + *
> + * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
> + * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
> + * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
> + * GNU General Public License for more details.
> + */
> +
> +#ifndef _ASM_RISCV_BITOPS_H
> +#define _ASM_RISCV_BITOPS_H
> +
> +#ifndef _LINUX_BITOPS_H
> +#error "Only <linux/bitops.h> can be included directly"
> +#endif /* _LINUX_BITOPS_H */
> +
> +#include <linux/compiler.h>
> +#include <linux/irqflags.h>
> +#include <asm/barrier.h>
> +#include <asm/bitsperlong.h>
> +
> +#ifndef smp_mb__before_clear_bit
> +#define smp_mb__before_clear_bit() smp_mb()
> +#define smp_mb__after_clear_bit() smp_mb()
> +#endif /* smp_mb__before_clear_bit */
> +
> +#include <asm-generic/bitops/__ffs.h>
> +#include <asm-generic/bitops/ffz.h>
> +#include <asm-generic/bitops/fls.h>
> +#include <asm-generic/bitops/__fls.h>
> +#include <asm-generic/bitops/fls64.h>
> +#include <asm-generic/bitops/find.h>
> +#include <asm-generic/bitops/sched.h>
> +#include <asm-generic/bitops/ffs.h>
> +
> +#include <asm-generic/bitops/hweight.h>
> +
> +#if (BITS_PER_LONG == 64)
> +#define __AMO(op) "amo" #op ".d"
> +#elif (BITS_PER_LONG == 32)
> +#define __AMO(op) "amo" #op ".w"
> +#else
> +#error "Unexpected BITS_PER_LONG"
> +#endif
> +
> +#define __test_and_op_bit_ord(op, mod, nr, addr, ord) \
> +({ \
> + unsigned long __res, __mask; \
> + __mask = BIT_MASK(nr); \
> + __asm__ __volatile__ ( \
> + __AMO(op) #ord " %0, %2, %1" \
> + : "=r" (__res), "+A" (addr[BIT_WORD(nr)]) \
> + : "r" (mod(__mask)) \
> + : "memory"); \
> + ((__res & __mask) != 0); \
> +})

This looks broken to me -- the value-returning test bitops need to be fully
ordered.

> +#ifndef _ASM_RISCV_CMPXCHG_H
> +#define _ASM_RISCV_CMPXCHG_H
> +
> +#include <linux/bug.h>
> +
> +#include <asm/barrier.h>
> +
> +#define __xchg(new, ptr, size, asm_or) \
> +({ \
> + __typeof__(ptr) __ptr = (ptr); \
> + __typeof__(new) __new = (new); \
> + __typeof__(*(ptr)) __ret; \
> + switch (size) { \
> + case 4: \
> + __asm__ __volatile__ ( \
> + "amoswap.w" #asm_or " %0, %2, %1" \
> + : "=r" (__ret), "+A" (*__ptr) \
> + : "r" (__new) \
> + : "memory"); \
> + break; \
> + case 8: \
> + __asm__ __volatile__ ( \
> + "amoswap.d" #asm_or " %0, %2, %1" \
> + : "=r" (__ret), "+A" (*__ptr) \
> + : "r" (__new) \
> + : "memory"); \
> + break; \
> + default: \
> + BUILD_BUG(); \
> + } \
> + __ret; \
> +})
> +
> +#define xchg(ptr, x) (__xchg((x), (ptr), sizeof(*(ptr)), .aqrl))
> +
> +#define xchg32(ptr, x) \
> +({ \
> + BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(*(ptr)) != 4); \
> + xchg((ptr), (x)); \
> +})
> +
> +#define xchg64(ptr, x) \
> +({ \
> + BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(*(ptr)) != 8); \
> + xchg((ptr), (x)); \
> +})
> +
> +/*
> + * Atomic compare and exchange. Compare OLD with MEM, if identical,
> + * store NEW in MEM. Return the initial value in MEM. Success is
> + * indicated by comparing RETURN with OLD.
> + */
> +#define __cmpxchg(ptr, old, new, size, lrb, scb) \
> +({ \
> + __typeof__(ptr) __ptr = (ptr); \
> + __typeof__(*(ptr)) __old = (old); \
> + __typeof__(*(ptr)) __new = (new); \
> + __typeof__(*(ptr)) __ret; \
> + register unsigned int __rc; \
> + switch (size) { \
> + case 4: \
> + __asm__ __volatile__ ( \
> + "0:" \
> + "lr.w" #scb " %0, %2\n" \
> + "bne %0, %z3, 1f\n" \
> + "sc.w" #lrb " %1, %z4, %2\n" \
> + "bnez %1, 0b\n" \

You don't have an AMO for these?

> + "1:" \
> + : "=&r" (__ret), "=&r" (__rc), "+A" (*__ptr) \
> + : "rJ" (__old), "rJ" (__new) \
> + : "memory"); \
> + break; \
> + case 8: \
> + __asm__ __volatile__ ( \
> + "0:" \
> + "lr.d" #scb " %0, %2\n" \
> + "bne %0, %z3, 1f\n" \
> + "sc.d" #lrb " %1, %z4, %2\n" \
> + "bnez %1, 0b\n" \
> + "1:" \
> + : "=&r" (__ret), "=&r" (__rc), "+A" (*__ptr) \
> + : "rJ" (__old), "rJ" (__new) \
> + : "memory"); \
> + break; \
> + default: \
> + BUILD_BUG(); \
> + } \
> + __ret; \
> +})

[...]

> +#ifndef _ASM_RISCV_SPINLOCK_H
> +#define _ASM_RISCV_SPINLOCK_H
> +
> +#include <linux/kernel.h>
> +#include <asm/current.h>
> +
> +/*
> + * Simple spin lock operations. These provide no fairness guarantees.
> + */
> +
> +/* FIXME: Replace this with a ticket lock, like MIPS. */
> +
> +#define arch_spin_lock_flags(lock, flags) arch_spin_lock(lock)
> +#define arch_spin_is_locked(x) ((x)->lock != 0)

Missing READ_ONCE.

> +
> +static inline void arch_spin_unlock(arch_spinlock_t *lock)
> +{
> + __asm__ __volatile__ (
> + "amoswap.w.rl x0, x0, %0"
> + : "=A" (lock->lock)
> + :: "memory");
> +}
> +
> +static inline int arch_spin_trylock(arch_spinlock_t *lock)
> +{
> + int tmp = 1, busy;
> +
> + __asm__ __volatile__ (
> + "amoswap.w.aq %0, %2, %1"
> + : "=r" (busy), "+A" (lock->lock)
> + : "r" (tmp)
> + : "memory");
> +
> + return !busy;
> +}
> +
> +static inline void arch_spin_lock(arch_spinlock_t *lock)
> +{
> + while (1) {
> + if (arch_spin_is_locked(lock))
> + continue;
> +
> + if (arch_spin_trylock(lock))
> + break;
> + }
> +}
> +
> +static inline void arch_spin_unlock_wait(arch_spinlock_t *lock)
> +{
> + smp_rmb();
> + do {
> + cpu_relax();
> + } while (arch_spin_is_locked(lock));
> + smp_acquire__after_ctrl_dep();
> +}

We killed this one too, so please drop it.

> +/***********************************************************/
> +
> +static inline int arch_read_can_lock(arch_rwlock_t *lock)
> +{
> + return lock->lock >= 0;
> +}
> +
> +static inline int arch_write_can_lock(arch_rwlock_t *lock)
> +{
> + return lock->lock == 0;
> +}
> +
> +static inline void arch_read_lock(arch_rwlock_t *lock)
> +{
> + int tmp;
> +
> + __asm__ __volatile__(
> + "1: lr.w %1, %0\n"
> + " bltz %1, 1b\n"
> + " addi %1, %1, 1\n"
> + " sc.w.aq %1, %1, %0\n"
> + " bnez %1, 1b\n"
> + : "+A" (lock->lock), "=&r" (tmp)
> + :: "memory");
> +}
> +
> +static inline void arch_write_lock(arch_rwlock_t *lock)
> +{
> + int tmp;
> +
> + __asm__ __volatile__(
> + "1: lr.w %1, %0\n"
> + " bnez %1, 1b\n"
> + " li %1, -1\n"
> + " sc.w.aq %1, %1, %0\n"
> + " bnez %1, 1b\n"
> + : "+A" (lock->lock), "=&r" (tmp)
> + :: "memory");
> +}

I think you have the same starvation issues as we have on arm64 here. I
strongly recommend moving over to qrwlock :)

> +#ifndef _ASM_RISCV_TLBFLUSH_H
> +#define _ASM_RISCV_TLBFLUSH_H
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_MMU
> +
> +/* Flush entire local TLB */
> +static inline void local_flush_tlb_all(void)
> +{
> + __asm__ __volatile__ ("sfence.vma" : : : "memory");
> +}
> +
> +/* Flush one page from local TLB */
> +static inline void local_flush_tlb_page(unsigned long addr)
> +{
> + __asm__ __volatile__ ("sfence.vma %0" : : "r" (addr) : "memory");
> +}

Is this serialised against prior updates to the page table (set_pte) and
also against subsequent instruction fetch?

Will

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