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SubjectRe: [PATCH/RESEND 5/5] z3fold: add kref refcounting
On Wed, Jan 11, 2017 at 5:58 PM, Dan Streetman <ddstreet@ieee.org> wrote:
> On Wed, Jan 11, 2017 at 5:52 AM, Vitaly Wool <vitalywool@gmail.com> wrote:
>> On Wed, Jan 4, 2017 at 7:42 PM, Dan Streetman <ddstreet@ieee.org> wrote:
>>> On Sun, Dec 25, 2016 at 7:40 PM, Vitaly Wool <vitalywool@gmail.com> wrote:
>>>> With both coming and already present locking optimizations,
>>>> introducing kref to reference-count z3fold objects is the right
>>>> thing to do. Moreover, it makes buddied list no longer necessary,
>>>> and allows for a simpler handling of headless pages.
>>>>
>>>> Signed-off-by: Vitaly Wool <vitalywool@gmail.com>
>>>> ---
>>>> mm/z3fold.c | 137 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------------------------------
>>>> 1 file changed, 68 insertions(+), 69 deletions(-)
>>>>
>>>> diff --git a/mm/z3fold.c b/mm/z3fold.c
>>>> index 729a2da..4593493 100644
>>>> --- a/mm/z3fold.c
>>>> +++ b/mm/z3fold.c
>>>> @@ -52,6 +52,7 @@ enum buddy {
>>>> * z3fold page, except for HEADLESS pages
>>>> * @buddy: links the z3fold page into the relevant list in the pool
>>>> * @page_lock: per-page lock
>>>> + * @refcount: reference cound for the z3fold page
>>>> * @first_chunks: the size of the first buddy in chunks, 0 if free
>>>> * @middle_chunks: the size of the middle buddy in chunks, 0 if free
>>>> * @last_chunks: the size of the last buddy in chunks, 0 if free
>>>> @@ -60,6 +61,7 @@ enum buddy {
>>>> struct z3fold_header {
>>>> struct list_head buddy;
>>>> raw_spinlock_t page_lock;
>>>> + struct kref refcount;
>>>> unsigned short first_chunks;
>>>> unsigned short middle_chunks;
>>>> unsigned short last_chunks;
>>>> @@ -95,8 +97,6 @@ struct z3fold_header {
>>>> * @unbuddied: array of lists tracking z3fold pages that contain 2- buddies;
>>>> * the lists each z3fold page is added to depends on the size of
>>>> * its free region.
>>>> - * @buddied: list tracking the z3fold pages that contain 3 buddies;
>>>> - * these z3fold pages are full
>>>> * @lru: list tracking the z3fold pages in LRU order by most recently
>>>> * added buddy.
>>>> * @pages_nr: number of z3fold pages in the pool.
>>>> @@ -109,7 +109,6 @@ struct z3fold_header {
>>>> struct z3fold_pool {
>>>> spinlock_t lock;
>>>> struct list_head unbuddied[NCHUNKS];
>>>> - struct list_head buddied;
>>>> struct list_head lru;
>>>> atomic64_t pages_nr;
>>>> const struct z3fold_ops *ops;
>>>> @@ -162,9 +161,21 @@ static struct z3fold_header *init_z3fold_page(struct page *page)
>>>> }
>>>>
>>>> /* Resets the struct page fields and frees the page */
>>>> -static void free_z3fold_page(struct z3fold_header *zhdr)
>>>> +static void free_z3fold_page(struct page *page)
>>>> {
>>>> - __free_page(virt_to_page(zhdr));
>>>> + __free_page(page);
>>>> +}
>>>> +
>>>> +static void release_z3fold_page(struct kref *ref)
>>>> +{
>>>> + struct z3fold_header *zhdr = container_of(ref, struct z3fold_header,
>>>> + refcount);
>>>> + struct page *page = virt_to_page(zhdr);
>>>> + if (!list_empty(&zhdr->buddy))
>>>> + list_del(&zhdr->buddy);
>>>> + if (!list_empty(&page->lru))
>>>> + list_del(&page->lru);
>>>
>>> wait, a page shouldn't ever be on a buddy or lru list if it's free,
>>> should it? these checks are bugs if they're true aren't they?
>>> Relying on the release function to remove a page from its buddy and/or
>>> lru list (and hoping no other code already took it off and it using
>>> it) seems very error-prone.
>>
>> Why? We manage not to care if page is on a list or not when it's
>> become unused. When we release a page we don't actually know if anyone
>> else is using it and that's ok.
>
> it seems like an unusual thing, for the page to be still on any list
> when there's no longer any kref to it. I don't see any *specific*
> problem in this patch with doing it, though. I just worry that unseen
> bugs may lurk, or may be introduced later.
>
>>
>>>> + free_z3fold_page(page);
>>>> }
>>>>
>>>> /* Lock a z3fold page */
>>>> @@ -256,9 +267,9 @@ static struct z3fold_pool *z3fold_create_pool(gfp_t gfp,
>>>> if (!pool)
>>>> return NULL;
>>>> spin_lock_init(&pool->lock);
>>>> + kref_init(&zhdr->refcount);
>>>> for_each_unbuddied_list(i, 0)
>>>> INIT_LIST_HEAD(&pool->unbuddied[i]);
>>>> - INIT_LIST_HEAD(&pool->buddied);
>>>> INIT_LIST_HEAD(&pool->lru);
>>>> atomic64_set(&pool->pages_nr, 0);
>>>> pool->ops = ops;
>>>> @@ -383,7 +394,7 @@ static int z3fold_alloc(struct z3fold_pool *pool, size_t size, gfp_t gfp,
>>>> spin_lock(&pool->lock);
>>>> zhdr = list_first_entry_or_null(&pool->unbuddied[i],
>>>> struct z3fold_header, buddy);
>>>> - if (!zhdr) {
>>>> + if (!zhdr || !kref_get_unless_zero(&zhdr->refcount)) {
>>>
>>> if we can't rely on the kref to be safe under the pool lock, the kref
>>> isn't very useful is it? seems like it just makes things more
>>> complicated.
>>
>> No, this is just an overkill check. I tried this patch with the direct
>> kref_get() instead and it's ok.
>>
>>> the kref should be assumed to be safe while holding the pool lock, or
>>> whatever lock protects the list(s) the object is on, otherwise it
>>> seems likely that use-after-free problems will result...but this goes
>>> back to my concern about relying on the freeing function to remove
>>> objects from their lists.
>>
>> As long as kref_put() is called with the pool lock held it is no problem.
>>
>>>> spin_unlock(&pool->lock);
>>>> continue;
>>>> }
>>>> @@ -403,10 +414,12 @@ static int z3fold_alloc(struct z3fold_pool *pool, size_t size, gfp_t gfp,
>>>> else if (zhdr->middle_chunks == 0)
>>>> bud = MIDDLE;
>>>> else {
>>>> + z3fold_page_unlock(zhdr);
>>>> spin_lock(&pool->lock);
>>>> - list_add(&zhdr->buddy, &pool->buddied);
>>>> + if (kref_put(&zhdr->refcount,
>>>> + release_z3fold_page))
>>>> + atomic64_dec(&pool->pages_nr);
>>>> spin_unlock(&pool->lock);
>>>> - z3fold_page_unlock(zhdr);
>>>> pr_err("No free chunks in unbuddied\n");
>>>> WARN_ON(1);
>>>> continue;
>>>> @@ -447,9 +460,6 @@ static int z3fold_alloc(struct z3fold_pool *pool, size_t size, gfp_t gfp,
>>>> /* Add to unbuddied list */
>>>> freechunks = num_free_chunks(zhdr);
>>>> list_add(&zhdr->buddy, &pool->unbuddied[freechunks]);
>>>> - } else {
>>>> - /* Add to buddied list */
>>>> - list_add(&zhdr->buddy, &pool->buddied);
>>>> }
>>>>
>>>> headless:
>>>> @@ -515,50 +525,39 @@ static void z3fold_free(struct z3fold_pool *pool, unsigned long handle)
>>>>
>>>> if (test_bit(UNDER_RECLAIM, &page->private)) {
>>>> /* z3fold page is under reclaim, reclaim will free */
>>>> - if (bud != HEADLESS)
>>>> + if (bud != HEADLESS) {
>>>> z3fold_page_unlock(zhdr);
>>>> - return;
>>>> - }
>>>> -
>>>> - /* Remove from existing buddy list */
>>>> - if (bud != HEADLESS) {
>>>> - spin_lock(&pool->lock);
>>>> - /*
>>>> - * this object may have been removed from its list by
>>>> - * z3fold_alloc(). In that case we just do nothing,
>>>> - * z3fold_alloc() will allocate an object and add the page
>>>> - * to the relevant list.
>>>> - */
>>>> - if (!list_empty(&zhdr->buddy)) {
>>>> - list_del(&zhdr->buddy);
>>>> - } else {
>>>> + spin_lock(&pool->lock);
>>>> + if (kref_put(&zhdr->refcount, release_z3fold_page))
>>>> + atomic64_dec(&pool->pages_nr);
>>>> spin_unlock(&pool->lock);
>>>> - z3fold_page_unlock(zhdr);
>>>> - return;
>>>> }
>>>> - spin_unlock(&pool->lock);
>>>> + return;
>>>> }
>>>>
>>>> - if (bud == HEADLESS ||
>>>> - (zhdr->first_chunks == 0 && zhdr->middle_chunks == 0 &&
>>>> - zhdr->last_chunks == 0)) {
>>>> - /* z3fold page is empty, free */
>>>> + if (bud == HEADLESS) {
>>>> spin_lock(&pool->lock);
>>>> list_del(&page->lru);
>>>> spin_unlock(&pool->lock);
>>>> - clear_bit(PAGE_HEADLESS, &page->private);
>>>> - if (bud != HEADLESS)
>>>> - z3fold_page_unlock(zhdr);
>>>> - free_z3fold_page(zhdr);
>>>> + free_z3fold_page(page);
>>>> atomic64_dec(&pool->pages_nr);
>>>> } else {
>>>> - z3fold_compact_page(zhdr);
>>>> - /* Add to the unbuddied list */
>>>> + if (zhdr->first_chunks != 0 || zhdr->middle_chunks != 0 ||
>>>> + zhdr->last_chunks != 0) {
>>>> + z3fold_compact_page(zhdr);
>>>> + /* Add to the unbuddied list */
>>>> + spin_lock(&pool->lock);
>>>> + if (!list_empty(&zhdr->buddy))
>>>> + list_del(&zhdr->buddy);
>>>> + freechunks = num_free_chunks(zhdr);
>>>> + list_add(&zhdr->buddy, &pool->unbuddied[freechunks]);
>>>> + spin_unlock(&pool->lock);
>>>> + }
>>>> + z3fold_page_unlock(zhdr);
>>>> spin_lock(&pool->lock);
>>>> - freechunks = num_free_chunks(zhdr);
>>>> - list_add(&zhdr->buddy, &pool->unbuddied[freechunks]);
>>>> + if (kref_put(&zhdr->refcount, release_z3fold_page))
>>>> + atomic64_dec(&pool->pages_nr);
>>>> spin_unlock(&pool->lock);
>>>> - z3fold_page_unlock(zhdr);
>>>> }
>>>>
>>>> }
>>>> @@ -617,13 +616,15 @@ static int z3fold_reclaim_page(struct z3fold_pool *pool, unsigned int retries)
>>>> return -EINVAL;
>>>> }
>>>> page = list_last_entry(&pool->lru, struct page, lru);
>>>> - list_del(&page->lru);
>>>> + list_del_init(&page->lru);
>>>>
>>>> /* Protect z3fold page against free */
>>>> set_bit(UNDER_RECLAIM, &page->private);
>>>
>>> UNDER_RECLAIM shouldn't be needed anymore when kref counting is used,
>>> and with the separate pool and page locks, z3fold_free and
>>> z3fold_reclaim can race to set/check this bit anyway (it's set under
>>> the pool lock, but checked under the page lock).
>>
>> True; I'll refactor the patch to get rid of it.
>>
>>>> zhdr = page_address(page);
>>>> if (!test_bit(PAGE_HEADLESS, &page->private)) {
>>>> - list_del(&zhdr->buddy);
>>>> + if (!list_empty(&zhdr->buddy))
>>>> + list_del_init(&zhdr->buddy);
>>>> + kref_get(&zhdr->refcount);
>>>> spin_unlock(&pool->lock);
>>>> z3fold_page_lock(zhdr);
>>>> /*
>>>> @@ -664,30 +665,26 @@ static int z3fold_reclaim_page(struct z3fold_pool *pool, unsigned int retries)
>>>> goto next;
>>>> }
>>>> next:
>>>> - if (!test_bit(PAGE_HEADLESS, &page->private))
>>>> - z3fold_page_lock(zhdr);
>>>> clear_bit(UNDER_RECLAIM, &page->private);
>>>> - if ((test_bit(PAGE_HEADLESS, &page->private) && ret == 0) ||
>>>> - (zhdr->first_chunks == 0 && zhdr->last_chunks == 0 &&
>>>> - zhdr->middle_chunks == 0)) {
>>>> - /*
>>>> - * All buddies are now free, free the z3fold page and
>>>> - * return success.
>>>> - */
>>>> - if (!test_and_clear_bit(PAGE_HEADLESS, &page->private))
>>>> + if (test_bit(PAGE_HEADLESS, &page->private)) {
>>>> + if (ret == 0) {
>>>> + free_z3fold_page(page);
>>>> + return 0;
>>>> + }
>>>> + } else {
>>>> + z3fold_page_lock(zhdr);
>>>> + if (zhdr->first_chunks == 0 && zhdr->last_chunks == 0 &&
>>>> + zhdr->middle_chunks == 0) {
>>>> z3fold_page_unlock(zhdr);
>>>> - free_z3fold_page(zhdr);
>>>> - atomic64_dec(&pool->pages_nr);
>>>> - return 0;
>>>> - } else if (!test_bit(PAGE_HEADLESS, &page->private)) {
>>>> - if (zhdr->first_chunks != 0 &&
>>>> - zhdr->last_chunks != 0 &&
>>>> - zhdr->middle_chunks != 0) {
>>>> - /* Full, add to buddied list */
>>>> spin_lock(&pool->lock);
>>>> - list_add(&zhdr->buddy, &pool->buddied);
>>>> + if (kref_put(&zhdr->refcount,
>>>> + release_z3fold_page))
>>>> + atomic64_dec(&pool->pages_nr);
>>>> spin_unlock(&pool->lock);
>>>> - } else {
>>>> + return 0;
>>>> + } else if (zhdr->first_chunks == 0 ||
>>>> + zhdr->last_chunks == 0 ||
>>>> + zhdr->middle_chunks == 0) {
>>>> z3fold_compact_page(zhdr);
>>>> /* add to unbuddied list */
>>>> spin_lock(&pool->lock);
>>>> @@ -696,10 +693,12 @@ static int z3fold_reclaim_page(struct z3fold_pool *pool, unsigned int retries)
>>>> &pool->unbuddied[freechunks]);
>>>> spin_unlock(&pool->lock);
>>>> }
>>>> - }
>>>> -
>>>> - if (!test_bit(PAGE_HEADLESS, &page->private))
>>>> z3fold_page_unlock(zhdr);
>>>> + spin_lock(&pool->lock);
>>>> + if (kref_put(&zhdr->refcount, release_z3fold_page))
>>>> + atomic64_dec(&pool->pages_nr);
>>>> + spin_unlock(&pool->lock);
>>>> + }
>>>
>>> you can't put the zhdr above, and then go on to add the page to the
>>> lru list; you don't have the kref anymore to allow you to do that.
>>
>> I don't think so since I do kref_get() in the beginning of reclaim
>> function so strictly speaking kref_put should not release the page
>> here.
>> I can add an extra check though to just return 0 in case it did.
>
> you can't even check the kref, your reference to the page is no longer
> safely usable after you put your kref. adding the page back onto the
> lru list should be done before you put the kref.

I didn't mean I'd check kref. What I meant was doing like 'freed =
kref_put(&zhdr->refcount, release_z3fold_page);' under the pool lock
and then either return 0 or add the page back to lru, depending on the
result.

> basically it should be:
>
> -take pool lock
> -search thru buddy list(s) for a page, which is safe while holding pool lock
> -find a page, and get its kref, which is safe while holding pool lock
> -release pool lock
> -use page for whatever, which is safe while holding kref
> -put kref, which may or may not free page
> -do not touch the page anymore
>
>
>>
>>>>
>>>> spin_lock(&pool->lock);
>>>> /* add to beginning of LRU */
>>>> --
>>>> 2.4.2

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