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SubjectRe: [PATCH stable-4.4 1/3] mm: memcontrol: fix cgroup creation failure after many small jobs
On Mon, Aug 15, 2016 at 05:06:44PM +0200, Michal Hocko wrote:
> From: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
>
> commit 73f576c04b9410ed19660f74f97521bee6e1c546 upstream.
>
> The memory controller has quite a bit of state that usually outlives the
> cgroup and pins its CSS until said state disappears. At the same time
> it imposes a 16-bit limit on the CSS ID space to economically store IDs
> in the wild. Consequently, when we use cgroups to contain frequent but
> small and short-lived jobs that leave behind some page cache, we quickly
> run into the 64k limitations of outstanding CSSs. Creating a new cgroup
> fails with -ENOSPC while there are only a few, or even no user-visible
> cgroups in existence.
>
> Although pinning CSSs past cgroup removal is common, there are only two
> instances that actually need an ID after a cgroup is deleted: cache
> shadow entries and swapout records.
>
> Cache shadow entries reference the ID weakly and can deal with the CSS
> having disappeared when it's looked up later. They pose no hurdle.
>
> Swap-out records do need to pin the css to hierarchically attribute
> swapins after the cgroup has been deleted; though the only pages that
> remain swapped out after offlining are tmpfs/shmem pages. And those
> references are under the user's control, so they are manageable.
>
> This patch introduces a private 16-bit memcg ID and switches swap and
> cache shadow entries over to using that. This ID can then be recycled
> after offlining when the CSS remains pinned only by objects that don't
> specifically need it.
>
> This script demonstrates the problem by faulting one cache page in a new
> cgroup and deleting it again:
>
> set -e
> mkdir -p pages
> for x in `seq 128000`; do
> [ $((x % 1000)) -eq 0 ] && echo $x
> mkdir /cgroup/foo
> echo $$ >/cgroup/foo/cgroup.procs
> echo trex >pages/$x
> echo $$ >/cgroup/cgroup.procs
> rmdir /cgroup/foo
> done
>
> When run on an unpatched kernel, we eventually run out of possible IDs
> even though there are no visible cgroups:
>
> [root@ham ~]# ./cssidstress.sh
> [...]
> 65000
> mkdir: cannot create directory '/cgroup/foo': No space left on device
>
> After this patch, the IDs get released upon cgroup destruction and the
> cache and css objects get released once memory reclaim kicks in.
>
> [hannes@cmpxchg.org: init the IDR]
> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20160621154601.GA22431@cmpxchg.org
> Fixes: b2052564e66d ("mm: memcontrol: continue cache reclaim from offlined groups")
> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20160617162516.GD19084@cmpxchg.org
> Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
> Reported-by: John Garcia <john.garcia@mesosphere.io>
> Reviewed-by: Vladimir Davydov <vdavydov@virtuozzo.com>
> Acked-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
> Cc: Nikolay Borisov <kernel@kyup.com>
> Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org> [3.19+]
> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
> Signed-off-by: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com>
> ---
> include/linux/memcontrol.h | 8 ++++
> mm/memcontrol.c | 93 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----------
> mm/slab_common.c | 2 +-
> 3 files changed, 83 insertions(+), 20 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/include/linux/memcontrol.h b/include/linux/memcontrol.h
> index cd0e2413c358..435fd8426b8a 100644
> --- a/include/linux/memcontrol.h
> +++ b/include/linux/memcontrol.h
> @@ -174,6 +174,11 @@ struct mem_cgroup_thresholds {
> struct mem_cgroup_threshold_ary *spare;
> };
>
> +struct mem_cgroup_id {
> + int id;
> + atomic_t ref;
> +};
> +
> /*
> * The memory controller data structure. The memory controller controls both
> * page cache and RSS per cgroup. We would eventually like to provide
> @@ -183,6 +188,9 @@ struct mem_cgroup_thresholds {
> struct mem_cgroup {
> struct cgroup_subsys_state css;
>
> + /* Private memcg ID. Used to ID objects that outlive the cgroup */
> + struct mem_cgroup_id id;
> +
> /* Accounted resources */
> struct page_counter memory;
> struct page_counter memsw;
> diff --git a/mm/memcontrol.c b/mm/memcontrol.c
> index 67648e6b2ac8..2c11422f0519 100644
> --- a/mm/memcontrol.c
> +++ b/mm/memcontrol.c
> @@ -272,21 +272,7 @@ static inline bool mem_cgroup_is_root(struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
>
> static inline unsigned short mem_cgroup_id(struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
> {
> - return memcg->css.id;
> -}
> -
> -/*
> - * A helper function to get mem_cgroup from ID. must be called under
> - * rcu_read_lock(). The caller is responsible for calling
> - * css_tryget_online() if the mem_cgroup is used for charging. (dropping
> - * refcnt from swap can be called against removed memcg.)
> - */
> -static inline struct mem_cgroup *mem_cgroup_from_id(unsigned short id)
> -{
> - struct cgroup_subsys_state *css;
> -
> - css = css_from_id(id, &memory_cgrp_subsys);
> - return mem_cgroup_from_css(css);
> + return memcg->id.id;
> }
>
> /* Writing them here to avoid exposing memcg's inner layout */
> @@ -4124,6 +4110,60 @@ static struct cftype mem_cgroup_legacy_files[] = {
> { }, /* terminate */
> };
>
> +/*
> + * Private memory cgroup IDR
> + *
> + * Swap-out records and page cache shadow entries need to store memcg
> + * references in constrained space, so we maintain an ID space that is
> + * limited to 16 bit (MEM_CGROUP_ID_MAX), limiting the total number of
> + * memory-controlled cgroups to 64k.
> + *
> + * However, there usually are many references to the oflline CSS after
> + * the cgroup has been destroyed, such as page cache or reclaimable
> + * slab objects, that don't need to hang on to the ID. We want to keep
> + * those dead CSS from occupying IDs, or we might quickly exhaust the
> + * relatively small ID space and prevent the creation of new cgroups
> + * even when there are much fewer than 64k cgroups - possibly none.
> + *
> + * Maintain a private 16-bit ID space for memcg, and allow the ID to
> + * be freed and recycled when it's no longer needed, which is usually
> + * when the CSS is offlined.
> + *
> + * The only exception to that are records of swapped out tmpfs/shmem
> + * pages that need to be attributed to live ancestors on swapin. But
> + * those references are manageable from userspace.
> + */
> +
> +static DEFINE_IDR(mem_cgroup_idr);
> +
> +static void mem_cgroup_id_get(struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
> +{
> + atomic_inc(&memcg->id.ref);
> +}
> +
> +static void mem_cgroup_id_put(struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
> +{
> + if (atomic_dec_and_test(&memcg->id.ref)) {
> + idr_remove(&mem_cgroup_idr, memcg->id.id);
> + memcg->id.id = 0;
> +
> + /* Memcg ID pins CSS */
> + css_put(&memcg->css);
> + }
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * mem_cgroup_from_id - look up a memcg from a memcg id
> + * @id: the memcg id to look up
> + *
> + * Caller must hold rcu_read_lock().
> + */
> +struct mem_cgroup *mem_cgroup_from_id(unsigned short id)
> +{
> + WARN_ON_ONCE(!rcu_read_lock_held());
> + return idr_find(&mem_cgroup_idr, id);
> +}
> +
> static int alloc_mem_cgroup_per_zone_info(struct mem_cgroup *memcg, int node)
> {
> struct mem_cgroup_per_node *pn;
> @@ -4173,11 +4213,17 @@ static struct mem_cgroup *mem_cgroup_alloc(void)
>
> memcg->stat = alloc_percpu(struct mem_cgroup_stat_cpu);
> if (!memcg->stat)
> - goto out_free;
> + goto out_idr;
>
> if (memcg_wb_domain_init(memcg, GFP_KERNEL))
> goto out_free_stat;
>
> + memcg->id.id = idr_alloc(&mem_cgroup_idr, NULL,
> + 1, MEM_CGROUP_ID_MAX,
> + GFP_KERNEL);
> + if (memcg->id.id < 0)
> + goto out_free_stat;
> +
> return memcg;
>
> out_free_stat:
> @@ -4263,9 +4309,11 @@ mem_cgroup_css_alloc(struct cgroup_subsys_state *parent_css)
> #ifdef CONFIG_CGROUP_WRITEBACK
> INIT_LIST_HEAD(&memcg->cgwb_list);
> #endif
> + idr_replace(&mem_cgroup_idr, memcg, memcg->id.id);
> return &memcg->css;
>
> free_out:
> + idr_remove(&mem_cgroup_idr, memcg->id.id);
> __mem_cgroup_free(memcg);
> return ERR_PTR(error);
> }
> @@ -4277,8 +4325,9 @@ mem_cgroup_css_online(struct cgroup_subsys_state *css)
> struct mem_cgroup *parent = mem_cgroup_from_css(css->parent);
> int ret;
>
> - if (css->id > MEM_CGROUP_ID_MAX)
> - return -ENOSPC;
> + /* Online state pins memcg ID, memcg ID pins CSS */
> + mem_cgroup_id_get(mem_cgroup_from_css(css));
> + css_get(css);
>
> if (!parent)
> return 0;
> @@ -4352,6 +4401,8 @@ static void mem_cgroup_css_offline(struct cgroup_subsys_state *css)
> memcg_deactivate_kmem(memcg);
>
> wb_memcg_offline(memcg);
> +
> + mem_cgroup_id_put(memcg);
> }
>
> static void mem_cgroup_css_released(struct cgroup_subsys_state *css)
> @@ -5685,6 +5736,7 @@ void mem_cgroup_swapout(struct page *page, swp_entry_t entry)
> if (!memcg)
> return;
>
> + mem_cgroup_id_get(memcg);
> oldid = swap_cgroup_record(entry, mem_cgroup_id(memcg));
> VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(oldid, page);
> mem_cgroup_swap_statistics(memcg, true);
> @@ -5703,6 +5755,9 @@ void mem_cgroup_swapout(struct page *page, swp_entry_t entry)
> VM_BUG_ON(!irqs_disabled());
> mem_cgroup_charge_statistics(memcg, page, -1);
> memcg_check_events(memcg, page);
> +
> + if (!mem_cgroup_is_root(memcg))
> + css_put(&memcg->css);
> }
>
> /**
> @@ -5726,7 +5781,7 @@ void mem_cgroup_uncharge_swap(swp_entry_t entry)
> if (!mem_cgroup_is_root(memcg))
> page_counter_uncharge(&memcg->memsw, 1);
> mem_cgroup_swap_statistics(memcg, false);
> - css_put(&memcg->css);
> + mem_cgroup_id_put(memcg);
> }
> rcu_read_unlock();
> }
> diff --git a/mm/slab_common.c b/mm/slab_common.c
> index 3c6a86b4ec25..312ef6f7b7b1 100644
> --- a/mm/slab_common.c
> +++ b/mm/slab_common.c
> @@ -522,7 +522,7 @@ void memcg_create_kmem_cache(struct mem_cgroup *memcg,
>
> cgroup_name(css->cgroup, memcg_name_buf, sizeof(memcg_name_buf));
> cache_name = kasprintf(GFP_KERNEL, "%s(%d:%s)", root_cache->name,
> - css->id, memcg_name_buf);
> + css->serial_nr, memcg_name_buf);

You didn't pick up my change for the string here that the kbuild system
found. I'll edit it by hand...

thanks,

greg k-h

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