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Subject[PATCH v15 07/10] arm64: kprobes instruction simulation support
Date
From: Sandeepa Prabhu <sandeepa.s.prabhu@gmail.com>

Kprobes needs simulation of instructions that cannot be stepped
from a different memory location, e.g.: those instructions
that uses PC-relative addressing. In simulation, the behaviour
of the instruction is implemented using a copy of pt_regs.

The following instruction categories are simulated:
- All branching instructions(conditional, register, and immediate)
- Literal access instructions(load-literal, adr/adrp)

Conditional execution is limited to branching instructions in
ARM v8. If conditions at PSTATE do not match the condition fields
of opcode, the instruction is effectively NOP.

Thanks to Will Cohen for assorted suggested changes.

Signed-off-by: Sandeepa Prabhu <sandeepa.s.prabhu@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: William Cohen <wcohen@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: David A. Long <dave.long@linaro.org>
Acked-by: Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@kernel.org>
---
arch/arm64/include/asm/probes.h | 5 +-
arch/arm64/kernel/insn.c | 1 +
arch/arm64/kernel/probes/Makefile | 3 +-
arch/arm64/kernel/probes/decode-insn.c | 33 ++++-
arch/arm64/kernel/probes/decode-insn.h | 1 +
arch/arm64/kernel/probes/kprobes.c | 53 ++++++--
arch/arm64/kernel/probes/simulate-insn.c | 218 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
arch/arm64/kernel/probes/simulate-insn.h | 28 ++++
8 files changed, 327 insertions(+), 15 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 arch/arm64/kernel/probes/simulate-insn.c
create mode 100644 arch/arm64/kernel/probes/simulate-insn.h

diff --git a/arch/arm64/include/asm/probes.h b/arch/arm64/include/asm/probes.h
index 1e8a21a..5af574d 100644
--- a/arch/arm64/include/asm/probes.h
+++ b/arch/arm64/include/asm/probes.h
@@ -15,17 +15,18 @@
#ifndef _ARM_PROBES_H
#define _ARM_PROBES_H

+#include <asm/opcodes.h>
+
struct kprobe;
struct arch_specific_insn;

typedef u32 kprobe_opcode_t;
-typedef unsigned long (kprobes_pstate_check_t)(unsigned long);
typedef void (kprobes_handler_t) (u32 opcode, long addr, struct pt_regs *);

/* architecture specific copy of original instruction */
struct arch_specific_insn {
kprobe_opcode_t *insn;
- kprobes_pstate_check_t *pstate_cc;
+ pstate_check_t *pstate_cc;
kprobes_handler_t *handler;
/* restore address after step xol */
unsigned long restore;
diff --git a/arch/arm64/kernel/insn.c b/arch/arm64/kernel/insn.c
index 5cb2f3d..63f9432 100644
--- a/arch/arm64/kernel/insn.c
+++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/insn.c
@@ -30,6 +30,7 @@
#include <asm/cacheflush.h>
#include <asm/debug-monitors.h>
#include <asm/fixmap.h>
+#include <asm/opcodes.h>
#include <asm/insn.h>

#define AARCH64_INSN_SF_BIT BIT(31)
diff --git a/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/Makefile b/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/Makefile
index bc159bf..e184d00 100644
--- a/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/Makefile
+++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/Makefile
@@ -1 +1,2 @@
-obj-$(CONFIG_KPROBES) += kprobes.o decode-insn.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_KPROBES) += kprobes.o decode-insn.o \
+ simulate-insn.o
diff --git a/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/decode-insn.c b/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/decode-insn.c
index 95c0c52..37e47a9 100644
--- a/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/decode-insn.c
+++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/decode-insn.c
@@ -21,6 +21,7 @@
#include <asm/sections.h>

#include "decode-insn.h"
+#include "simulate-insn.h"

static bool __kprobes aarch64_insn_is_steppable(u32 insn)
{
@@ -74,6 +75,7 @@ static bool __kprobes aarch64_insn_is_steppable(u32 insn)
/* Return:
* INSN_REJECTED If instruction is one not allowed to kprobe,
* INSN_GOOD If instruction is supported and uses instruction slot,
+ * INSN_GOOD_NO_SLOT If instruction is supported but doesn't use its slot.
*/
static enum kprobe_insn __kprobes
arm_probe_decode_insn(kprobe_opcode_t insn, struct arch_specific_insn *asi)
@@ -84,8 +86,37 @@ arm_probe_decode_insn(kprobe_opcode_t insn, struct arch_specific_insn *asi)
*/
if (aarch64_insn_is_steppable(insn))
return INSN_GOOD;
- else
+
+ if (aarch64_insn_is_bcond(insn)) {
+ asi->handler = simulate_b_cond;
+ } else if (aarch64_insn_is_cbz(insn) ||
+ aarch64_insn_is_cbnz(insn)) {
+ asi->handler = simulate_cbz_cbnz;
+ } else if (aarch64_insn_is_tbz(insn) ||
+ aarch64_insn_is_tbnz(insn)) {
+ asi->handler = simulate_tbz_tbnz;
+ } else if (aarch64_insn_is_adr_adrp(insn)) {
+ asi->handler = simulate_adr_adrp;
+ } else if (aarch64_insn_is_b(insn) ||
+ aarch64_insn_is_bl(insn)) {
+ asi->handler = simulate_b_bl;
+ } else if (aarch64_insn_is_br(insn) ||
+ aarch64_insn_is_blr(insn) ||
+ aarch64_insn_is_ret(insn)) {
+ asi->handler = simulate_br_blr_ret;
+ } else if (aarch64_insn_is_ldr_lit(insn)) {
+ asi->handler = simulate_ldr_literal;
+ } else if (aarch64_insn_is_ldrsw_lit(insn)) {
+ asi->handler = simulate_ldrsw_literal;
+ } else {
+ /*
+ * Instruction cannot be stepped out-of-line and we don't
+ * (yet) simulate it.
+ */
return INSN_REJECTED;
+ }
+
+ return INSN_GOOD_NO_SLOT;
}

static bool __kprobes
diff --git a/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/decode-insn.h b/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/decode-insn.h
index ad5ba9c..d438289 100644
--- a/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/decode-insn.h
+++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/decode-insn.h
@@ -25,6 +25,7 @@

enum kprobe_insn {
INSN_REJECTED,
+ INSN_GOOD_NO_SLOT,
INSN_GOOD,
};

diff --git a/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/kprobes.c b/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/kprobes.c
index 0fe2b65..63eb0a1 100644
--- a/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/kprobes.c
+++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/kprobes.c
@@ -45,6 +45,9 @@ void jprobe_return_break(void);
DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct kprobe *, current_kprobe) = NULL;
DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct kprobe_ctlblk, kprobe_ctlblk);

+static void __kprobes
+post_kprobe_handler(struct kprobe_ctlblk *, struct pt_regs *);
+
static void __kprobes arch_prepare_ss_slot(struct kprobe *p)
{
/* prepare insn slot */
@@ -61,6 +64,23 @@ static void __kprobes arch_prepare_ss_slot(struct kprobe *p)
sizeof(kprobe_opcode_t);
}

+static void __kprobes arch_prepare_simulate(struct kprobe *p)
+{
+ /* This instructions is not executed xol. No need to adjust the PC */
+ p->ainsn.restore = 0;
+}
+
+static void __kprobes arch_simulate_insn(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ struct kprobe_ctlblk *kcb = get_kprobe_ctlblk();
+
+ if (p->ainsn.handler)
+ p->ainsn.handler((u32)p->opcode, (long)p->addr, regs);
+
+ /* single step simulated, now go for post processing */
+ post_kprobe_handler(kcb, regs);
+}
+
int __kprobes arch_prepare_kprobe(struct kprobe *p)
{
unsigned long probe_addr = (unsigned long)p->addr;
@@ -84,6 +104,10 @@ int __kprobes arch_prepare_kprobe(struct kprobe *p)
case INSN_REJECTED: /* insn not supported */
return -EINVAL;

+ case INSN_GOOD_NO_SLOT: /* insn need simulation */
+ p->ainsn.insn = NULL;
+ break;
+
case INSN_GOOD: /* instruction uses slot */
p->ainsn.insn = get_insn_slot();
if (!p->ainsn.insn)
@@ -92,7 +116,10 @@ int __kprobes arch_prepare_kprobe(struct kprobe *p)
};

/* prepare the instruction */
- arch_prepare_ss_slot(p);
+ if (p->ainsn.insn)
+ arch_prepare_ss_slot(p);
+ else
+ arch_prepare_simulate(p);

return 0;
}
@@ -218,20 +245,24 @@ static void __kprobes setup_singlestep(struct kprobe *p,
kcb->kprobe_status = KPROBE_HIT_SS;
}

- BUG_ON(!p->ainsn.insn);

- /* prepare for single stepping */
- slot = (unsigned long)p->ainsn.insn;
+ if (p->ainsn.insn) {
+ /* prepare for single stepping */
+ slot = (unsigned long)p->ainsn.insn;

- set_ss_context(kcb, slot); /* mark pending ss */
+ set_ss_context(kcb, slot); /* mark pending ss */

- if (kcb->kprobe_status == KPROBE_REENTER)
- spsr_set_debug_flag(regs, 0);
+ if (kcb->kprobe_status == KPROBE_REENTER)
+ spsr_set_debug_flag(regs, 0);

- /* IRQs and single stepping do not mix well. */
- kprobes_save_local_irqflag(kcb, regs);
- kernel_enable_single_step(regs);
- instruction_pointer_set(regs, slot);
+ /* IRQs and single stepping do not mix well. */
+ kprobes_save_local_irqflag(kcb, regs);
+ kernel_enable_single_step(regs);
+ instruction_pointer_set(regs, slot);
+ } else {
+ /* insn simulation */
+ arch_simulate_insn(p, regs);
+ }
}

static int __kprobes reenter_kprobe(struct kprobe *p,
diff --git a/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/simulate-insn.c b/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/simulate-insn.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..429c333
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/simulate-insn.c
@@ -0,0 +1,218 @@
+/*
+ * arch/arm64/kernel/probes/simulate-insn.c
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2013 Linaro Limited.
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
+ * General Public License for more details.
+ */
+
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/kprobes.h>
+#include <linux/module.h>
+
+#include "simulate-insn.h"
+
+#define sign_extend(x, signbit) \
+ ((x) | (0 - ((x) & (1 << (signbit)))))
+
+#define bbl_displacement(insn) \
+ sign_extend(((insn) & 0x3ffffff) << 2, 27)
+
+#define bcond_displacement(insn) \
+ sign_extend(((insn >> 5) & 0x7ffff) << 2, 20)
+
+#define cbz_displacement(insn) \
+ sign_extend(((insn >> 5) & 0x7ffff) << 2, 20)
+
+#define tbz_displacement(insn) \
+ sign_extend(((insn >> 5) & 0x3fff) << 2, 15)
+
+#define ldr_displacement(insn) \
+ sign_extend(((insn >> 5) & 0x7ffff) << 2, 20)
+
+static inline void set_x_reg(struct pt_regs *regs, int reg, u64 val)
+{
+ if (reg < 31)
+ regs->regs[reg] = val;
+}
+
+static inline void set_w_reg(struct pt_regs *regs, int reg, u64 val)
+{
+ if (reg < 31)
+ regs->regs[reg] = lower_32_bits(val);
+}
+
+static inline u64 get_x_reg(struct pt_regs *regs, int reg)
+{
+ if (reg < 31)
+ return regs->regs[reg];
+ else
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static inline u32 get_w_reg(struct pt_regs *regs, int reg)
+{
+ if (reg < 31)
+ return lower_32_bits(regs->regs[reg]);
+ else
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static bool __kprobes check_cbz(u32 opcode, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ int xn = opcode & 0x1f;
+
+ return (opcode & (1 << 31)) ?
+ (get_x_reg(regs, xn) == 0) : (get_w_reg(regs, xn) == 0);
+}
+
+static bool __kprobes check_cbnz(u32 opcode, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ int xn = opcode & 0x1f;
+
+ return (opcode & (1 << 31)) ?
+ (get_x_reg(regs, xn) != 0) : (get_w_reg(regs, xn) != 0);
+}
+
+static bool __kprobes check_tbz(u32 opcode, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ int xn = opcode & 0x1f;
+ int bit_pos = ((opcode & (1 << 31)) >> 26) | ((opcode >> 19) & 0x1f);
+
+ return ((get_x_reg(regs, xn) >> bit_pos) & 0x1) == 0;
+}
+
+static bool __kprobes check_tbnz(u32 opcode, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ int xn = opcode & 0x1f;
+ int bit_pos = ((opcode & (1 << 31)) >> 26) | ((opcode >> 19) & 0x1f);
+
+ return ((get_x_reg(regs, xn) >> bit_pos) & 0x1) != 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * instruction simulation functions
+ */
+void __kprobes
+simulate_adr_adrp(u32 opcode, long addr, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ long imm, xn, val;
+
+ xn = opcode & 0x1f;
+ imm = ((opcode >> 3) & 0x1ffffc) | ((opcode >> 29) & 0x3);
+ imm = sign_extend(imm, 20);
+ if (opcode & 0x80000000)
+ val = (imm<<12) + (addr & 0xfffffffffffff000);
+ else
+ val = imm + addr;
+
+ set_x_reg(regs, xn, val);
+
+ instruction_pointer_set(regs, instruction_pointer(regs) + 4);
+}
+
+void __kprobes
+simulate_b_bl(u32 opcode, long addr, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ int disp = bbl_displacement(opcode);
+
+ /* Link register is x30 */
+ if (opcode & (1 << 31))
+ set_x_reg(regs, 30, addr + 4);
+
+ instruction_pointer_set(regs, addr + disp);
+}
+
+void __kprobes
+simulate_b_cond(u32 opcode, long addr, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ int disp = 4;
+
+ if (aarch32_opcode_cond_checks[opcode & 0xf](regs->pstate & 0xffffffff))
+ disp = bcond_displacement(opcode);
+
+ instruction_pointer_set(regs, addr + disp);
+}
+
+void __kprobes
+simulate_br_blr_ret(u32 opcode, long addr, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ int xn = (opcode >> 5) & 0x1f;
+
+ /* update pc first in case we're doing a "blr lr" */
+ instruction_pointer_set(regs, get_x_reg(regs, xn));
+
+ /* Link register is x30 */
+ if (((opcode >> 21) & 0x3) == 1)
+ set_x_reg(regs, 30, addr + 4);
+}
+
+void __kprobes
+simulate_cbz_cbnz(u32 opcode, long addr, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ int disp = 4;
+
+ if (opcode & (1 << 24)) {
+ if (check_cbnz(opcode, regs))
+ disp = cbz_displacement(opcode);
+ } else {
+ if (check_cbz(opcode, regs))
+ disp = cbz_displacement(opcode);
+ }
+ instruction_pointer_set(regs, addr + disp);
+}
+
+void __kprobes
+simulate_tbz_tbnz(u32 opcode, long addr, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ int disp = 4;
+
+ if (opcode & (1 << 24)) {
+ if (check_tbnz(opcode, regs))
+ disp = tbz_displacement(opcode);
+ } else {
+ if (check_tbz(opcode, regs))
+ disp = tbz_displacement(opcode);
+ }
+ instruction_pointer_set(regs, addr + disp);
+}
+
+void __kprobes
+simulate_ldr_literal(u32 opcode, long addr, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ u64 *load_addr;
+ int xn = opcode & 0x1f;
+ int disp;
+
+ disp = ldr_displacement(opcode);
+ load_addr = (u64 *) (addr + disp);
+
+ if (opcode & (1 << 30)) /* x0-x30 */
+ set_x_reg(regs, xn, *load_addr);
+ else /* w0-w30 */
+ set_w_reg(regs, xn, *load_addr);
+
+ instruction_pointer_set(regs, instruction_pointer(regs) + 4);
+}
+
+void __kprobes
+simulate_ldrsw_literal(u32 opcode, long addr, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ s32 *load_addr;
+ int xn = opcode & 0x1f;
+ int disp;
+
+ disp = ldr_displacement(opcode);
+ load_addr = (s32 *) (addr + disp);
+
+ set_x_reg(regs, xn, *load_addr);
+
+ instruction_pointer_set(regs, instruction_pointer(regs) + 4);
+}
diff --git a/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/simulate-insn.h b/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/simulate-insn.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..050bde6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/simulate-insn.h
@@ -0,0 +1,28 @@
+/*
+ * arch/arm64/kernel/probes/simulate-insn.h
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2013 Linaro Limited
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
+ * General Public License for more details.
+ */
+
+#ifndef _ARM_KERNEL_KPROBES_SIMULATE_INSN_H
+#define _ARM_KERNEL_KPROBES_SIMULATE_INSN_H
+
+void simulate_adr_adrp(u32 opcode, long addr, struct pt_regs *regs);
+void simulate_b_bl(u32 opcode, long addr, struct pt_regs *regs);
+void simulate_b_cond(u32 opcode, long addr, struct pt_regs *regs);
+void simulate_br_blr_ret(u32 opcode, long addr, struct pt_regs *regs);
+void simulate_cbz_cbnz(u32 opcode, long addr, struct pt_regs *regs);
+void simulate_tbz_tbnz(u32 opcode, long addr, struct pt_regs *regs);
+void simulate_ldr_literal(u32 opcode, long addr, struct pt_regs *regs);
+void simulate_ldrsw_literal(u32 opcode, long addr, struct pt_regs *regs);
+
+#endif /* _ARM_KERNEL_KPROBES_SIMULATE_INSN_H */
--
2.5.0
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