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SubjectRe: [PATCH 00/31] Move LRU page reclaim from zones to nodes v8
On Fri, Jul 01, 2016 at 09:01:08PM +0100, Mel Gorman wrote:
> (Sorry for the resend, I accidentally sent the branch that still had the
> Signed-off-by's from mmotm still applied which is incorrect.)
>
> Previous releases double accounted LRU stats on the zone and the node
> because it was required by should_reclaim_retry. The last patch in the
> series removes the double accounting. It's not integrated with the series
> as reviewers may not like the solution. If not, it can be safely dropped
> without a major impact to the results.
>
> Changelog since v7
> o Rebase onto current mmots
> o Avoid double accounting of stats in node and zone
> o Kswapd will avoid more reclaim if an eligible zone is available
> o Remove some duplications of sc->reclaim_idx and classzone_idx
> o Print per-node stats in zoneinfo
>
> Changelog since v6
> o Correct reclaim_idx when direct reclaiming for memcg
> o Also account LRU pages per zone for compaction/reclaim
> o Add page_pgdat helper with more efficient lookup
> o Init pgdat LRU lock only once
> o Slight optimisation to wake_all_kswapds
> o Always wake kcompactd when kswapd is going to sleep
> o Rebase to mmotm as of June 15th, 2016
>
> Changelog since v5
> o Rebase and adjust to changes
>
> Changelog since v4
> o Rebase on top of v3 of page allocator optimisation series
>
> Changelog since v3
> o Rebase on top of the page allocator optimisation series
> o Remove RFC tag
>
> This is the latest version of a series that moves LRUs from the zones to
> the node that is based upon 4.7-rc4 with Andrew's tree applied. While this
> is a current rebase, the test results were based on mmotm as of June 23rd.
> Conceptually, this series is simple but there are a lot of details. Some
> of the broad motivations for this are;
>
> 1. The residency of a page partially depends on what zone the page was
> allocated from. This is partially combatted by the fair zone allocation
> policy but that is a partial solution that introduces overhead in the
> page allocator paths.
>
> 2. Currently, reclaim on node 0 behaves slightly different to node 1. For
> example, direct reclaim scans in zonelist order and reclaims even if
> the zone is over the high watermark regardless of the age of pages
> in that LRU. Kswapd on the other hand starts reclaim on the highest
> unbalanced zone. A difference in distribution of file/anon pages due
> to when they were allocated results can result in a difference in
> again. While the fair zone allocation policy mitigates some of the
> problems here, the page reclaim results on a multi-zone node will
> always be different to a single-zone node.
> it was scheduled on as a result.
>
> 3. kswapd and the page allocator scan zones in the opposite order to
> avoid interfering with each other but it's sensitive to timing. This
> mitigates the page allocator using pages that were allocated very recently
> in the ideal case but it's sensitive to timing. When kswapd is allocating
> from lower zones then it's great but during the rebalancing of the highest
> zone, the page allocator and kswapd interfere with each other. It's worse
> if the highest zone is small and difficult to balance.
>
> 4. slab shrinkers are node-based which makes it harder to identify the exact
> relationship between slab reclaim and LRU reclaim.
>
> The reason we have zone-based reclaim is that we used to have
> large highmem zones in common configurations and it was necessary
> to quickly find ZONE_NORMAL pages for reclaim. Today, this is much
> less of a concern as machines with lots of memory will (or should) use
> 64-bit kernels. Combinations of 32-bit hardware and 64-bit hardware are
> rare. Machines that do use highmem should have relatively low highmem:lowmem
> ratios than we worried about in the past.

Hello Mel,

I agree the direction absolutely. However, I have a concern on highmem
system as you already mentioned.

Embedded products still use 2 ~ 3 ratio (highmem:lowmem).
In such system, LRU churning by skipping other zone pages frequently
might be significant for the performance.

How big ratio between highmem:lowmem do you think a problem?

>
> Conceptually, moving to node LRUs should be easier to understand. The
> page allocator plays fewer tricks to game reclaim and reclaim behaves
> similarly on all nodes.
>
> The series has been tested on a 16 core UMA machine and a 2-socket 48
> core NUMA machine. The UMA results are presented in most cases as the NUMA
> machine behaved similarly.

I guess you would already test below with various highmem system(e.g.,
2:1, 3:1, 4:1 and so on). If you have, could you mind sharing it?

>
> pagealloc
> ---------
>
> This is a microbenchmark that shows the benefit of removing the fair zone
> allocation policy. It was tested uip to order-4 but only orders 0 and 1 are
> shown as the other orders were comparable.
>
> 4.7.0-rc4 4.7.0-rc4
> mmotm-20160623 nodelru-v8
> Min total-odr0-1 490.00 ( 0.00%) 463.00 ( 5.51%)
> Min total-odr0-2 349.00 ( 0.00%) 325.00 ( 6.88%)
> Min total-odr0-4 288.00 ( 0.00%) 272.00 ( 5.56%)
> Min total-odr0-8 250.00 ( 0.00%) 235.00 ( 6.00%)
> Min total-odr0-16 234.00 ( 0.00%) 222.00 ( 5.13%)
> Min total-odr0-32 223.00 ( 0.00%) 205.00 ( 8.07%)
> Min total-odr0-64 217.00 ( 0.00%) 202.00 ( 6.91%)
> Min total-odr0-128 214.00 ( 0.00%) 207.00 ( 3.27%)
> Min total-odr0-256 242.00 ( 0.00%) 242.00 ( 0.00%)
> Min total-odr0-512 272.00 ( 0.00%) 265.00 ( 2.57%)
> Min total-odr0-1024 290.00 ( 0.00%) 283.00 ( 2.41%)
> Min total-odr0-2048 302.00 ( 0.00%) 296.00 ( 1.99%)
> Min total-odr0-4096 311.00 ( 0.00%) 306.00 ( 1.61%)
> Min total-odr0-8192 314.00 ( 0.00%) 309.00 ( 1.59%)
> Min total-odr0-16384 315.00 ( 0.00%) 309.00 ( 1.90%)
> Min total-odr1-1 741.00 ( 0.00%) 716.00 ( 3.37%)
> Min total-odr1-2 565.00 ( 0.00%) 524.00 ( 7.26%)
> Min total-odr1-4 457.00 ( 0.00%) 427.00 ( 6.56%)
> Min total-odr1-8 408.00 ( 0.00%) 371.00 ( 9.07%)
> Min total-odr1-16 383.00 ( 0.00%) 344.00 ( 10.18%)
> Min total-odr1-32 378.00 ( 0.00%) 334.00 ( 11.64%)
> Min total-odr1-64 383.00 ( 0.00%) 334.00 ( 12.79%)
> Min total-odr1-128 376.00 ( 0.00%) 342.00 ( 9.04%)
> Min total-odr1-256 381.00 ( 0.00%) 343.00 ( 9.97%)
> Min total-odr1-512 388.00 ( 0.00%) 349.00 ( 10.05%)
> Min total-odr1-1024 386.00 ( 0.00%) 356.00 ( 7.77%)
> Min total-odr1-2048 389.00 ( 0.00%) 362.00 ( 6.94%)
> Min total-odr1-4096 389.00 ( 0.00%) 362.00 ( 6.94%)
> Min total-odr1-8192 389.00 ( 0.00%) 362.00 ( 6.94%)
>
> This shows a steady improvement throughout. The primary benefit is from
> reduced system CPU usage which is obvious from the overall times;
>
> 4.7.0-rc4 4.7.0-rc4
> mmotm-20160623nodelru-v8
> User 191.39 191.61
> System 2651.24 2504.48
> Elapsed 2904.40 2757.01
>
> The vmstats also showed that the fair zone allocation policy was definitely
> removed as can be seen here;
>
>
> 4.7.0-rc3 4.7.0-rc3
> mmotm-20160623 nodelru-v8
> DMA32 allocs 28794771816 0
> Normal allocs 48432582848 77227356392
> Movable allocs 0 0
>
> tiobench on ext4
> ----------------
>
> tiobench is a benchmark that artifically benefits if old pages remain resident
> while new pages get reclaimed. The fair zone allocation policy mitigates this
> problem so pages age fairly. While the benchmark has problems, it is important
> that tiobench performance remains constant as it implies that page aging
> problems that the fair zone allocation policy fixes are not re-introduced.
>
> 4.7.0-rc4 4.7.0-rc4
> mmotm-20160623 nodelru-v8
> Min PotentialReadSpeed 89.65 ( 0.00%) 90.34 ( 0.77%)
> Min SeqRead-MB/sec-1 82.68 ( 0.00%) 83.13 ( 0.54%)
> Min SeqRead-MB/sec-2 72.76 ( 0.00%) 72.15 ( -0.84%)
> Min SeqRead-MB/sec-4 75.13 ( 0.00%) 74.23 ( -1.20%)
> Min SeqRead-MB/sec-8 64.91 ( 0.00%) 65.25 ( 0.52%)
> Min SeqRead-MB/sec-16 62.24 ( 0.00%) 62.76 ( 0.84%)
> Min RandRead-MB/sec-1 0.88 ( 0.00%) 0.95 ( 7.95%)
> Min RandRead-MB/sec-2 0.95 ( 0.00%) 0.94 ( -1.05%)
> Min RandRead-MB/sec-4 1.43 ( 0.00%) 1.46 ( 2.10%)
> Min RandRead-MB/sec-8 1.61 ( 0.00%) 1.58 ( -1.86%)
> Min RandRead-MB/sec-16 1.80 ( 0.00%) 1.93 ( 7.22%)
> Min SeqWrite-MB/sec-1 76.41 ( 0.00%) 78.84 ( 3.18%)
> Min SeqWrite-MB/sec-2 74.11 ( 0.00%) 73.35 ( -1.03%)
> Min SeqWrite-MB/sec-4 80.05 ( 0.00%) 78.69 ( -1.70%)
> Min SeqWrite-MB/sec-8 72.88 ( 0.00%) 71.38 ( -2.06%)
> Min SeqWrite-MB/sec-16 75.91 ( 0.00%) 75.81 ( -0.13%)
> Min RandWrite-MB/sec-1 1.18 ( 0.00%) 1.12 ( -5.08%)
> Min RandWrite-MB/sec-2 1.02 ( 0.00%) 1.02 ( 0.00%)
> Min RandWrite-MB/sec-4 1.05 ( 0.00%) 0.99 ( -5.71%)
> Min RandWrite-MB/sec-8 0.89 ( 0.00%) 0.92 ( 3.37%)
> Min RandWrite-MB/sec-16 0.92 ( 0.00%) 0.89 ( -3.26%)
>
> This shows that the series has little or not impact on tiobench which is
> desirable. It indicates that the fair zone allocation policy was removed
> in a manner that didn't reintroduce one class of page aging bug. There
> were only minor differences in overall reclaim activity
>
> 4.7.0-rc4 4.7.0-rc4
> mmotm-20160623nodelru-v8
> Minor Faults 645838 644036
> Major Faults 573 593
> Swap Ins 0 0
> Swap Outs 0 0
> Allocation stalls 24 0
> DMA allocs 0 0
> DMA32 allocs 46041453 44154171
> Normal allocs 78053072 79865782
> Movable allocs 0 0
> Direct pages scanned 10969 54504
> Kswapd pages scanned 93375144 93250583
> Kswapd pages reclaimed 93372243 93247714
> Direct pages reclaimed 10969 54504
> Kswapd efficiency 99% 99%
> Kswapd velocity 13741.015 13711.950
> Direct efficiency 100% 100%
> Direct velocity 1.614 8.014
> Percentage direct scans 0% 0%
> Zone normal velocity 8641.875 13719.964
> Zone dma32 velocity 5100.754 0.000
> Zone dma velocity 0.000 0.000
> Page writes by reclaim 0.000 0.000
> Page writes file 0 0
> Page writes anon 0 0
> Page reclaim immediate 37 54
>
> kswapd activity was roughly comparable. There were differences in direct
> reclaim activity but negligible in the context of the overall workload
> (velocity of 8 pages per second with the patches applied, 1.6 pages per
> second in the baseline kernel).

Hmm, nodelru's allocation stall is zero above but how does direct page
scanning/reclaimed happens?

Above, DMA32 allocs in nodelru is almost same but zone dma32 velocity
is zero. What does it means?

>
> pgbench read-only large configuration on ext4
> ---------------------------------------------
>
> pgbench is a database benchmark that can be sensitive to page reclaim
> decisions. This also checks if removing the fair zone allocation policy
> is safe
>
> pgbench Transactions
> 4.7.0-rc4 4.7.0-rc4
> mmotm-20160623 nodelru-v8
> Hmean 1 188.26 ( 0.00%) 189.78 ( 0.81%)
> Hmean 5 330.66 ( 0.00%) 328.69 ( -0.59%)
> Hmean 12 370.32 ( 0.00%) 380.72 ( 2.81%)
> Hmean 21 368.89 ( 0.00%) 369.00 ( 0.03%)
> Hmean 30 382.14 ( 0.00%) 360.89 ( -5.56%)
> Hmean 32 428.87 ( 0.00%) 432.96 ( 0.95%)
>
> Negligible differences again. As with tiobench, overall reclaim activity
> was comparable.
>
> bonnie++ on ext4
> ----------------
>
> No interesting performance difference, negligible differences on reclaim
> stats.
>
> paralleldd on ext4
> ------------------
>
> This workload uses varying numbers of dd instances to read large amounts of
> data from disk.
>
> 4.7.0-rc3 4.7.0-rc3
> mmotm-20160615 nodelru-v7r17
> Amean Elapsd-1 181.57 ( 0.00%) 179.63 ( 1.07%)
> Amean Elapsd-3 188.29 ( 0.00%) 183.68 ( 2.45%)
> Amean Elapsd-5 188.02 ( 0.00%) 181.73 ( 3.35%)
> Amean Elapsd-7 186.07 ( 0.00%) 184.11 ( 1.05%)
> Amean Elapsd-12 188.16 ( 0.00%) 183.51 ( 2.47%)
> Amean Elapsd-16 189.03 ( 0.00%) 181.27 ( 4.10%)
>
> 4.7.0-rc3 4.7.0-rc3
> mmotm-20160615nodelru-v7r17
> User 1439.23 1433.37
> System 8332.31 8216.01
> Elapsed 3619.80 3532.69
>
> There is a slight gain in performance, some of which is from the reduced system
> CPU usage. There areminor differences in reclaim activity but nothing significant
>
> 4.7.0-rc3 4.7.0-rc3
> mmotm-20160615nodelru-v7r17
> Minor Faults 362486 358215
> Major Faults 1143 1113
> Swap Ins 26 0
> Swap Outs 2920 482
> DMA allocs 0 0
> DMA32 allocs 31568814 28598887
> Normal allocs 46539922 49514444
> Movable allocs 0 0
> Allocation stalls 0 0
> Direct pages scanned 0 0
> Kswapd pages scanned 40886878 40849710
> Kswapd pages reclaimed 40869923 40835207
> Direct pages reclaimed 0 0
> Kswapd efficiency 99% 99%
> Kswapd velocity 11295.342 11563.344
> Direct efficiency 100% 100%
> Direct velocity 0.000 0.000
> Slabs scanned 131673 126099
> Direct inode steals 57 60
> Kswapd inode steals 762 18
>
> It basically shows that kswapd was active at roughly the same rate in
> both kernels. There was also comparable slab scanning activity and direct
> reclaim was avoided in both cases. There appears to be a large difference
> in numbers of inodes reclaimed but the workload has few active inodes and
> is likely a timing artifact. It's interesting to note that the node-lru
> did not swap in any pages but given the low swap activity, it's unlikely
> to be significant.
>
> stutter
> -------
>
> stutter simulates a simple workload. One part uses a lot of anonymous
> memory, a second measures mmap latency and a third copies a large file.
> The primary metric is checking for mmap latency.
>
> stutter
> 4.7.0-rc4 4.7.0-rc4
> mmotm-20160623 nodelru-v8
> Min mmap 16.6283 ( 0.00%) 16.1394 ( 2.94%)
> 1st-qrtle mmap 54.7570 ( 0.00%) 55.2975 ( -0.99%)
> 2nd-qrtle mmap 57.3163 ( 0.00%) 57.5230 ( -0.36%)
> 3rd-qrtle mmap 58.9976 ( 0.00%) 58.0537 ( 1.60%)
> Max-90% mmap 59.7433 ( 0.00%) 58.3910 ( 2.26%)
> Max-93% mmap 60.1298 ( 0.00%) 58.4801 ( 2.74%)
> Max-95% mmap 73.4112 ( 0.00%) 58.5537 ( 20.24%)
> Max-99% mmap 92.8542 ( 0.00%) 58.9673 ( 36.49%)
> Max mmap 1440.6569 ( 0.00%) 137.6875 ( 90.44%)
> Mean mmap 59.3493 ( 0.00%) 55.5153 ( 6.46%)
> Best99%Mean mmap 57.2121 ( 0.00%) 55.4194 ( 3.13%)
> Best95%Mean mmap 55.9113 ( 0.00%) 55.2813 ( 1.13%)
> Best90%Mean mmap 55.6199 ( 0.00%) 55.1044 ( 0.93%)
> Best50%Mean mmap 53.2183 ( 0.00%) 52.8330 ( 0.72%)
> Best10%Mean mmap 45.9842 ( 0.00%) 42.3740 ( 7.85%)
> Best5%Mean mmap 43.2256 ( 0.00%) 38.8660 ( 10.09%)
> Best1%Mean mmap 32.9388 ( 0.00%) 27.7577 ( 15.73%)
>
> This shows a number of improvements with the worst-case outlier greatly
> improved.
>
> Some of the vmstats are interesting
>
> 4.7.0-rc4 4.7.0-rc4
> mmotm-20160623nodelru-v8
> Swap Ins 163 239
> Swap Outs 0 0
> Allocation stalls 2603 0
> DMA allocs 0 0
> DMA32 allocs 618719206 1303037965
> Normal allocs 891235743 229914091
> Movable allocs 0 0
> Direct pages scanned 216787 3173
> Kswapd pages scanned 50719775 41732250
> Kswapd pages reclaimed 41541765 41731168
> Direct pages reclaimed 209159 3173
> Kswapd efficiency 81% 99%
> Kswapd velocity 16859.554 14231.043
> Direct efficiency 96% 100%
> Direct velocity 72.061 1.082
> Percentage direct scans 0% 0%
> Zone normal velocity 8431.777 14232.125
> Zone dma32 velocity 8499.838 0.000
> Zone dma velocity 0.000 0.000
> Page writes by reclaim 6215049.000 0.000
> Page writes file 6215049 0
> Page writes anon 0 0
> Page reclaim immediate 70673 143
> Sector Reads 81940800 81489388
> Sector Writes 100158984 99161860
> Page rescued immediate 0 0
> Slabs scanned 1366954 21196
>
> While this is not guaranteed in all cases, this particular test showed
> a large reduction in direct reclaim activity. It's also worth noting
> that no page writes were issued from reclaim context.
>
> This series is not without its hazards. There are at least three areas
> that I'm concerned with even though I could not reproduce any problems in
> that area.
>
> 1. Reclaim/compaction is going to be affected because the amount of reclaim is
> no longer targetted at a specific zone. Compaction works on a per-zone basis
> so there is no guarantee that reclaiming a few THP's worth page pages will
> have a positive impact on compaction success rates.
>
> 2. The Slab/LRU reclaim ratio is affected because the frequency the shrinkers
> are called is now different. This may or may not be a problem but if it
> is, it'll be because shrinkers are not called enough and some balancing
> is required.
>
> 3. The anon/file reclaim ratio may be affected. Pages about to be dirtied are
> distributed between zones and the fair zone allocation policy used to do
> something very similar for anon. The distribution is now different but not
> necessarily in any way that matters but it's still worth bearing in mind.

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