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Subject[PATCH 15/31] mm, page_alloc: consider dirtyable memory in terms of nodes
Date
Historically dirty pages were spread among zones but now that LRUs are
per-node it is more appropriate to consider dirty pages in a node.

Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>
Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Acked-by: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
Acked-by: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com>
---
include/linux/mmzone.h | 12 +++----
include/linux/writeback.h | 2 +-
mm/page-writeback.c | 91 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----------------
mm/page_alloc.c | 26 ++++++--------
4 files changed, 79 insertions(+), 52 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/linux/mmzone.h b/include/linux/mmzone.h
index 08e0dc9cd7cd..0e18e87cb965 100644
--- a/include/linux/mmzone.h
+++ b/include/linux/mmzone.h
@@ -363,12 +363,6 @@ struct zone {
struct pglist_data *zone_pgdat;
struct per_cpu_pageset __percpu *pageset;

- /*
- * This is a per-zone reserve of pages that are not available
- * to userspace allocations.
- */
- unsigned long totalreserve_pages;
-
#ifndef CONFIG_SPARSEMEM
/*
* Flags for a pageblock_nr_pages block. See pageblock-flags.h.
@@ -686,6 +680,12 @@ typedef struct pglist_data {
/* Number of pages migrated during the rate limiting time interval */
unsigned long numabalancing_migrate_nr_pages;
#endif
+ /*
+ * This is a per-node reserve of pages that are not available
+ * to userspace allocations.
+ */
+ unsigned long totalreserve_pages;
+
/* Write-intensive fields used from the page allocator */
ZONE_PADDING(_pad1_)
spinlock_t lru_lock;
diff --git a/include/linux/writeback.h b/include/linux/writeback.h
index 717e6149e753..fc1e16c25a29 100644
--- a/include/linux/writeback.h
+++ b/include/linux/writeback.h
@@ -320,7 +320,7 @@ void laptop_mode_timer_fn(unsigned long data);
static inline void laptop_sync_completion(void) { }
#endif
void throttle_vm_writeout(gfp_t gfp_mask);
-bool zone_dirty_ok(struct zone *zone);
+bool node_dirty_ok(struct pglist_data *pgdat);
int wb_domain_init(struct wb_domain *dom, gfp_t gfp);
#ifdef CONFIG_CGROUP_WRITEBACK
void wb_domain_exit(struct wb_domain *dom);
diff --git a/mm/page-writeback.c b/mm/page-writeback.c
index 0ada2b2954b0..f7c0fb993fb9 100644
--- a/mm/page-writeback.c
+++ b/mm/page-writeback.c
@@ -267,26 +267,35 @@ static void wb_min_max_ratio(struct bdi_writeback *wb,
*/

/**
- * zone_dirtyable_memory - number of dirtyable pages in a zone
- * @zone: the zone
+ * node_dirtyable_memory - number of dirtyable pages in a node
+ * @pgdat: the node
*
- * Returns the zone's number of pages potentially available for dirty
- * page cache. This is the base value for the per-zone dirty limits.
+ * Returns the node's number of pages potentially available for dirty
+ * page cache. This is the base value for the per-node dirty limits.
*/
-static unsigned long zone_dirtyable_memory(struct zone *zone)
+static unsigned long node_dirtyable_memory(struct pglist_data *pgdat)
{
- unsigned long nr_pages;
+ unsigned long nr_pages = 0;
+ int z;
+
+ for (z = 0; z < MAX_NR_ZONES; z++) {
+ struct zone *zone = pgdat->node_zones + z;
+
+ if (!populated_zone(zone))
+ continue;
+
+ nr_pages += zone_page_state(zone, NR_FREE_PAGES);
+ }

- nr_pages = zone_page_state(zone, NR_FREE_PAGES);
/*
* Pages reserved for the kernel should not be considered
* dirtyable, to prevent a situation where reclaim has to
* clean pages in order to balance the zones.
*/
- nr_pages -= min(nr_pages, zone->totalreserve_pages);
+ nr_pages -= min(nr_pages, pgdat->totalreserve_pages);

- nr_pages += node_page_state(zone->zone_pgdat, NR_INACTIVE_FILE);
- nr_pages += node_page_state(zone->zone_pgdat, NR_ACTIVE_FILE);
+ nr_pages += node_page_state(pgdat, NR_INACTIVE_FILE);
+ nr_pages += node_page_state(pgdat, NR_ACTIVE_FILE);

return nr_pages;
}
@@ -299,13 +308,24 @@ static unsigned long highmem_dirtyable_memory(unsigned long total)
int i;

for_each_node_state(node, N_HIGH_MEMORY) {
- for (i = 0; i < MAX_NR_ZONES; i++) {
- struct zone *z = &NODE_DATA(node)->node_zones[i];
+ for (i = ZONE_NORMAL + 1; i < MAX_NR_ZONES; i++) {
+ struct zone *z;
+ unsigned long dirtyable;
+
+ if (!is_highmem_idx(i))
+ continue;
+
+ z = &NODE_DATA(node)->node_zones[i];
+ dirtyable = zone_page_state(z, NR_FREE_PAGES) +
+ zone_page_state(z, NR_ZONE_LRU_FILE);

- if (is_highmem(z))
- x += zone_dirtyable_memory(z);
+ /* watch for underflows */
+ dirtyable -= min(dirtyable, high_wmark_pages(z));
+
+ x += dirtyable;
}
}
+
/*
* Unreclaimable memory (kernel memory or anonymous memory
* without swap) can bring down the dirtyable pages below
@@ -445,23 +465,23 @@ void global_dirty_limits(unsigned long *pbackground, unsigned long *pdirty)
}

/**
- * zone_dirty_limit - maximum number of dirty pages allowed in a zone
- * @zone: the zone
+ * node_dirty_limit - maximum number of dirty pages allowed in a node
+ * @pgdat: the node
*
- * Returns the maximum number of dirty pages allowed in a zone, based
- * on the zone's dirtyable memory.
+ * Returns the maximum number of dirty pages allowed in a node, based
+ * on the node's dirtyable memory.
*/
-static unsigned long zone_dirty_limit(struct zone *zone)
+static unsigned long node_dirty_limit(struct pglist_data *pgdat)
{
- unsigned long zone_memory = zone_dirtyable_memory(zone);
+ unsigned long node_memory = node_dirtyable_memory(pgdat);
struct task_struct *tsk = current;
unsigned long dirty;

if (vm_dirty_bytes)
dirty = DIV_ROUND_UP(vm_dirty_bytes, PAGE_SIZE) *
- zone_memory / global_dirtyable_memory();
+ node_memory / global_dirtyable_memory();
else
- dirty = vm_dirty_ratio * zone_memory / 100;
+ dirty = vm_dirty_ratio * node_memory / 100;

if (tsk->flags & PF_LESS_THROTTLE || rt_task(tsk))
dirty += dirty / 4;
@@ -470,19 +490,30 @@ static unsigned long zone_dirty_limit(struct zone *zone)
}

/**
- * zone_dirty_ok - tells whether a zone is within its dirty limits
- * @zone: the zone to check
+ * node_dirty_ok - tells whether a node is within its dirty limits
+ * @pgdat: the node to check
*
- * Returns %true when the dirty pages in @zone are within the zone's
+ * Returns %true when the dirty pages in @pgdat are within the node's
* dirty limit, %false if the limit is exceeded.
*/
-bool zone_dirty_ok(struct zone *zone)
+bool node_dirty_ok(struct pglist_data *pgdat)
{
- unsigned long limit = zone_dirty_limit(zone);
+ int z;
+ unsigned long limit = node_dirty_limit(pgdat);
+ unsigned long nr_pages = 0;
+
+ for (z = 0; z < MAX_NR_ZONES; z++) {
+ struct zone *zone = pgdat->node_zones + z;
+
+ if (!populated_zone(zone))
+ continue;
+
+ nr_pages += zone_page_state(zone, NR_FILE_DIRTY);
+ nr_pages += zone_page_state(zone, NR_UNSTABLE_NFS);
+ nr_pages += zone_page_state(zone, NR_WRITEBACK);
+ }

- return zone_page_state(zone, NR_FILE_DIRTY) +
- zone_page_state(zone, NR_UNSTABLE_NFS) +
- zone_page_state(zone, NR_WRITEBACK) <= limit;
+ return nr_pages <= limit;
}

int dirty_background_ratio_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
diff --git a/mm/page_alloc.c b/mm/page_alloc.c
index b76ea2527c09..d87a5e930bef 100644
--- a/mm/page_alloc.c
+++ b/mm/page_alloc.c
@@ -2955,31 +2955,24 @@ get_page_from_freelist(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned int order, int alloc_flags,
}
/*
* When allocating a page cache page for writing, we
- * want to get it from a zone that is within its dirty
- * limit, such that no single zone holds more than its
+ * want to get it from a node that is within its dirty
+ * limit, such that no single node holds more than its
* proportional share of globally allowed dirty pages.
- * The dirty limits take into account the zone's
+ * The dirty limits take into account the node's
* lowmem reserves and high watermark so that kswapd
* should be able to balance it without having to
* write pages from its LRU list.
*
- * This may look like it could increase pressure on
- * lower zones by failing allocations in higher zones
- * before they are full. But the pages that do spill
- * over are limited as the lower zones are protected
- * by this very same mechanism. It should not become
- * a practical burden to them.
- *
* XXX: For now, allow allocations to potentially
- * exceed the per-zone dirty limit in the slowpath
+ * exceed the per-node dirty limit in the slowpath
* (spread_dirty_pages unset) before going into reclaim,
* which is important when on a NUMA setup the allowed
- * zones are together not big enough to reach the
+ * nodes are together not big enough to reach the
* global limit. The proper fix for these situations
- * will require awareness of zones in the
+ * will require awareness of nodes in the
* dirty-throttling and the flusher threads.
*/
- if (ac->spread_dirty_pages && !zone_dirty_ok(zone))
+ if (ac->spread_dirty_pages && !node_dirty_ok(zone->zone_pgdat))
continue;

mark = zone->watermark[alloc_flags & ALLOC_WMARK_MASK];
@@ -6749,6 +6742,9 @@ static void calculate_totalreserve_pages(void)
enum zone_type i, j;

for_each_online_pgdat(pgdat) {
+
+ pgdat->totalreserve_pages = 0;
+
for (i = 0; i < MAX_NR_ZONES; i++) {
struct zone *zone = pgdat->node_zones + i;
long max = 0;
@@ -6765,7 +6761,7 @@ static void calculate_totalreserve_pages(void)
if (max > zone->managed_pages)
max = zone->managed_pages;

- zone->totalreserve_pages = max;
+ pgdat->totalreserve_pages += max;

reserve_pages += max;
}
--
2.6.4
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