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Subject[ANNOUNCE] Git v2.9.0
Date
The latest feature release Git v2.9.0 is now available at the
usual places. It is comprised of 497 non-merge commits since
v2.8.0, contributed by 75 people, 28 of which are new faces.

The tarballs are found at:

https://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/

The following public repositories all have a copy of the 'v2.9.0'
tag and the 'master' branch that the tag points at:

url = https://kernel.googlesource.com/pub/scm/git/git
url = git://repo.or.cz/alt-git.git
url = git://git.sourceforge.jp/gitroot/git-core/git.git
url = git://git-core.git.sourceforge.net/gitroot/git-core/git-core
url = https://github.com/gitster/git

New contributors whose contributions weren't in v2.8.0 are as follows.
Welcome to the Git development community!

Alexander Rinass, Antonin, Armin Kunaschik, Benjamin Dopplinger,
Ben Woosley, Erwan Mathoniere, Gabriel Souza Franco, Jacob
Nisnevich, Jan Durovec, Jean-Noël Avila, Kazuki Yamaguchi,
Keller Fuchs, Laurent Arnoud, Li Peng, Marios Titas, Mehul Jain,
Michael Procter, Nikola Forró, Pablo Santiago Blum de Aguiar,
Pranit Bauva, Ray Zhang, René Nyffenegger, Santiago Torres,
Saurav Sachidanand, Shin Kojima, Sidhant Sharma [:tk], Stanislav
Kolotinskiy, and Xiaolong Ye.

Returning contributors who helped this release are as follows.
Thanks for your continued support.

Adam Dinwoodie, Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason, Alexander Kuleshov,
Alexander Shopov, brian m. carlson, Brian Norris, Changwoo
Ryu, Christian Couder, David Aguilar, David Turner, Dennis
Kaarsemaker, Dimitriy Ryazantcev, Elia Pinto, Elijah Newren,
Eric Sunshine, Eric Wong, Felipe Contreras, Jacob Keller,
Jean-Noel Avila, Jeff King, Jiang Xin, Johannes Schindelin,
Johannes Sixt, John Keeping, Junio C Hamano, Karsten Blees,
Lars Schneider, Linus Torvalds, Luke Diamand, Matthieu Moy,
Michael Haggerty, Michael J Gruber, Michael Rappazzo, Nguyễn
Thái Ngọc Duy, Ori Avtalion, Peter Krefting, Ralf Thielow,
Ramsay Jones, Ray Chen, René Scharfe, Stefan Beller, Stephen
P. Smith, Sven Strickroth, SZEDER Gábor, Torsten Bögershausen,
Trần Ngọc Quân, and Vasco Almeida.

----------------------------------------------------------------

Git 2.9 Release Notes
=====================

Backward compatibility notes
----------------------------

The end-user facing Porcelain level commands in the "git diff" and
"git log" family by default enable the rename detection; you can still
use "diff.renames" configuration variable to disable this.

Merging two branches that have no common ancestor with "git merge" is
by default forbidden now to prevent creating such an unusual merge by
mistake.

The output formats of "git log" that indents the commit log message by
4 spaces now expands HT in the log message by default. You can use
the "--no-expand-tabs" option to disable this.

"git commit-tree" plumbing command required the user to always sign
its result when the user sets the commit.gpgsign configuration
variable, which was an ancient mistake, which this release corrects.
A script that drives commit-tree, if it relies on this mistake, now
needs to read commit.gpgsign and pass the -S option as necessary.


Updates since v2.8
------------------

UI, Workflows & Features

* Comes with git-multimail 1.3.1 (in contrib/).

* The end-user facing commands like "git diff" and "git log"
now enable the rename detection by default.

* The credential.helper configuration variable is cumulative and
there is no good way to override it from the command line. As
a special case, giving an empty string as its value now serves
as the signal to clear the values specified in various files.

* A new "interactive.diffFilter" configuration can be used to
customize the diff shown in "git add -i" sessions.

* "git p4" now allows P4 author names to be mapped to Git author
names.

* "git rebase -x" can be used without passing "-i" option.

* "git -c credential.<var>=<value> submodule" can now be used to
propagate configuration variables related to credential helper
down to the submodules.

* "git tag" can create an annotated tag without explicitly given an
"-a" (or "-s") option (i.e. when a tag message is given). A new
configuration variable, tag.forceSignAnnotated, can be used to tell
the command to create signed tag in such a situation.

* "git merge" used to allow merging two branches that have no common
base by default, which led to a brand new history of an existing
project created and then get pulled by an unsuspecting maintainer,
which allowed an unnecessary parallel history merged into the
existing project. The command has been taught not to allow this by
default, with an escape hatch "--allow-unrelated-histories" option
to be used in a rare event that merges histories of two projects
that started their lives independently.

* "git pull" has been taught to pass the "--allow-unrelated-histories"
option to underlying "git merge".

* "git apply -v" learned to report paths in the patch that were
skipped via --include/--exclude mechanism or being outside the
current working directory.

* Shell completion (in contrib/) updates.

* The commit object name reported when "rebase -i" stops has been
shortened.

* "git worktree add" can be given "--no-checkout" option to only
create an empty worktree without checking out the files.

* "git mergetools" learned to drive ExamDiff.

* "git pull --rebase" learned "--[no-]autostash" option, so that
the rebase.autostash configuration variable set to true can be
overridden from the command line.

* When "git log" shows the log message indented by 4-spaces, the
remainder of a line after a HT does not align in the way the author
originally intended. The command now expands tabs by default to help
such a case, and allows the users to override it with a new option,
"--no-expand-tabs".

* "git send-email" now uses a more readable timestamps when
formulating a message ID.

* "git rerere" can encounter two or more files with the same conflict
signature that have to be resolved in different ways, but there was
no way to record these separate resolutions.

* "git p4" learned to record P4 jobs in Git commit that imports from
the history in Perforce.

* "git describe --contains" often made a hard-to-justify choice of
tag to name a given commit, because it tried to come up
with a name with smallest number of hops from a tag, causing an old
commit whose close descendant that is recently tagged were not
described with respect to an old tag but with a newer tag. It did
not help that its computation of "hop" count was further tweaked to
penalize being on a side branch of a merge. The logic has been
updated to favor using the tag with the oldest tagger date, which
is a lot easier to explain to the end users: "We describe a commit
in terms of the (chronologically) oldest tag that contains the
commit."

* "git clone" learned the "--shallow-submodules" option.

* HTTP transport clients learned to throw extra HTTP headers at the
server, specified via http.extraHeader configuration variable.

* The "--compaction-heuristic" option to "git diff" family of
commands enables a heuristic to make the patch output more readable
by using a blank line as a strong hint that the contents before and
after it belong to logically separate units. It is still
experimental.

* A new configuration variable core.hooksPath allows customizing
where the hook directory is.

* An earlier addition of "sanitize_submodule_env" with 14111fc4 (git:
submodule honor -c credential.* from command line, 2016-02-29)
turned out to be a convoluted no-op; implement what it wanted to do
correctly, and stop filtering settings given via "git -c var=val".

* "git commit --dry-run" reported "No, no, you cannot commit." in one
case where "git commit" would have allowed you to commit, and this
improves it a little bit ("git commit --dry-run --short" still does
not give you the correct answer, for example). This is a stop-gap
measure in that "commit --short --dry-run" still gives an incorrect
result.

* The experimental "multiple worktree" feature gains more safety to
forbid operations on a branch that is checked out or being actively
worked on elsewhere, by noticing that e.g. it is being rebased.

* "git format-patch" learned a new "--base" option to record what
(public, well-known) commit the original series was built on in
its output.

* "git commit" learned to pay attention to the "commit.verbose"
configuration variable and act as if the "--verbose" option
was given from the command line.

* Updated documentation gives hints to GMail users with two-factor
auth enabled that they need app-specific-password when using
"git send-email".

* The manpage output of our documentation did not render well in
terminal; typeset literals in bold by default to make them stand
out more.

* The mark-up in the top-level README.md file has been updated to
typeset CLI command names differently from the body text.


Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.

* The embedded args argv-array in the child process is used to build
the command line to run pack-objects instead of using a separate
array of strings.

* A test for tags has been restructured so that more parts of it can
easily be run on a platform without a working GnuPG.

* The startup_info data, which records if we are working inside a
repository (among other things), are now uniformly available to Git
subcommand implementations, and Git avoids attempting to touch
references when we are not in a repository.

* The command line argument parser for "receive-pack" has been
rewritten to use parse-options.

* A major part of "git submodule update" has been ported to C to take
advantage of the recently added framework to run download tasks in
parallel. Other updates to "git submodule" that move pieces of
logic to C continues.

* Rename bunch of tests on "git clone" for better organization.

* The tests that involve running httpd leaked the system-wide
configuration in /etc/gitconfig to the tested environment.

* Build updates for MSVC.

* The repository set-up sequence has been streamlined (the biggest
change is that there is no longer git_config_early()), so that we
do not attempt to look into refs/* when we know we do not have a
Git repository.

* Code restructuring around the "refs" API to prepare for pluggable
refs backends.

* Sources to many test helper binaries and the generated helpers
have been moved to t/helper/ subdirectory to reduce clutter at the
top level of the tree.

* Unify internal logic between "git tag -v" and "git verify-tag"
commands by making one directly call into the other.

* "merge-recursive" strategy incorrectly checked if a path that is
involved in its internal merge exists in the working tree.

* The test scripts for "git p4" (but not "git p4" implementation
itself) has been updated so that they would work even on a system
where the installed version of Python is python 3.

* As nobody maintains our in-tree git.spec.in and distros use their
own spec file, we stopped pretending that we support "make rpm".

* Move from "unsigned char[20]" to "struct object_id" continues.

* The code for warning_errno/die_errno has been refactored and a new
error_errno() reporting helper is introduced.
(merge 1da045f nd/error-errno later to maint).

* Running tests with '-x' option to trace the individual command
executions is a useful way to debug test scripts, but some tests
that capture the standard error stream and check what the command
said can be broken with the trace output mixed in. When running
our tests under "bash", however, we can redirect the trace output
to another file descriptor to keep the standard error of programs
being tested intact.

* t0040 had too many unnecessary repetitions in its test data. Teach
test-parse-options program so that a caller can tell what it
expects in its output, so that these repetitions can be cleaned up.

* Add perf test for "rebase -i".

* Common mistakes when writing gitlink: in our documentation are
found by "make check-docs".

* t9xxx series has been updated primarily for readability, while
fixing small bugs in it. A few scripted Porcelain commands have
also been updated to fix possible bugs around their use of
"test -z" and "test -n".

* CI test was taught to run git-svn tests.

* "git cat-file --batch-all" has been sped up, by taking advantage
of the fact that it does not have to read a list of objects, in two
ways.

* test updates to make it more readable and maintainable.
(merge e6273f4 es/t1500-modernize later to maint).

* "make DEVELOPER=1" worked as expected; setting DEVELOPER=1 in
config.mak didn't.
(merge 51dd3e8 mm/makefile-developer-can-be-in-config-mak later to maint).

* The way how "submodule--helper list" signals unmatch error to its
callers has been updated.

* A bash-ism "local" has been removed from "git submodule" scripted
Porcelain.


Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.


Fixes since v2.8
----------------

Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v2.8 in the maintenance
track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases'
notes for details).

* "git config --get-urlmatch", unlike other variants of the "git
config --get" family, did not signal error with its exit status
when there was no matching configuration.

* The "--local-env-vars" and "--resolve-git-dir" options of "git
rev-parse" failed to work outside a repository when the command's
option parsing was rewritten in 1.8.5 era.

* "git index-pack --keep[=<msg>] pack-$name.pack" simply did not work.

* Fetching of history by naming a commit object name directly didn't
work across remote-curl transport.

* A small memory leak in an error codepath has been plugged in xdiff
code.

* strbuf_getwholeline() did not NUL-terminate the buffer on certain
corner cases in its error codepath.

* "git mergetool" did not work well with conflicts that both sides
deleted.

* "git send-email" had trouble parsing alias file in mailrc format
when lines in it had trailing whitespaces on them.

* When "git merge --squash" stopped due to conflict, the concluding
"git commit" failed to read in the SQUASH_MSG that shows the log
messages from all the squashed commits.

* "git merge FETCH_HEAD" dereferenced NULL pointer when merging
nothing into an unborn history (which is arguably unusual usage,
which perhaps was the reason why nobody noticed it).

* When "git worktree" feature is in use, "git branch -d" allowed
deletion of a branch that is checked out in another worktree,
which was wrong.

* When "git worktree" feature is in use, "git branch -m" renamed a
branch that is checked out in another worktree without adjusting
the HEAD symbolic ref for the worktree.

* "git diff -M" used to work better when two originally identical
files A and B got renamed to X/A and X/B by pairing A to X/A and B
to X/B, but this was broken in the 2.0 timeframe.

* "git send-pack --all <there>" was broken when its command line
option parsing was written in the 2.6 timeframe.

* "git format-patch --help" showed `-s` and `--no-patch` as if these
are valid options to the command. We already hide `--patch` option
from the documentation, because format-patch is about showing the
diff, and the documentation now hides these options as well.

* When running "git blame $path" with unnormalized data in the index
for the path, the data in the working tree was blamed, even though
"git add" would not have changed what is already in the index, due
to "safe crlf" that disables the line-end conversion. It has been
corrected.

* A change back in version 2.7 to "git branch" broke display of a
symbolic ref in a non-standard place in the refs/ hierarchy (we
expect symbolic refs to appear in refs/remotes/*/HEAD to point at
the primary branch the remote has, and as .git/HEAD to point at the
branch we locally checked out).

* A partial rewrite of "git submodule" in the 2.7 timeframe changed
the way the gitdir: pointer in the submodules point at the real
repository location to use absolute paths by accident. This has
been corrected.

* "git commit" misbehaved in a few minor ways when an empty message
is given via -m '', all of which has been corrected.

* Support for CRAM-MD5 authentication method in "git imap-send" did
not work well.

* Upcoming OpenSSL 1.1.0 will break compilation by updating a few API
elements we use in imap-send, which has been adjusted for the change.

* The socks5:// proxy support added back in 2.6.4 days was not aware
that socks5h:// proxies behave differently from socks5:// proxies.

* "git config" had a codepath that tried to pass a NULL to
printf("%s"), which nobody seems to have noticed.

* On Cygwin, object creation uses the "create a temporary and then
rename it to the final name" pattern, not "create a temporary,
hardlink it to the final name and then unlink the temporary"
pattern.

This is necessary to use Git on Windows shared directories, and is
already enabled for the MinGW and plain Windows builds. It also
has been used in Cygwin packaged versions of Git for quite a while.
See http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/291853

* "merge-octopus" strategy did not ensure that the index is clean
when merge begins.

* When "git merge" notices that the merge can be resolved purely at
the tree level (without having to merge blobs) and the resulting
tree happens to already exist in the object store, it forgot to
update the index, which left an inconsistent state that would
break later operations.

* "git submodule" reports the paths of submodules the command
recurses into, but these paths were incorrectly reported when
the command was not run from the root level of the superproject.

* The "user.useConfigOnly" configuration variable makes it an error
if users do not explicitly set user.name and user.email. However,
its check was not done early enough and allowed another error to
trigger, reporting that the default value we guessed from the
system setting was unusable. This was a suboptimal end-user
experience as we want the users to set user.name/user.email without
relying on the auto-detection at all.

* "git mv old new" did not adjust the path for a submodule that lives
as a subdirectory inside old/ directory correctly.

* "git replace -e" did not honour "core.editor" configuration.

* "git push" from a corrupt repository that attempts to push a large
number of refs deadlocked; the thread to relay rejection notices
for these ref updates blocked on writing them to the main thread,
after the main thread at the receiving end notices that the push
failed and decides not to read these notices and return a failure.

* mmap emulation on Windows has been optimized and work better without
consuming paging store when not needed.

* A question by "git send-email" to ask the identity of the sender
has been updated.

* UI consistency improvements for "git mergetool".

* "git rebase -m" could be asked to rebase an entire branch starting
from the root, but failed by assuming that there always is a parent
commit to the first commit on the branch.

* Fix a broken "p4 lfs" test.

* Recent update to Git LFS broke "git p4" by changing the output from
its "lfs pointer" subcommand.

* "git fetch" test t5510 was flaky while running a (forced) automagic
garbage collection.

* Documentation updates to help contributors setting up Travis CI
test for their patches.

* Some multi-byte encoding can have a backslash byte as a later part
of one letter, which would confuse "highlight" filter used in
gitweb.

* "git commit-tree" plumbing command required the user to always sign
its result when the user sets the commit.gpgsign configuration
variable, which was an ancient mistake. Rework "git rebase" that
relied on this mistake so that it reads commit.gpgsign and pass (or
not pass) the -S option to "git commit-tree" to keep the end-user
expectation the same, while teaching "git commit-tree" to ignore
the configuration variable. This will stop requiring the users to
sign commit objects used internally as an implementation detail of
"git stash".

* "http.cookieFile" configuration variable clearly wants a pathname,
but we forgot to treat it as such by e.g. applying tilde expansion.

* Consolidate description of tilde-expansion that is done to
configuration variables that take pathname to a single place.

* Correct faulty recommendation to use "git submodule deinit ." when
de-initialising all submodules, which would result in a strange
error message in a pathological corner case.

* Many 'linkgit:<git documentation page>' references were broken,
which are all fixed with this.

* "git rerere" can get confused by conflict markers deliberately left
by the inner merge step, because they are indistinguishable from
the real conflict markers left by the outermost merge which are
what the end user and "rerere" need to look at. This was fixed by
making the conflict markers left by the inner merges a bit longer.
(merge 0f9fd5c jc/ll-merge-internal later to maint).

* CI test was taught to build documentation pages.

* "git fsck" learned to catch NUL byte in a commit object as
potential error and warn.

* Portability enhancement for "rebase -i" to help platforms whose
shell does not like "for i in <empty>" (which is not POSIX-kosher).

* On Windows, .git and optionally any files whose name starts with a
dot are now marked as hidden, with a core.hideDotFiles knob to
customize this behaviour.

* Documentation for "git merge --verify-signatures" has been updated
to clarify that the signature of only the commit at the tip is
verified. Also the phrasing used for signature and key validity is
adjusted to align with that used by OpenPGP.

* A couple of bugs around core.autocrlf have been fixed.

* Many commands normalize command line arguments from NFD to NFC
variant of UTF-8 on OSX, but commands in the "diff" family did
not, causing "git diff $path" to complain that no such path is
known to Git. They have been taught to do the normalization.

* "git difftool" learned to handle unmerged paths correctly in
dir-diff mode.

* The "are we talking with TTY, doing an interactive session?"
detection has been updated to work better for "Git for Windows".

* We forgot to add "git log --decorate=auto" to documentation when we
added the feature back in v2.1.0 timeframe.
(merge 462cbb4 rj/log-decorate-auto later to maint).

* "git fast-import --export-marks" would overwrite the existing marks
file even when it makes a dump from its custom die routine.
Prevent it from doing so when we have an import-marks file but
haven't finished reading it.
(merge f4beed6 fc/fast-import-broken-marks-file later to maint).

* "git rebase -i", after it fails to auto-resolve the conflict, had
an unnecessary call to "git rerere" from its very early days, which
was spotted recently; the call has been removed.
(merge 7063693 js/rebase-i-dedup-call-to-rerere later to maint).

* Other minor clean-ups and documentation updates
(merge cd82b7a pa/cherry-pick-doc-typo later to maint).
(merge 2bb73ae rs/patch-id-use-skip-prefix later to maint).
(merge aa20cbc rs/apply-name-terminate later to maint).
(merge fe17fc0 jc/t2300-setup later to maint).
(merge e256eec jk/shell-portability later to maint).

----------------------------------------------------------------

Changes since v2.8.0 are as follows:

Adam Dinwoodie (2):
config.mak.uname: Cygwin needs OBJECT_CREATION_USES_RENAMES
commit: --amend -m '' silently fails to wipe message

Alexander Kuleshov (1):
submodule-config: use hashmap_iter_first()

Alexander Rinass (1):
diff: run arguments through precompose_argv

Alexander Shopov (1):
l10n: Updated Bulgarian translation of git (2597t,0f,0u)

Antonin (1):
l10n: fr.po Fixed grammar mistake

Armin Kunaschik (2):
t4151: make sure argument to 'test -z' is given
t0008: 4 tests fail with ksh88

Ben Woosley (1):
git-rebase--merge: don't include absent parent as a base

Benjamin Dopplinger (1):
README.md: format CLI commands with code syntax

Brian Norris (3):
Documentation: config: improve word ordering for http.cookieFile
http: expand http.cookieFile as a path
config: consistently format $variables in monospaced font

Changwoo Ryu (1):
l10n: ko.po: Update Korean translation

Christian Couder (5):
Documentation: talk about pager in api-trace.txt
builtin/apply: get rid of useless 'name' variable
builtin/apply: handle parse_binary() failure
builtin/apply: free patch when parse_chunk() fails
Git/SVN: die when there is no commit metadata

David Aguilar (4):
mergetool: support delete/delete conflicts
mergetool: honor tempfile configuration when resolving delete conflicts
difftool: initialize variables for readability
difftool: handle unmerged files in dir-diff mode

David Turner (5):
refs: move head_ref{,_submodule} to the common code
refs: move for_each_*ref* functions into common code
files-backend: break out ref reading
refs: move resolve_ref_unsafe into common code
refs: on symref reflog expire, lock symref not referrent

Dennis Kaarsemaker (1):
Makefile: remove dependency on git.spec

Dimitriy Ryazantcev (1):
l10n: ru.po: update Russian translation

Elia Pinto (1):
api-trace.txt: fix typo

Elijah Newren (6):
merge-recursive: remove duplicate code
merge-recursive: do not check working copy when creating a virtual merge base
t7605: add a testcase demonstrating a bug with trivial merges
builtin/merge.c: fix a bug with trivial merges
merge-octopus: abort if index does not match HEAD
t6044: new merge testcases for when index doesn't match HEAD

Eric Sunshine (10):
lib-gpg: drop unnecessary "missing GPG" warning
t6302: normalize names and descriptions of signed tags
t6302: also test annotated in addition to signed tags
t6302: skip only signed tags rather than all tests when GPG is missing
git-format-patch.txt: don't show -s as shorthand for multiple options
t1500: be considerate to future potential tests
t1500: test_rev_parse: facilitate future test enhancements
t1500: avoid changing working directory outside of tests
t1500: avoid setting configuration options outside of tests
t1500: avoid setting environment variables outside of tests

Eric Wong (4):
send-email: more meaningful Message-ID
send-email: do not load Data::Dumper
pack-objects: warn on split packs disabling bitmaps
.mailmap: update to my shorter email address

Erwan Mathoniere (1):
Documentation: bold literals in man

Felipe Contreras (1):
fast-import: do not truncate exported marks file

Gabriel Souza Franco (2):
fetch-pack: fix object_id of exact sha1
fetch-pack: update the documentation for "<refs>..." arguments

Jacob Keller (7):
submodule: don't pass empty string arguments to submodule--helper clone
submodule: check argc count for git submodule--helper clone
submodule: fix submodule--helper clone usage
submodule: fix segmentation fault in submodule--helper clone
quote: implement sq_quotef()
git: submodule honor -c credential.* from command line
xdiff: add recs_match helper function

Jacob Nisnevich (2):
mergetools: create mergetool_find_win32_cmd() helper function for winmerge
mergetools: add support for ExamDiff

Jan Durovec (2):
git-p4: clean-up code style in tests
git-p4: add P4 jobs to git commit message

Jean-Noel Avila (1):
l10n: fr.po v2.9.0rnd1

Jeff King (56):
credential: let empty credential specs reset helper list
t1515: add tests for rev-parse out-of-repo helpers
add--interactive: allow custom diff highlighting programs
rev-parse: let some options run outside repository
strbuf_getwholeline: NUL-terminate getdelim buffer on error
setup: make startup_info available everywhere
setup: set startup_info->have_repository more reliably
remote: don't resolve HEAD in non-repository
mailmap: do not resolve blobs in a non-repository
grep: turn off gitlink detection for --no-index
use setup_git_directory() in test-* programs
setup: document check_repository_format()
wrap shared_repository global in get/set accessors
lazily load core.sharedrepository
check_repository_format_gently: stop using git_config_early
config: drop git_config_early
setup: refactor repo format reading and verification
init: use setup.c's repo version verification
setup: unify repository version callbacks
setup: drop repository_format_version global
verify_repository_format: mark messages for translation
send-email: ignore trailing whitespace in mailrc alias file
credential-cache--daemon: clarify "exit" action semantics
t/lib-httpd: pass through GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM env
git_config_push_parameter: handle empty GIT_CONFIG_PARAMETERS
branch: fix shortening of non-remote symrefs
commit: do not ignore an empty message given by -m ''
config: lower-case first word of error strings
git_config_set_multivar_in_file: all non-zero returns are errors
git_config_set_multivar_in_file: handle "unset" errors
t5532: use write_script
send-pack: close demux pipe before finishing async process
run-command: teach async threads to ignore SIGPIPE
send-pack: isolate sigpipe in demuxer thread
fetch-pack: isolate sigpipe in demuxer thread
t5504: drop sigpipe=ok from push tests
remote.c: spell __attribute__ correctly
t5550: fix typo in $HTTPD_URL
t5550: break submodule config test into multiple sub-tests
submodule: export sanitized GIT_CONFIG_PARAMETERS
submodule--helper: move config-sanitizing to submodule.c
submodule: use prepare_submodule_repo_env consistently
submodule: stop sanitizing config options
t6302: simplify non-gpg cases
rebase--interactive: avoid empty list in shell for-loop
test-lib: set BASH_XTRACEFD automatically
t/lib-git-svn: drop $remote_git_svn and $git_svn_id
t9100,t3419: enclose all test code in single-quotes
t9107: use "return 1" instead of "exit 1"
t9107: switch inverted single/double quotes in test
t9103: modernize test style
always quote shell arguments to test -z/-n
cat-file: avoid noop calls to sha1_object_info_extended
cat-file: default to --buffer when --batch-all-objects is used
archive-tar: convert snprintf to xsnprintf
test-lib: add in-shell "env" replacement

Jiang Xin (2):
l10n: git.pot: v2.9.0 round 1 (104 new, 37 removed)
l10n: zh_CN: for git v2.9.0 l10n round 1

Johannes Schindelin (16):
replace --edit: respect core.editor
name-rev: include taggerdate in considering the best name
win32mmap: set errno appropriately
mmap(win32): avoid copy-on-write when it is unnecessary
mmap(win32): avoid expensive fstat() call
http: support sending custom HTTP headers
tests: adjust the configuration for Apache 2.2
t5551: make the test for extra HTTP headers more robust
t3404: fix typo
submodule: ensure that -c http.extraheader is heeded
mingw: introduce the 'core.hideDotFiles' setting
mingw: remove unnecessary definition
Windows: only add a no-op pthread_sigmask() when needed
perf: let's disable symlinks when they are not available
perf: make the tests work in worktrees
perf: run "rebase -i" under perf

Johannes Sixt (4):
Windows: shorten code by re-using convert_slashes()
Windows: add pthread_sigmask() that does nothing
t6044: replace seq by test_seq
rebase -i: remove an unnecessary 'rerere' invocation

John Keeping (3):
config: fail if --get-urlmatch finds no value
Documentation/git-config: use bulleted list for exit codes
Documentation/git-config: fix --get-all description

Junio C Hamano (82):
rerere: split conflict ID further
rerere: scan $GIT_DIR/rr-cache/$ID when instantiating a rerere_id
index-pack: correct --keep[=<msg>]
index-pack: add a helper function to derive .idx/.keep filename
rerere: handle leftover rr-cache/$ID directory and postimage files
rerere: delay the recording of preimage
rerere: allow multiple variants to exist
t4200: rerere a merge with two identical conflicts
rerere: do use multiple variants
apply: remove unused call to free() in gitdiff_{old,new}name()
merge: fix NULL pointer dereference when merging nothing into void
merge: refuse to create too cool a merge by default
pretty: enable --expand-tabs by default for selected pretty formats
pretty: allow tweaking tabwidth in --expand-tabs
submodule--helper: do not borrow absolute_path() result for too long
Git 2.8.1
First batch for post 2.8 cycle
pretty: test --expand-tabs
Makefile: fix misdirected redirections
Second batch for post 2.8 cycle
Makefile: stop pretending to support rpmbuild
rerere: gc and clear
rerere: move code related to "forget" together
rerere: split code to call ll_merge() further
rerere: adjust 'forget' to multi-variant world order
setup.c: do not feed NULL to "%.*s" even with precision 0
Third batch for post 2.8 cycle
http: differentiate socks5:// and socks5h://
t1020: do not overuse printf and use write_script
t3404: use write_script
Fourth batch for post 2.8 cycle
Start preparing for 2.8.2
fsck_commit_buffer(): do not special case the last validation
ll-merge: fix typo in comment
Prepare for 2.8.2
Makefile: clean *.o files we create
Fifth batch for post 2.8 cycle
t3033: avoid 'ambiguous refs' warning
pull: pass --allow-unrelated-histories to "git merge"
Sixth batch for post 2.8 cycle
send-email: fix grammo in the prompt that asks e-mail recipients
Seventh batch for post 2.8 cycle
Git 2.8.2
Eighth batch for 2.9
diff: undocument the compaction heuristic knobs for experimentation
Start preparing for 2.8.3
commit-tree: do not pay attention to commit.gpgsign
Ninth batch for 2.9
config: describe 'pathname' value type
Tenth batch for 2.9
Almost ready for 2.8.3
test-lib-functions.sh: remove misleading comment on test_seq
test-lib-functions.sh: rewrite test_seq without Perl
ll-merge: use a longer conflict marker for internal merge
t6036: remove pointless test that expects failure
Documentation: fix linkgit references
fsck: detect and warn a commit with embedded NUL
ci: validate "linkgit:" in documentation
test-parse-options: fix output when callback option fails
test-parse-options: --expect=<string> option to simplify tests
t0040: remove unused test helpers
t0040: convert a few tests to use test-parse-options --expect
Eleventh batch for 2.9
rerere: plug memory leaks upon "rerere forget" failure
Twelfth batch for 2.9
Thirteenth batch for 2.9
Git 2.8.3
rerere: remove an null statement
Git 2.9-rc0
t4204: do not let $name variable clobbered
Start preparing for 2.8.4
Final batch before 2.9-rc1
More topics for 2.8.4
Git 2.9-rc1
t5500 & t7403: lose bash-ism "local"
t2300: run git-sh-setup in an environment that better mimics the real life
Almost ready for 2.9-rc2
Git 2.8.4
Git 2.9-rc2
diff: disable compaction heuristic for now
Hopefully the final last-minute update before 2.9 final
Git 2.9

Karsten Blees (1):
mingw: make isatty() recognize MSYS2's pseudo terminals (/dev/pty*)

Kazuki Yamaguchi (10):
branch -d: refuse deleting a branch which is currently checked out
refs: add a new function set_worktree_head_symref
branch -m: update all per-worktree HEADs
set_worktree_head_symref(): fix error message
imap-send: use HMAC() function provided by OpenSSL
imap-send: check NULL return of SSL_CTX_new()
imap-send: avoid deprecated TLSv1_method()
configure: remove checking for HMAC_CTX_cleanup
imap-send: check for NOLOGIN capability only when using LOGIN command
imap-send: fix CRAM-MD5 response calculation

Keller Fuchs (1):
Documentation: clarify signature verification

Lars Schneider (8):
git-p4: map a P4 user to Git author name and email address
travis-ci: update Git-LFS and P4 to the latest version
travis-ci: express Linux/OS X dependency versions more clearly
git-p4: fix Git LFS pointer parsing
t9824: fix wrong reference value
Documentation: add setup instructions for Travis CI
travis-ci: build documentation
travis-ci: enable Git SVN tests t91xx on Linux

Laurent Arnoud (1):
tag: add the option to force signing of annotated tags

Li Peng (1):
typofix: assorted typofixes in comments, documentation and messages

Linus Torvalds (1):
pretty: expand tabs in indented logs to make things line up properly

Luke Diamand (3):
git-p4 tests: cd to / before running python
git-p4 tests: work with python3 as well as python2
git-p4 tests: time_in_seconds should use $PYTHON_PATH

Marios Titas (2):
ident: check for useConfigOnly before auto-detection of name/email
ident: give "please tell me" message upon useConfigOnly error

Matthieu Moy (13):
Documentation/diff-config: fix description of diff.renames
t4001-diff-rename: wrap file creations in a test
t: add tests for diff.renames (true/false/unset)
log: introduce init_log_defaults()
diff: activate diff.renames by default
lockfile: mark strings for translation
lockfile: improve error message when lockfile exists
git.spec.in: use README.md, not README
README.md: don't take 'commandname' literally
git-multimail: update to release 1.3.0
git-multimail: update to release 1.3.1
Makefile: move 'ifdef DEVELOPER' after config.mak* inclusion
Makefile: add $(DEVELOPER_CFLAGS) variable

Mehul Jain (9):
git-pull.c: introduce git_pull_config()
pull --rebase: add --[no-]autostash flag
t5520: use consistent capitalization in test titles
t5520: ensure consistent test conditions
t5520: use better test to check stderr output
t5520: factor out common "successful autostash" code
t5520: factor out common "failing autostash" code
t5520: reduce commom lines of code
t5520: test --[no-]autostash with pull.rebase=true

Michael Haggerty (19):
t1430: test the output and error of some commands more carefully
t1430: clean up broken refs/tags/shadow
t1430: don't rely on symbolic-ref for creating broken symrefs
t1430: test for-each-ref in the presence of badly-named refs
t1430: improve test coverage of deletion of badly-named refs
resolve_missing_loose_ref(): simplify semantics
resolve_ref_unsafe(): use for loop to count up to MAXDEPTH
resolve_ref_unsafe(): ensure flags is always set
resolve_ref_1(): eliminate local variable
resolve_ref_1(): reorder code
resolve_ref_1(): eliminate local variable "bad_name"
read_raw_ref(): manage own scratch space
files-backend: inline resolve_ref_1() into resolve_ref_unsafe()
read_raw_ref(): change flags parameter to unsigned int
fsck_head_link(): remove unneeded flag variable
cmd_merge(): remove unneeded flag variable
checkout_paths(): remove unneeded flag variable
check_aliased_update(): check that dst_name is non-NULL
show_head_ref(): check the result of resolve_ref_namespace()

Michael J Gruber (1):
completion: complete --cherry-mark for git log

Michael Procter (1):
upload-pack: use argv_array for pack_objects

Michael Rappazzo (1):
Documentation: add instructions to help setup gmail 2FA

Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy (62):
git-apply.txt: remove a space
git-apply.txt: mention the behavior inside a subdir
apply: report patch skipping in verbose mode
test helpers: move test-* to t/helper/ subdirectory
dir.c: remove dead function fnmatch_icase()
wrapper.c: delete dead function git_mkstemps()
dir.c: rename str(n)cmp_icase to fspath(n)cmp
path.c: add git_common_path() and strbuf_git_common_path()
worktree.c: store "id" instead of "git_dir"
worktree.c: make find_shared_symref() return struct worktree *
worktree.c: mark current worktree
path.c: refactor and add worktree_git_path()
wt-status.c: split rebase detection out of wt_status_get_state()
wt-status.c: make wt_status_check_rebase() work on any worktree
worktree.c: avoid referencing to worktrees[i] multiple times
worktree.c: check whether branch is rebased in another worktree
wt-status.c: split bisect detection out of wt_status_get_state()
worktree.c: check whether branch is bisected in another worktree
branch: do not rename a branch under bisect or rebase
remote.c: specify correct plural form in "commit diverge" message
usage.c: move format processing out of die_errno()
usage.c: add warning_errno() and error_errno()
bisect.c: use die_errno() and warning_errno()
builtin/am.c: use error_errno()
builtin/branch.c: use error_errno()
builtin/fetch.c: use error_errno()
builtin/help.c: use warning_errno()
builtin/mailsplit.c: use error_errno()
builtin/merge-file.c: use error_errno()
builtin/pack-objects.c: use die_errno() and warning_errno()
builtin/rm.c: use warning_errno()
builtin/update-index.c: prefer "err" to "errno" in process_lstat_error
builtin/upload-archive.c: use error_errno()
builtin/worktree.c: use error_errno()
check-racy.c: use error_errno()
combine-diff.c: use error_errno()
compat/win32/syslog.c: use warning_errno()
config.c: use error_errno()
connected.c: use error_errno()
copy.c: use error_errno()
credential-cache--daemon.c: use warning_errno()
diff-no-index.c: use error_errno()
editor.c: use error_errno()
entry.c: use error_errno()
fast-import.c: use error_errno()
gpg-interface.c: use error_errno()
grep.c: use error_errno()
http.c: use error_errno() and warning_errno()
ident.c: use warning_errno()
mailmap.c: use error_errno()
reachable.c: use error_errno()
rerere.c: use error_errno() and warning_errno()
run-command.c: use error_errno()
sequencer.c: use error_errno()
server-info.c: use error_errno()
sha1_file.c: use {error,die,warning}_errno()
transport-helper.c: use error_errno()
unpack-trees.c: use error_errno()
upload-pack.c: use error_errno()
vcs-svn: use error_errno()
wrapper.c: use warning_errno()
wrap-for-bin.sh: regenerate bin-wrappers when switching branches

Nikola Forró (1):
difftool/mergetool: make the form of yes/no questions consistent

Ori Avtalion (1):
Documentation: git diff --check detects conflict markers

Pablo Santiago Blum de Aguiar (1):
git-cherry-pick.txt: correct a small typo

Peter Krefting (1):
l10n: sv.po: Update Swedish translation (2597t0f0u)

Pranit Bauva (9):
t/t7502 : drop duplicate test
api-parse-options.txt: document OPT_CMDMODE()
t0040-test-parse-options.sh: fix style issues
test-parse-options: print quiet as integer
t0040-parse-options: improve test coverage
t/t7507: improve test coverage
parse-options.c: make OPTION_COUNTUP respect "unspecified" values
t7507-commit-verbose: improve test coverage by testing number of diffs
commit: add a commit.verbose config variable

Ralf Thielow (5):
completion: add option '--guides' to 'git help'
completion: add 'revisions' and 'everyday' to 'git help'
rebase-i: print an abbreviated hash when stop for editing
string_list: use string-list API in unsorted_string_list_lookup()
l10n: de.po: translate 104 new messages

Ramsay Jones (3):
xdiff/xprepare: use the XDF_DIFF_ALG() macro to access flag bits
xdiff/xprepare: fix a memory leak
log: document the --decorate=auto option

Ray Chen (1):
l10n: zh_CN: review for git v2.9.0 l10n round 1

Ray Zhang (1):
worktree: add: introduce --checkout option

René Nyffenegger (1):
Documentation: fix typo 'In such these cases'

René Scharfe (3):
apply: remove unused parameters from name_terminate()
patch-id: use starts_with() and skip_prefix()
perf: make the tests work without a worktree

SZEDER Gábor (6):
diffcore: fix iteration order of identical files during rename detection
for-each-ref: fix description of '--contains' in manpage
test-lib: simplify '--option=value' parsing
t9824: fix broken &&-chain in a subshell
t5510: run auto-gc in the foreground
Documentation/git-send-email: fix typo in gmail 2FA section

Santiago Torres (6):
builtin/verify-tag.c: ignore SIGPIPE in gpg-interface
t7030: test verifying multiple tags
verify-tag: update variable name and type
verify-tag: prepare verify_tag for libification
verify-tag: move tag verification code to tag.c
tag -v: verify directly rather than exec-ing verify-tag

Saurav Sachidanand (1):
dir: store EXC_FLAG_* values in unsigned integers

Shin Kojima (1):
gitweb: apply fallback encoding before highlight

Sidhant Sharma [:tk] (1):
builtin/receive-pack.c: use parse_options API

Stanislav Kolotinskiy (1):
git-send-pack: fix --all option when used with directory

Stefan Beller (46):
submodule-config: keep update strategy around
submodule-config: drop check against NULL
fetching submodules: respect `submodule.fetchJobs` config option
submodule update: direct error message to stderr
run_processes_parallel: treat output of children as byte array
run_processes_parallel: rename parameters for the callbacks
git submodule update: have a dedicated helper for cloning
submodule helper: remove double 'fatal: ' prefix
submodule update: expose parallelism to the user
clone: allow an explicit argument for parallel submodule clones
clone tests: rename t57* => t56*
rebase: decouple --exec from --interactive
t3404: cleanup double empty lines between tests
submodule foreach: correct path display in recursive submodules
submodule update --init: correct path handling in recursive submodules
submodule status: correct path handling in recursive submodules
submodule update: align reporting path for custom command execution
submodule update: test recursive path reporting from subdirectory
t7407: make expectation as clear as possible
recursive submodules: test for relative paths
submodule--helper: fix potential NULL-dereference
submodule--helper clone: create the submodule path just once
notes: don't leak memory in git_config_get_notes_strategy
abbrev_sha1_in_line: don't leak memory
bundle: don't leak an fd in case of early return
credential-cache, send_request: close fd when done
submodule--helper, module_clone: always operate on absolute paths
submodule--helper, module_clone: catch fprintf failure
submodule: port resolve_relative_url from shell to C
submodule: port init from shell to C
xdiff: implement empty line chunk heuristic
mv: allow moving nested submodules
clone: add `--shallow-submodules` flag
config doc: improve exit code listing
config.c: drop local variable
submodule-config: don't shadow `cache`
submodule init: fail gracefully with a missing .gitmodules file
submodule--helper update-clone: abort gracefully on missing .gitmodules
submodule deinit test: fix broken && chain in subshell
submodule init: redirect stdout to stderr
t7300: mark test with SANITY
submodule deinit: require '--all' instead of '.' for all submodules
t3513: do not compress backup tar file
t6041: do not compress backup tar file
submodule--helper: offer a consistent API
submodule: remove bashism from shell script

Stephen P. Smith (1):
wt-status.c: set commitable bit if there is a meaningful merge.

Sven Strickroth (3):
commit: do not lose SQUASH_MSG contents
MSVC: vsnprintf in Visual Studio 2015 doesn't need SNPRINTF_SIZE_CORR any more
MSVC: use shipped headers instead of fallback definitions

Torsten Bögershausen (6):
correct blame for files commited with CRLF
t0027: make commit_chk_wrnNNO() reliable
convert: allow core.autocrlf=input and core.eol=crlf
t0027: test cases for combined attributes
convert.c: ident + core.autocrlf didn't work
t5601: Remove trailing space in sed expression

Trần Ngọc Quân (1):
l10n: Updated Vietnamese translation (2597t)

Vasco Almeida (19):
l10n: fr: fix transcation of "dir"
l10n: fr: fix wrongly translated option name
l10n: fr: change "id de clé" to match "id-clé"
l10n: fr: don't translate "merge" as a parameter
i18n: index-pack: use plural string instead of normal one
i18n: builtin/branch.c: mark option for translation
i18n: unpack-trees: mark strings for translation
i18n: builtin/rm.c: remove a comma ',' from string
i18n: branch: unmark string for translation
i18n: branch: move comment for translators
i18n: git-parse-remote.sh: mark strings for translation
i18n: builtin/pull.c: mark placeholders for translation
i18n: builtin/pull.c: split strings marked for translation
i18n: remote: add comment for translators
Documentation/git-mailinfo: fix typo
i18n: unpack-trees: avoid substituting only a verb in sentences
l10n: pt_PT: merge git.pot file
l10n: pt_PT: update according to git-gui glossary
l10n: pt_PT: update Portuguese translation

Xiaolong Ye (4):
patch-ids: make commit_patch_id() a public helper function
format-patch: add '--base' option to record base tree info
format-patch: introduce --base=auto option
format-patch: introduce format.useAutoBase configuration

brian m. carlson (6):
sha1-name: introduce a get_oid() function
test-match-trees: convert to use struct object_id
match-trees: convert shift_tree() and shift_tree_by() to use object_id
struct name_entry: use struct object_id instead of unsigned char sha1[20]
tree-walk: convert tree_entry_extract() to use struct object_id
match-trees: convert several leaf functions to use struct object_id

Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason (4):
githooks.txt: improve the intro section
githooks.txt: amend dangerous advice about 'update' hook ACL
githooks.txt: minor improvements to the grammar & phrasing
hooks: allow customizing where the hook directory is

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