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Subject[tip:x86/boot] x86/boot: Move compressed kernel to the end of the decompression buffer
Commit-ID:  974f221c84b05b1dc2f5ea50dc16d2a9d1e95eda
Gitweb: http://git.kernel.org/tip/974f221c84b05b1dc2f5ea50dc16d2a9d1e95eda
Author: Yinghai Lu <yinghai@kernel.org>
AuthorDate: Thu, 28 Apr 2016 17:09:04 -0700
Committer: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
CommitDate: Fri, 29 Apr 2016 11:03:29 +0200

x86/boot: Move compressed kernel to the end of the decompression buffer

This change makes later calculations about where the kernel is located
easier to reason about. To better understand this change, we must first
clarify what 'VO' and 'ZO' are. These values were introduced in commits
by hpa:

77d1a4999502 ("x86, boot: make symbols from the main vmlinux available")
37ba7ab5e33c ("x86, boot: make kernel_alignment adjustable; new bzImage fields")

Specifically:

All names prefixed with 'VO_':

- relate to the uncompressed kernel image

- the size of the VO image is: VO__end-VO__text ("VO_INIT_SIZE" define)

All names prefixed with 'ZO_':

- relate to the bootable compressed kernel image (boot/compressed/vmlinux),
which is composed of the following memory areas:
- head text
- compressed kernel (VO image and relocs table)
- decompressor code

- the size of the ZO image is: ZO__end - ZO_startup_32 ("ZO_INIT_SIZE" define, though see below)

The 'INIT_SIZE' value is used to find the larger of the two image sizes:

#define ZO_INIT_SIZE (ZO__end - ZO_startup_32 + ZO_z_extract_offset)
#define VO_INIT_SIZE (VO__end - VO__text)

#if ZO_INIT_SIZE > VO_INIT_SIZE
# define INIT_SIZE ZO_INIT_SIZE
#else
# define INIT_SIZE VO_INIT_SIZE
#endif

The current code uses extract_offset to decide where to position the
copied ZO (i.e. ZO starts at extract_offset). (This is why ZO_INIT_SIZE
currently includes the extract_offset.)

Why does z_extract_offset exist? It's needed because we are trying to minimize
the amount of RAM used for the whole act of creating an uncompressed, executable,
properly relocation-linked kernel image in system memory. We do this so that
kernels can be booted on even very small systems.

To achieve the goal of minimal memory consumption we have implemented an in-place
decompression strategy: instead of cleanly separating the VO and ZO images and
also allocating some memory for the decompression code's runtime needs, we instead
create this elaborate layout of memory buffers where the output (decompressed)
stream, as it progresses, overlaps with and destroys the input (compressed)
stream. This can only be done safely if the ZO image is placed to the end of the
VO range, plus a certain amount of safety distance to make sure that when the last
bytes of the VO range are decompressed, the compressed stream pointer is safely
beyond the end of the VO range.

z_extract_offset is calculated in arch/x86/boot/compressed/mkpiggy.c during
the build process, at a point when we know the exact compressed and
uncompressed size of the kernel images and can calculate this safe minimum
offset value. (Note that the mkpiggy.c calculation is not perfect, because
we don't know the decompressor used at that stage, so the z_extract_offset
calculation is necessarily imprecise and is mostly based on gzip internals -
we'll improve that in the next patch.)

When INIT_SIZE is bigger than VO_INIT_SIZE (uncommon but possible),
the copied ZO occupies the memory from extract_offset to the end of
decompression buffer. It overlaps with the soon-to-be-uncompressed kernel
like this:

|-----compressed kernel image------|
V V
0 extract_offset +INIT_SIZE
|-----------|---------------|-------------------------|--------|
| | | |
VO__text startup_32 of ZO VO__end ZO__end
^ ^
|-------uncompressed kernel image---------|

When INIT_SIZE is equal to VO_INIT_SIZE (likely) there's still space
left from end of ZO to the end of decompressing buffer, like below.

|-compressed kernel image-|
V V
0 extract_offset +INIT_SIZE
|-----------|---------------|-------------------------|--------|
| | | |
VO__text startup_32 of ZO ZO__end VO__end
^ ^
|------------uncompressed kernel image-------------|

To simplify calculations and avoid special cases, it is cleaner to
always place the compressed kernel image in memory so that ZO__end
is at the end of the decompression buffer, instead of placing t at
the start of extract_offset as is currently done.

This patch adds BP_init_size (which is the INIT_SIZE as passed in from
the boot_params) into asm-offsets.c to make it visible to the assembly
code.

Then when moving the ZO, it calculates the starting position of
the copied ZO (via BP_init_size and the ZO run size) so that the VO__end
will be at the end of the decompression buffer. To make the position
calculation safe, the end of ZO is page aligned (and a comment is added
to the existing VO alignment for good measure).

Signed-off-by: Yinghai Lu <yinghai@kernel.org>
[ Rewrote changelog and comments. ]
Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@amacapital.net>
Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org>
Cc: Baoquan He <bhe@redhat.com>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Brian Gerst <brgerst@gmail.com>
Cc: Dave Young <dyoung@redhat.com>
Cc: Denys Vlasenko <dvlasenk@redhat.com>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Vivek Goyal <vgoyal@redhat.com>
Cc: lasse.collin@tukaani.org
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1461888548-32439-3-git-send-email-keescook@chromium.org
[ Rewrote the changelog some more. ]
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
---
arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_32.S | 11 +++++++++--
arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_64.S | 8 ++++++--
arch/x86/boot/compressed/misc.c | 17 +++++++++++++++++
arch/x86/boot/compressed/mkpiggy.c | 3 ---
arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux.lds.S | 1 +
arch/x86/kernel/asm-offsets.c | 1 +
arch/x86/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S | 2 +-
7 files changed, 35 insertions(+), 8 deletions(-)

diff --git a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_32.S b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_32.S
index 26dd9df..8a95e2f 100644
--- a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_32.S
+++ b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_32.S
@@ -176,7 +176,9 @@ preferred_addr:
1:

/* Target address to relocate to for decompression */
- addl $z_extract_offset, %ebx
+ movl BP_init_size(%esi), %eax
+ subl $_end, %eax
+ addl %eax, %ebx

/* Set up the stack */
leal boot_stack_end(%ebx), %esp
@@ -238,8 +240,13 @@ relocated:
/* push arguments for extract_kernel: */
pushl $z_run_size /* size of kernel with .bss and .brk */
pushl $z_output_len /* decompressed length, end of relocs */
- leal z_extract_offset_negative(%ebx), %ebp
+
+ movl BP_init_size(%esi), %eax
+ subl $_end, %eax
+ movl %ebx, %ebp
+ subl %eax, %ebp
pushl %ebp /* output address */
+
pushl $z_input_len /* input_len */
leal input_data(%ebx), %eax
pushl %eax /* input_data */
diff --git a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_64.S b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_64.S
index d43c30e..09cdc0c 100644
--- a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_64.S
+++ b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_64.S
@@ -110,7 +110,9 @@ ENTRY(startup_32)
1:

/* Target address to relocate to for decompression */
- addl $z_extract_offset, %ebx
+ movl BP_init_size(%esi), %eax
+ subl $_end, %eax
+ addl %eax, %ebx

/*
* Prepare for entering 64 bit mode
@@ -338,7 +340,9 @@ preferred_addr:
1:

/* Target address to relocate to for decompression */
- leaq z_extract_offset(%rbp), %rbx
+ movl BP_init_size(%rsi), %ebx
+ subl $_end, %ebx
+ addq %rbp, %rbx

/* Set up the stack */
leaq boot_stack_end(%rbx), %rsp
diff --git a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/misc.c b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/misc.c
index 4514514..4b4605e9 100644
--- a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/misc.c
+++ b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/misc.c
@@ -318,6 +318,23 @@ static void parse_elf(void *output)
free(phdrs);
}

+/*
+ * The compressed kernel image (ZO), has been moved so that its position
+ * is against the end of the buffer used to hold the uncompressed kernel
+ * image (VO) and the execution environment (.bss, .brk), which makes sure
+ * there is room to do the in-place decompression. (See header.S for the
+ * calculations.)
+ *
+ * |-----compressed kernel image------|
+ * V V
+ * 0 extract_offset +INIT_SIZE
+ * |-----------|---------------|-------------------------|--------|
+ * | | | |
+ * VO__text startup_32 of ZO VO__end ZO__end
+ * ^ ^
+ * |-------uncompressed kernel image---------|
+ *
+ */
asmlinkage __visible void *extract_kernel(void *rmode, memptr heap,
unsigned char *input_data,
unsigned long input_len,
diff --git a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/mkpiggy.c b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/mkpiggy.c
index d8222f2..b980046 100644
--- a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/mkpiggy.c
+++ b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/mkpiggy.c
@@ -85,9 +85,6 @@ int main(int argc, char *argv[])
printf("z_output_len = %lu\n", (unsigned long)olen);
printf(".globl z_extract_offset\n");
printf("z_extract_offset = 0x%lx\n", offs);
- /* z_extract_offset_negative allows simplification of head_32.S */
- printf(".globl z_extract_offset_negative\n");
- printf("z_extract_offset_negative = -0x%lx\n", offs);
printf(".globl z_run_size\n");
printf("z_run_size = %lu\n", run_size);

diff --git a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux.lds.S b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux.lds.S
index 34d047c..e24e0a0 100644
--- a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux.lds.S
+++ b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux.lds.S
@@ -70,5 +70,6 @@ SECTIONS
_epgtable = . ;
}
#endif
+ . = ALIGN(PAGE_SIZE); /* keep ZO size page aligned */
_end = .;
}
diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/asm-offsets.c b/arch/x86/kernel/asm-offsets.c
index 5c04246..674134e 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/asm-offsets.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/asm-offsets.c
@@ -80,6 +80,7 @@ void common(void) {
OFFSET(BP_hardware_subarch, boot_params, hdr.hardware_subarch);
OFFSET(BP_version, boot_params, hdr.version);
OFFSET(BP_kernel_alignment, boot_params, hdr.kernel_alignment);
+ OFFSET(BP_init_size, boot_params, hdr.init_size);
OFFSET(BP_pref_address, boot_params, hdr.pref_address);
OFFSET(BP_code32_start, boot_params, hdr.code32_start);

diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S b/arch/x86/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S
index 4c941f8..9297a00 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S
@@ -334,7 +334,7 @@ SECTIONS
__brk_limit = .;
}

- . = ALIGN(PAGE_SIZE);
+ . = ALIGN(PAGE_SIZE); /* keep VO_INIT_SIZE page aligned */
_end = .;

STABS_DEBUG
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