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Subject[RFC v1 09/14] bus1: provide transaction context for multicasts
Date
From: Tom Gundersen <teg@jklm.no>

The transaction engine is an object that lives on the stack and is used
to stage and commit multicasts properly. Unlike unicasts, a multicast
cannot just be queued on each destination, but must be properly
synchronized. This requires us to first stage each message on their
respective destination, then sync and tick the clocks, and eventual
commit all messages.

The transaction context implements this logic for both, unicasts and
multicasts. It hides the timestamp handling and takes care to properly
synchronize accesses to the peer queues.

Signed-off-by: Tom Gundersen <teg@jklm.no>
Signed-off-by: David Herrmann <dh.herrmann@gmail.com>
---
ipc/bus1/Makefile | 1 +
ipc/bus1/peer.c | 2 +
ipc/bus1/peer.h | 3 +
ipc/bus1/tx.c | 360 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
ipc/bus1/tx.h | 102 ++++++++++++++++
5 files changed, 468 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 ipc/bus1/tx.c
create mode 100644 ipc/bus1/tx.h

diff --git a/ipc/bus1/Makefile b/ipc/bus1/Makefile
index c689917..e3c7dd7 100644
--- a/ipc/bus1/Makefile
+++ b/ipc/bus1/Makefile
@@ -1,6 +1,7 @@
bus1-y := \
main.o \
peer.o \
+ tx.o \
user.o \
util.o \
util/active.o \
diff --git a/ipc/bus1/peer.c b/ipc/bus1/peer.c
index a6fbca01..3421f8c 100644
--- a/ipc/bus1/peer.c
+++ b/ipc/bus1/peer.c
@@ -70,6 +70,7 @@ struct bus1_peer *bus1_peer_new(void)

/* initialize data section */
mutex_init(&peer->data.lock);
+ bus1_queue_init(&peer->data.queue);

/* initialize peer-private section */
mutex_init(&peer->local.lock);
@@ -131,6 +132,7 @@ struct bus1_peer *bus1_peer_free(struct bus1_peer *peer)
mutex_destroy(&peer->local.lock);

/* deinitialize data section */
+ bus1_queue_deinit(&peer->data.queue);
mutex_destroy(&peer->data.lock);

/* deinitialize constant fields */
diff --git a/ipc/bus1/peer.h b/ipc/bus1/peer.h
index 277fcf8..149ddf6 100644
--- a/ipc/bus1/peer.h
+++ b/ipc/bus1/peer.h
@@ -54,6 +54,7 @@
#include <linux/wait.h>
#include "user.h"
#include "util/active.h"
+#include "util/queue.h"

struct cred;
struct dentry;
@@ -71,6 +72,7 @@ struct pid_namespace;
* @active: active references
* @debugdir: debugfs root of this peer, or NULL/ERR_PTR
* @data.lock: data lock
+ * @data.queue: message queue
* @local.lock: local peer runtime lock
*/
struct bus1_peer {
@@ -86,6 +88,7 @@ struct bus1_peer {

struct {
struct mutex lock;
+ struct bus1_queue queue;
} data;

struct {
diff --git a/ipc/bus1/tx.c b/ipc/bus1/tx.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6ff8949
--- /dev/null
+++ b/ipc/bus1/tx.c
@@ -0,0 +1,360 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2013-2016 Red Hat, Inc.
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the
+ * Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at
+ * your option) any later version.
+ */
+
+#include <linux/bitops.h>
+#include <linux/err.h>
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/mutex.h>
+#include <linux/wait.h>
+#include "peer.h"
+#include "tx.h"
+#include "util/active.h"
+#include "util/queue.h"
+
+static void bus1_tx_push(struct bus1_tx *tx,
+ struct bus1_queue_node **list,
+ struct bus1_queue_node *qnode)
+{
+ struct bus1_peer *peer = qnode->owner;
+
+ /*
+ * Push @qnode onto one of the lists in @tx (specified as @list). Note
+ * that each list has different locking/ordering requirements, which
+ * the caller has to verify. This helper does not check them.
+ *
+ * Whenever something is pushed on a list, we make sure it has the tx
+ * set as group. Furthermore, we tell lockdep that its peer was
+ * released. This is required to allow holding hundreds of peers in a
+ * multicast without exceeding the lockdep limits of allowed locks held
+ * in parallel.
+ * Note that pushing a qnode on a list consumes the qnode together with
+ * its set owner. The caller must not access it, except by popping it
+ * from the list or using one of the internal list-iterators. In other
+ * words, we say that a caller must be aware of lockdep limitations
+ * whenever they hold an unlimited number of peers. However, if they
+ * make sure they only ever hold a fixed number, but use transaction
+ * lists to stash them, the transaction lists make sure to properly
+ * avoid lockdep limitations.
+ */
+
+ WARN_ON(qnode->group && tx != qnode->group);
+ WARN_ON(qnode->next || qnode == *list);
+
+ qnode->group = tx;
+ qnode->next = *list;
+ *list = qnode;
+
+ if (peer)
+ bus1_active_lockdep_released(&peer->active);
+}
+
+static struct bus1_queue_node *
+bus1_tx_pop(struct bus1_tx *tx, struct bus1_queue_node **list)
+{
+ struct bus1_queue_node *qnode = *list;
+ struct bus1_peer *peer;
+
+ /*
+ * This pops the first entry off a list on a transaction. Different
+ * lists have different locking requirements. This helper does not
+ * validate the context.
+ *
+ * Note that we need to tell lockdep about the acquired peer when
+ * returning the qnode. See bus1_tx_push() for details.
+ */
+
+ if (qnode) {
+ *list = qnode->next;
+ qnode->next = NULL;
+ peer = qnode->owner;
+ if (peer)
+ bus1_active_lockdep_acquired(&peer->active);
+ }
+
+ return qnode;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This starts an iterator for a singly-linked list with head-elements given as
+ * @list. @iter is filled with the first element, and its *acquired* peer is
+ * returned. You *must* call bus1_tx_next() on @iter, otherwise you will run
+ * into lockdep-ref-leaks. IOW: don't bail out of your loop with 'break'.
+ *
+ * It is supposed to be used like this:
+ *
+ * for (peer = bus1_tx_first(tx, &tx->foo, &qnode);
+ * qnode;
+ * peer = bus1_tx_next(tx, &qnode))
+ * bar();
+ */
+static struct bus1_peer *bus1_tx_first(struct bus1_tx *tx,
+ struct bus1_queue_node *list,
+ struct bus1_queue_node **iter)
+{
+ struct bus1_peer *peer;
+
+ if ((*iter = list)) {
+ peer = list->owner;
+ if (!peer)
+ return tx->origin;
+
+ bus1_active_lockdep_acquired(&peer->active);
+ return peer;
+ }
+
+ return NULL;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This continues an iteration of a singly-linked list started via
+ * bus1_tx_first(). It returns the same information (see it for details).
+ */
+static struct bus1_peer *bus1_tx_next(struct bus1_tx *tx,
+ struct bus1_queue_node **iter)
+{
+ struct bus1_queue_node *qnode = *iter;
+ struct bus1_peer *peer = qnode->owner;
+
+ if (peer)
+ bus1_active_lockdep_released(&peer->active);
+
+ return bus1_tx_first(tx, qnode->next, iter);
+}
+
+static void bus1_tx_stage(struct bus1_tx *tx,
+ struct bus1_queue_node *qnode,
+ struct bus1_queue_node **list,
+ u64 *timestamp)
+{
+ struct bus1_peer *peer = qnode->owner ?: tx->origin;
+
+ WARN_ON(test_bit(BUS1_TX_BIT_SEALED, &tx->flags));
+ WARN_ON(bus1_queue_node_is_queued(qnode));
+ lockdep_assert_held(&peer->data.lock);
+
+ bus1_tx_push(tx, list, qnode);
+ *timestamp = bus1_queue_stage(&peer->data.queue, qnode, *timestamp);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_tx_stage_sync() - stage message
+ * @tx: transaction to operate on
+ * @qnode: message to stage
+ *
+ * This stages @qnode on the transaction @tx. It is an error to call this on a
+ * qnode that is already staged. The caller must set qnode->owner to the
+ * destination peer and acquire it. If it is NULL, it is assumed to be the same
+ * as the origin of the transaction.
+ *
+ * The caller must hold the data-lock of the destination peer.
+ *
+ * This consumes @qnode. The caller must increment the required reference
+ * counts to make sure @qnode does not vanish.
+ */
+void bus1_tx_stage_sync(struct bus1_tx *tx, struct bus1_queue_node *qnode)
+{
+ bus1_tx_stage(tx, qnode, &tx->sync, &tx->timestamp);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_tx_stage_later() - postpone message
+ * @tx: transaction to operate on
+ * @qnode: message to postpone
+ *
+ * This queues @qnode on @tx, but does not stage it. It will be staged just
+ * before the transaction is committed. This can be used over
+ * bus1_tx_stage_sync() if no immediate staging is necessary, or if required
+ * locks cannot be taken.
+ *
+ * It is a caller-error if @qnode is already part of a transaction.
+ */
+void bus1_tx_stage_later(struct bus1_tx *tx, struct bus1_queue_node *qnode)
+{
+ bus1_tx_push(tx, &tx->postponed, qnode);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_tx_join() - HIC SUNT DRACONES!
+ * @whom: whom to join
+ * @qnode: who joins
+ *
+ * This makes @qnode join the on-going transaction of @whom. That is, it is
+ * semantically equivalent of calling:
+ *
+ * bus1_tx_stage_sync(whom->group, qnode);
+ *
+ * However, you can only dereference whom->group while it is still ongoing.
+ * Once committed, it might be a stale pointer. This function safely checks for
+ * the required conditions and bails out if too late.
+ *
+ * The caller must hold the data locks of both peers (target of @whom and
+ * @qnode). @node->owner must not be NULL! Furthermore, @qnode must not be
+ * staged into any transaction, yet.
+ *
+ * In general, this function is not what you want. There is no guarantee that
+ * you can join the transaction, hence a negative return value must be expected
+ * by the caller and handled gracefully. In that case, this function guarantees
+ * that the clock of the holder of @qnode is synced with the transaction of
+ * @whom, and as such is correctly ordered against the transaction.
+ *
+ * If this function returns "false", you must settle on the transaction before
+ * visibly reacting to it. That is, user-space must not see that you failed to
+ * join the transaction before the transaction is settled!
+ *
+ * Return: True if successfull, false if too late.
+ */
+bool bus1_tx_join(struct bus1_queue_node *whom, struct bus1_queue_node *qnode)
+{
+ struct bus1_peer *peer = qnode->owner;
+ struct bus1_tx *tx;
+ u64 timestamp;
+
+ WARN_ON(!peer);
+ WARN_ON(qnode->group);
+ lockdep_assert_held(&peer->data.lock);
+
+ if (bus1_queue_node_is_staging(whom)) {
+ /*
+ * The anchor we want to join is marked as staging. We know its
+ * holder is locked by the caller, hence we know that its
+ * transaction must still be ongoing and at some point commit
+ * @whom (blocking on the lock we currently hold). This means,
+ * we are allowed to dereference @whom->group safely.
+ * Now, if the transaction has not yet acquired a commit
+ * timestamp, we simply stage @qnode and asynchronously join
+ * the transaction. But if the transaction is already sealed,
+ * we cannot join anymore. Hence, we instead copy the timestamp
+ * for our fallback.
+ */
+ WARN_ON(!(tx = whom->group));
+ lockdep_assert_held(&tx->origin->data.lock);
+
+ if (!test_bit(BUS1_TX_BIT_SEALED, &tx->flags)) {
+ bus1_tx_stage(tx, qnode, &tx->async, &tx->async_ts);
+ return true;
+ }
+
+ timestamp = tx->timestamp;
+ } else {
+ /*
+ * The anchor to join is not marked as staging, hence we cannot
+ * dereference its transaction (the stack-frame might be gone
+ * already). Instead, we just copy the timestamp and try our
+ * fallback below.
+ */
+ timestamp = bus1_queue_node_get_timestamp(whom);
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * The transaction of @whom has already acquired a commit timestamp.
+ * Hence, we cannot join the transaction. However, we can try to inject
+ * a synthetic entry into the queue of @peer. All we must make sure is
+ * that there is at least one entry ordered in front of it. Hence, we
+ * use bus1_queue_commit_synthetic(). If this synthetic entry would be
+ * the new front, the commit fails. This is, because we cannot know
+ * whether this peer already dequeued something to-be-ordered after
+ * this fake entry.
+ * In the case that the insertion fails, we make sure to have synced
+ * its clock before. This guarantees that any further actions of this
+ * peer are guaranteed to be ordered after the transaction to join.
+ */
+ qnode->group = whom->group;
+ bus1_queue_sync(&peer->data.queue, timestamp);
+ return bus1_queue_commit_synthetic(&peer->data.queue, qnode, timestamp);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_tx_commit() - commit transaction
+ * @tx: transaction to operate on
+ *
+ * Commit a transaction. First all postponed entries are staged, then we commit
+ * all messages that belong to this transaction. This works with any number of
+ * messages.
+ *
+ * Return: This returns the commit timestamp used.
+ */
+u64 bus1_tx_commit(struct bus1_tx *tx)
+{
+ struct bus1_queue_node *qnode, **tail;
+ struct bus1_peer *peer, *origin = tx->origin;
+
+ if (WARN_ON(test_bit(BUS1_TX_BIT_SEALED, &tx->flags)))
+ return tx->timestamp;
+
+ /*
+ * Stage Round
+ * Callers can stage messages manually via bus1_tx_stage_*(). However,
+ * if they cannot lock the destination queue for whatever reason, we
+ * support postponing it. In that case, it is linked into tx->postponed
+ * and we stage it here for them.
+ */
+ while ((qnode = bus1_tx_pop(tx, &tx->postponed))) {
+ peer = qnode->owner ?: tx->origin;
+
+ mutex_lock(&peer->data.lock);
+ bus1_tx_stage_sync(tx, qnode);
+ mutex_unlock(&peer->data.lock);
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * Acquire Commit TS
+ * Now that everything is staged, we atomically acquire a commit
+ * timestamp from the transaction origin. We store it on the
+ * transaction, so async joins are still possible. We also seal the
+ * transaction at the same time, to prevent async stages.
+ */
+ mutex_lock(&origin->data.lock);
+ bus1_queue_sync(&origin->data.queue, max(tx->timestamp, tx->async_ts));
+ tx->timestamp = bus1_queue_tick(&origin->data.queue);
+ WARN_ON(test_and_set_bit(BUS1_TX_BIT_SEALED, &tx->flags));
+ mutex_unlock(&origin->data.lock);
+
+ /*
+ * Sync Round
+ * Before any effect of this transaction is visible, we must make sure
+ * to sync all clocks. This guarantees that the first receiver of the
+ * message cannot (via side-channels) induce messages into the queue of
+ * the other receivers, before they get the message as well.
+ */
+ tail = &tx->sync;
+ do {
+ for (peer = bus1_tx_first(tx, *tail, &qnode);
+ qnode;
+ peer = bus1_tx_next(tx, &qnode)) {
+ tail = &qnode->next;
+
+ mutex_lock(&peer->data.lock);
+ bus1_queue_sync(&peer->data.queue, tx->timestamp);
+ mutex_unlock(&peer->data.lock);
+ }
+
+ /* append async-list to the tail of the previous list */
+ *tail = tx->async;
+ tx->async = NULL;
+ } while (*tail);
+
+ /*
+ * Commit Round
+ * Now that everything is staged and the clocks synced, we can finally
+ * commit all the messages on their respective queues. Iterate over
+ * each message again, commit it, and release the pinned destination.
+ */
+ while ((qnode = bus1_tx_pop(tx, &tx->sync))) {
+ peer = qnode->owner ?: tx->origin;
+
+ mutex_lock(&peer->data.lock);
+ bus1_queue_commit_staged(&peer->data.queue, &peer->waitq,
+ qnode, tx->timestamp);
+ mutex_unlock(&peer->data.lock);
+
+ bus1_peer_release(qnode->owner);
+ }
+
+ return tx->timestamp;
+}
diff --git a/ipc/bus1/tx.h b/ipc/bus1/tx.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a057df4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/ipc/bus1/tx.h
@@ -0,0 +1,102 @@
+#ifndef __BUS1_TX_H
+#define __BUS1_TX_H
+
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2013-2016 Red Hat, Inc.
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the
+ * Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at
+ * your option) any later version.
+ */
+
+/**
+ * DOC: Transactions
+ *
+ * The transaction engine is an object that lives an the stack and is used to
+ * stage and commit multicasts properly. Unlike unicasts, a multicast cannot
+ * just be queued on each destination, but must be properly synchronized. This
+ * requires us to first stage each message on their respective destination,
+ * then sync and tick the clocks, and eventual commit all messages.
+ */
+
+#include <linux/err.h>
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+
+struct bus1_peer;
+struct bus1_queue_node;
+
+/**
+ * enum bus1_tx_bits - transaction flags
+ * @BUS1_TX_BIT_SEALED: The transaction is sealed, no new messages can
+ * be added to the transaction. The commit of all
+ * staged messages is ongoing.
+ */
+enum bus1_tx_bits {
+ BUS1_TX_BIT_SEALED,
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct bus1_tx - transaction context
+ * @origin: origin of this transaction
+ * @sync: unlocked list of staged messages
+ * @async: locked list of staged messages
+ * @postponed: unlocked list of unstaged messages
+ * @flags: transaction flags
+ * @timestamp: unlocked timestamp of this transaction
+ * @async_ts: locked timestamp cache of async list
+ */
+struct bus1_tx {
+ struct bus1_peer *origin;
+ struct bus1_queue_node *sync;
+ struct bus1_queue_node *async;
+ struct bus1_queue_node *postponed;
+ unsigned long flags;
+ u64 timestamp;
+ u64 async_ts;
+};
+
+void bus1_tx_stage_sync(struct bus1_tx *tx, struct bus1_queue_node *qnode);
+void bus1_tx_stage_later(struct bus1_tx *tx, struct bus1_queue_node *qnode);
+
+bool bus1_tx_join(struct bus1_queue_node *whom, struct bus1_queue_node *qnode);
+
+u64 bus1_tx_commit(struct bus1_tx *tx);
+
+/**
+ * bus1_tx_init() - initialize transaction context
+ * @tx: transaction context to operate on
+ * @origin: origin of this transaction
+ *
+ * This initializes a transaction context. The initiating peer must be pinned
+ * by the caller for the entire lifetime of @tx (until bus1_tx_deinit() is
+ * called) and given as @origin.
+ */
+static inline void bus1_tx_init(struct bus1_tx *tx, struct bus1_peer *origin)
+{
+ tx->origin = origin;
+ tx->sync = NULL;
+ tx->async = NULL;
+ tx->postponed = NULL;
+ tx->flags = 0;
+ tx->timestamp = 0;
+ tx->async_ts = 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_tx_deinit() - deinitialize transaction context
+ * @tx: transaction context to operate on
+ *
+ * This deinitializes a transaction context previously created via
+ * bus1_tx_init(). This is merely for debugging, as no resources are pinned on
+ * the transaction. However, if any message was staged on the transaction, it
+ * must be committed via bus1_tx_commit() before it is deinitialized.
+ */
+static inline void bus1_tx_deinit(struct bus1_tx *tx)
+{
+ WARN_ON(tx->sync);
+ WARN_ON(tx->async);
+ WARN_ON(tx->postponed);
+}
+
+#endif /* __BUS1_TX_H */
--
2.10.1
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