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Subject[RFC v1 10/14] bus1: add handle management
Date
From: Tom Gundersen <teg@jklm.no>

The object system on a bus is based on 'nodes' and 'handles'. Any peer
can allocate new, local objects at any time. The creator automatically
becomes the sole owner of the object. References to objects can be
passed as payload of messages. The recipient will then gain their own
reference to the object as well. Additionally, an object can be the
destination of a message, in which case the message is always sent to
the original creator (and thus the owner) of the object.

Internally, objects are called 'nodes'. A reference to an object is a
'handle'. Whenever a new node is created, the owner implicitly gains an
handle as well. In fact, handles are the only way to refer to a node.
The node itself is entirely hidden in the implementation, and visible
in the API as an “anchor handle”.

Whenever a handle is passed as payload of a message, the target peer
will gain a handle linked to the same underlying node. This works
regardless of whether the sender is the owner of the underlying node,
or not.

Each peer can identify all its handles (both owned and un-owned) by a
64-bit integer. The namespace is local to each peer, and the numbers
cannot be compared with the numbers of other peers (in fact, they are
very likely to clash, but might still have *different* underlying
nodes). However, if a peer receives a reference to the same node
multiple times, the resulting handle will be the same. The kernel keeps
count of how often each peer owns a handle.

If a peer no longer requires a specific handle, it can release it. If
the peer releases its last reference to a handle, the handle will be
destroyed.

The owner of a node (and *only* the owner) can trigger the destruction
of a node (even if other peers still own handles to it). In this case,
all peers that own a handle are notified of this fact. Once all handles
to a specific node have been released (except for the handle internally
pinned in the node itself), the owner of the node is notified of this,
so it can potentially destroy both any linked state and the node itself.

Node destruction is fully synchronized with any transaction. That is, a
node and all its handles are valid in every message that is transmitted
*before* the notification of its destruction. Furthermore, no message
after this notification will carry the ID of such a destroyed node. Note
that message transactions are asynchronous. That is, there is no unique
point in time that a message is synchronized with another message.
Hence, whether a specific handle passed with a message is still valid or
not, cannot be predicted by the sender, but only by one of the
receivers.

Signed-off-by: Tom Gundersen <teg@jklm.no>
Signed-off-by: David Herrmann <dh.herrmann@gmail.com>
---
ipc/bus1/Makefile | 1 +
ipc/bus1/handle.c | 823 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
ipc/bus1/handle.h | 312 +++++++++++++++++++++
ipc/bus1/peer.c | 3 +
ipc/bus1/peer.h | 2 +
ipc/bus1/util.h | 83 ++++++
6 files changed, 1224 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 ipc/bus1/handle.c
create mode 100644 ipc/bus1/handle.h

diff --git a/ipc/bus1/Makefile b/ipc/bus1/Makefile
index e3c7dd7..b87cddb 100644
--- a/ipc/bus1/Makefile
+++ b/ipc/bus1/Makefile
@@ -1,4 +1,5 @@
bus1-y := \
+ handle.o \
main.o \
peer.o \
tx.o \
diff --git a/ipc/bus1/handle.c b/ipc/bus1/handle.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..10f224e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/ipc/bus1/handle.c
@@ -0,0 +1,823 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2013-2016 Red Hat, Inc.
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the
+ * Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at
+ * your option) any later version.
+ */
+
+#include <linux/atomic.h>
+#include <linux/err.h>
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/kref.h>
+#include <linux/rbtree.h>
+#include <linux/rcupdate.h>
+#include <linux/slab.h>
+#include <uapi/linux/bus1.h>
+#include "handle.h"
+#include "peer.h"
+#include "tx.h"
+#include "util.h"
+#include "util/queue.h"
+
+static void bus1_handle_init(struct bus1_handle *h, struct bus1_peer *holder)
+{
+ kref_init(&h->ref);
+ atomic_set(&h->n_weak, 0);
+ atomic_set(&h->n_user, 0);
+ h->holder = holder;
+ h->anchor = NULL;
+ h->tlink = NULL;
+ RB_CLEAR_NODE(&h->rb_to_peer);
+ h->id = BUS1_HANDLE_INVALID;
+}
+
+static void bus1_handle_deinit(struct bus1_handle *h)
+{
+ if (h == h->anchor) {
+ WARN_ON(atomic_read(&h->node.n_strong) != 0);
+ WARN_ON(!RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&h->node.map_handles));
+ } else if (h->anchor) {
+ WARN_ON(!RB_EMPTY_NODE(&h->remote.rb_to_anchor));
+ bus1_handle_unref(h->anchor);
+ }
+
+ bus1_queue_node_deinit(&h->qnode);
+ WARN_ON(!RB_EMPTY_NODE(&h->rb_to_peer));
+ WARN_ON(h->tlink);
+ WARN_ON(atomic_read(&h->n_user) != 0);
+ WARN_ON(atomic_read(&h->n_weak) != 0);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_new_anchor() - allocate new anchor handle
+ * @holder: peer to set as holder
+ *
+ * This allocates a new, fresh, anchor handle for free use to the caller.
+ *
+ * Return: Pointer to handle, or ERR_PTR on failure.
+ */
+struct bus1_handle *bus1_handle_new_anchor(struct bus1_peer *holder)
+{
+ struct bus1_handle *anchor;
+
+ anchor = kmalloc(sizeof(*anchor), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!anchor)
+ return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
+
+ bus1_handle_init(anchor, holder);
+ anchor->anchor = anchor;
+ bus1_queue_node_init(&anchor->qnode, BUS1_MSG_NODE_RELEASE);
+ anchor->node.map_handles = RB_ROOT;
+ anchor->node.flags = 0;
+ atomic_set(&anchor->node.n_strong, 0);
+
+ return anchor;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_new_remote() - allocate new remote handle
+ * @holder: peer to set as holder
+ * @other: other handle to link to
+ *
+ * This allocates a new, fresh, remote handle for free use to the caller. The
+ * handle will use the same anchor as @other (or @other in case it is an
+ * anchor).
+ *
+ * Return: Pointer to handle, or ERR_PTR on failure.
+ */
+struct bus1_handle *bus1_handle_new_remote(struct bus1_peer *holder,
+ struct bus1_handle *other)
+{
+ struct bus1_handle *remote;
+
+ if (WARN_ON(!other))
+ return ERR_PTR(-ENOTRECOVERABLE);
+
+ remote = kmalloc(sizeof(*remote), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!remote)
+ return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
+
+ bus1_handle_init(remote, holder);
+ remote->anchor = bus1_handle_ref(other->anchor);
+ bus1_queue_node_init(&remote->qnode, BUS1_MSG_NODE_DESTROY);
+ RB_CLEAR_NODE(&remote->remote.rb_to_anchor);
+
+ return remote;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_free() - free handle
+ * @k: kref of handle to free
+ *
+ * This frees the handle belonging to the kref @k. It is meant to be used as
+ * callback for kref_put(). The actual memory release is rcu-delayed so the
+ * handle stays around at least until the next grace period.
+ */
+void bus1_handle_free(struct kref *k)
+{
+ struct bus1_handle *h = container_of(k, struct bus1_handle, ref);
+
+ bus1_handle_deinit(h);
+ kfree_rcu(h, qnode.rcu);
+}
+
+static struct bus1_peer *bus1_handle_acquire_holder(struct bus1_handle *handle)
+{
+ struct bus1_peer *peer = NULL;
+
+ /*
+ * The holder of a handle is set during ATTACH and remains set until
+ * the handle is destroyed. This ACQUIRE pairs with the RELEASE during
+ * ATTACH, and guarantees handle->holder is non-NULL, if n_weak is set.
+ *
+ * We still need to do this under rcu-lock. During DETACH, n_weak drops
+ * to 0, and then may be followed by a kfree_rcu() on the peer. Hence,
+ * we guarantee that if we read n_weak > 0 and the holder in the same
+ * critical section, it must be accessible.
+ */
+ rcu_read_lock();
+ if (atomic_read_acquire(&handle->n_weak) > 0)
+ peer = bus1_peer_acquire(lockless_dereference(handle->holder));
+ rcu_read_unlock();
+
+ return peer;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_acquire_owner() - acquire owner of a handle
+ * @handle: handle to operate on
+ *
+ * This tries to acquire the owner of a handle. If the owner is already
+ * detached, this will return NULL.
+ *
+ * Return: Pointer to owner on success, NULL on failure.
+ */
+struct bus1_peer *bus1_handle_acquire_owner(struct bus1_handle *handle)
+{
+ return bus1_handle_acquire_holder(handle->anchor);
+}
+
+static void bus1_handle_queue_release(struct bus1_handle *handle)
+{
+ struct bus1_handle *anchor = handle->anchor;
+ struct bus1_peer *owner;
+
+ if (test_bit(BUS1_HANDLE_BIT_RELEASED, &anchor->node.flags) ||
+ test_bit(BUS1_HANDLE_BIT_DESTROYED, &anchor->node.flags))
+ return;
+
+ owner = anchor->holder;
+ lockdep_assert_held(&owner->data.lock);
+
+ if (!bus1_queue_node_is_queued(&anchor->qnode)) {
+ /*
+ * A release notification is a unicast message. Hence, we can
+ * simply queue it right away without any pre-staging.
+ * Furthermore, no transaction context is needed. But we still
+ * need a group tag. NULL would serve well, but disallows
+ * re-use detection. Hence, we use the sending peer as group
+ * tag (there cannot be any conflicts since we have a unique
+ * commit timestamp for this message, thus any group tag would
+ * work fine).
+ * If the group tag is already set, we know the release
+ * notification was already used before. Hence, we must
+ * re-initialize the object.
+ */
+ if (anchor->qnode.group) {
+ WARN_ON(anchor->qnode.group != owner);
+ bus1_queue_node_deinit(&anchor->qnode);
+ bus1_queue_node_init(&anchor->qnode,
+ BUS1_MSG_NODE_RELEASE);
+ }
+
+ anchor->qnode.group = owner;
+ bus1_handle_ref(anchor);
+ bus1_queue_commit_unstaged(&owner->data.queue, &owner->waitq,
+ &anchor->qnode);
+ }
+}
+
+static void bus1_handle_flush_release(struct bus1_handle *handle)
+{
+ struct bus1_handle *anchor = handle->anchor;
+ struct bus1_peer *owner;
+
+ if (test_bit(BUS1_HANDLE_BIT_RELEASED, &anchor->node.flags) ||
+ test_bit(BUS1_HANDLE_BIT_DESTROYED, &anchor->node.flags))
+ return;
+
+ owner = anchor->holder;
+ lockdep_assert_held(&owner->data.lock);
+
+ if (bus1_queue_node_is_queued(&anchor->qnode)) {
+ bus1_queue_remove(&owner->data.queue, &owner->waitq,
+ &anchor->qnode);
+ bus1_handle_unref(anchor);
+ }
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_ref_by_other() - lookup handle on a peer
+ * @peer: peer to lookup handle for
+ * @handle: other handle to match for
+ *
+ * This looks for an handle held by @peer, which points to the same node as
+ * @handle (i.e., it is linked to @handle->anchor). If @peer does not hold such
+ * a handle, this returns NULL. Otherwise, an object reference is acquired and
+ * returned as pointer.
+ *
+ * The caller must hold an active reference to @peer.
+ *
+ * Return: Pointer to handle if found, NULL if not found.
+ */
+struct bus1_handle *bus1_handle_ref_by_other(struct bus1_peer *peer,
+ struct bus1_handle *handle)
+{
+ struct bus1_handle *h, *res = NULL;
+ struct bus1_peer *owner = NULL;
+ struct rb_node *n;
+
+ if (peer == handle->anchor->holder)
+ return bus1_handle_ref(handle->anchor);
+
+ owner = bus1_handle_acquire_owner(handle);
+ if (!owner)
+ return NULL;
+
+ mutex_lock(&owner->data.lock);
+ n = handle->anchor->node.map_handles.rb_node;
+ while (n) {
+ h = container_of(n, struct bus1_handle, remote.rb_to_anchor);
+ if (peer < h->holder) {
+ n = n->rb_left;
+ } else if (peer > h->holder) {
+ n = n->rb_right;
+ } else /* if (peer == h->holder) */ {
+ res = bus1_handle_ref(h);
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+ mutex_unlock(&owner->data.lock);
+
+ bus1_peer_release(owner);
+ return res;
+}
+
+static struct bus1_handle *bus1_handle_splice(struct bus1_handle *handle)
+{
+ struct bus1_queue_node *qnode = &handle->qnode;
+ struct bus1_handle *h, *anchor = handle->anchor;
+ struct rb_node *n, **slot;
+
+ n = NULL;
+ slot = &anchor->node.map_handles.rb_node;
+ while (*slot) {
+ n = *slot;
+ h = container_of(n, struct bus1_handle, remote.rb_to_anchor);
+ if (unlikely(handle->holder == h->holder)) {
+ /* conflict detected; return ref to caller */
+ return bus1_handle_ref(h);
+ } else if (handle->holder < h->holder) {
+ slot = &n->rb_left;
+ } else /* if (handle->holder > h->holder) */ {
+ slot = &n->rb_right;
+ }
+ }
+
+ rb_link_node(&handle->remote.rb_to_anchor, n, slot);
+ rb_insert_color(&handle->remote.rb_to_anchor,
+ &anchor->node.map_handles);
+ /* map_handles pins one ref of each entry */
+ bus1_handle_ref(handle);
+
+ /*
+ * If a destruction is ongoing on @anchor, we must try joining it. If
+ * @qnode->group is set, we already tried joining it and can skip it.
+ * If it is not set, we acquire the owner and try joining once. See
+ * bus1_tx_join() for details.
+ *
+ * Note that we must not react to a possible failure! Any such reaction
+ * would be out-of-order, hence just ignore it silently. We simply end
+ * up with a stale handle, which is completely fine.
+ */
+ if (test_bit(BUS1_HANDLE_BIT_DESTROYED, &anchor->node.flags) &&
+ !qnode->group) {
+ qnode->owner = bus1_peer_acquire(handle->holder);
+ if (qnode->owner && bus1_tx_join(&anchor->qnode, qnode))
+ bus1_handle_ref(handle);
+ else
+ qnode->owner = bus1_peer_release(qnode->owner);
+ }
+
+ return NULL;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_acquire_locked() - acquire strong reference
+ * @handle: handle to operate on, or NULL
+ * @strong: whether to acquire a strong reference
+ *
+ * This is the same as bus1_handle_acquire_slow(), but requires the caller to
+ * hold the data lock of @holder and the owner.
+ *
+ * Return: Acquired handle (possibly a conflict).
+ */
+struct bus1_handle *bus1_handle_acquire_locked(struct bus1_handle *handle,
+ bool strong)
+{
+ struct bus1_handle *h, *anchor = handle->anchor;
+ struct bus1_peer *owner = NULL;
+
+ if (!test_bit(BUS1_HANDLE_BIT_RELEASED, &anchor->node.flags))
+ owner = anchor->holder;
+
+ /*
+ * Verify the correct locks are held: If @handle is already attached,
+ * its holder must match @holder (otherwise, its holder must be NULL).
+ * In all cases, @holder must be locked.
+ * Additionally, the owner must be locked as well. However, the owner
+ * might be released already. The caller must guarantee that if the
+ * owner is not released, yet, it must be locked.
+ */
+ WARN_ON(!handle->holder);
+ lockdep_assert_held(&handle->holder->data.lock);
+ if (owner)
+ lockdep_assert_held(&owner->data.lock);
+
+ if (atomic_read(&handle->n_weak) == 0) {
+ if (test_bit(BUS1_HANDLE_BIT_RELEASED, &anchor->node.flags)) {
+ /*
+ * When the node is already released, any attach ends
+ * up as stale handle. So nothing special to do here.
+ */
+ } else if (handle == anchor) {
+ /*
+ * Attach of an anchor: There is nothing to do, we
+ * simply verify the map is empty and continue.
+ */
+ WARN_ON(!RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&handle->node.map_handles));
+ } else if (owner) {
+ /*
+ * Attach of a remote: If the node is not released,
+ * yet, we insert it into the lookup tree. Otherwise,
+ * we leave it around as stale handle. Note that
+ * tree-insertion might race. If a conflict is detected
+ * we drop this handle and restart with the conflict.
+ */
+ h = bus1_handle_splice(handle);
+ if (unlikely(h)) {
+ bus1_handle_unref(handle);
+ WARN_ON(atomic_read(&h->n_weak) != 1);
+ return bus1_handle_acquire_locked(h, strong);
+ }
+ }
+
+ bus1_handle_ref(handle);
+
+ /*
+ * This RELEASE pairs with the ACQUIRE in
+ * bus1_handle_acquire_holder(). It simply guarantees that
+ * handle->holder is set before n_weak>0 is visible. It does
+ * not give any guarantees on the validity of the holder. All
+ * it does is guarantee it is non-NULL and will stay constant.
+ */
+ atomic_set_release(&handle->n_weak, 1);
+ } else {
+ WARN_ON(atomic_inc_return(&handle->n_weak) < 1);
+ }
+
+ if (strong && atomic_inc_return(&anchor->node.n_strong) == 1) {
+ if (owner)
+ bus1_handle_flush_release(anchor);
+ }
+
+ return handle;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_acquire_slow() - slow-path of handle acquisition
+ * @handle: handle to acquire
+ * @strong: whether to acquire a strong reference
+ *
+ * This is the slow-path of bus1_handle_acquire(). See there for details.
+ *
+ * Return: Acquired handle (possibly a conflict).
+ */
+struct bus1_handle *bus1_handle_acquire_slow(struct bus1_handle *handle,
+ bool strong)
+{
+ const bool is_anchor = (handle == handle->anchor);
+ struct bus1_peer *owner;
+
+ if (is_anchor)
+ owner = handle->holder;
+ else
+ owner = bus1_handle_acquire_owner(handle);
+
+ bus1_mutex_lock2(&handle->holder->data.lock,
+ owner ? &owner->data.lock : NULL);
+ handle = bus1_handle_acquire_locked(handle, strong);
+ bus1_mutex_unlock2(&handle->holder->data.lock,
+ owner ? &owner->data.lock : NULL);
+
+ if (!is_anchor)
+ bus1_peer_release(owner);
+
+ return handle;
+}
+
+static void bus1_handle_release_locked(struct bus1_handle *h,
+ struct bus1_peer *owner,
+ bool strong)
+{
+ struct bus1_handle *t, *safe, *anchor = h->anchor;
+
+ if (atomic_dec_return(&h->n_weak) == 0) {
+ if (test_bit(BUS1_HANDLE_BIT_RELEASED, &anchor->node.flags)) {
+ /*
+ * In case a node is already released, all its handles
+ * are already stale (and new handles are instantiated
+ * as stale). Nothing to do.
+ */
+ } else if (h == anchor) {
+ /*
+ * Releasing an anchor requires us to drop all remotes
+ * from the map. We do not detach them, though, we just
+ * clear the map and drop the pinned reference.
+ */
+ WARN_ON(!owner);
+ rbtree_postorder_for_each_entry_safe(t, safe,
+ &h->node.map_handles,
+ remote.rb_to_anchor) {
+ RB_CLEAR_NODE(&t->remote.rb_to_anchor);
+ /* drop reference held by link into map */
+ bus1_handle_unref(t);
+ }
+ h->node.map_handles = RB_ROOT;
+ bus1_handle_flush_release(h);
+ set_bit(BUS1_HANDLE_BIT_RELEASED, &h->node.flags);
+ } else if (!owner) {
+ /*
+ * If an owner is disconnected, its nodes remain until
+ * the owner is drained. In that period, it is
+ * impossible for any handle-release to acquire, and
+ * thus lock, the owner. Therefore, if that happens we
+ * leave the handle linked and rely on the owner
+ * cleanup to flush them all.
+ *
+ * A side-effect of this is that the holder field must
+ * remain set, even though it must not be dereferenced
+ * as it is a stale pointer. This is required to keep
+ * the rbtree lookup working. Anyone dereferencing the
+ * holder of a remote must therefore either hold a weak
+ * reference or check for n_weak with the owner locked.
+ */
+ } else if (!WARN_ON(RB_EMPTY_NODE(&h->remote.rb_to_anchor))) {
+ rb_erase(&h->remote.rb_to_anchor,
+ &anchor->node.map_handles);
+ RB_CLEAR_NODE(&h->remote.rb_to_anchor);
+ /* drop reference held by link into map */
+ bus1_handle_unref(h);
+ }
+
+ /* queue release after detach but before unref */
+ if (strong && atomic_dec_return(&anchor->node.n_strong) == 0) {
+ if (owner)
+ bus1_handle_queue_release(anchor);
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * This is the reference held by n_weak>0 (or 'holder valid').
+ * Note that the holder-field will remain set and stale.
+ */
+ bus1_handle_unref(h);
+ } else if (strong && atomic_dec_return(&anchor->node.n_strong) == 0) {
+ /* still weak refs left, only queue release notification */
+ if (owner)
+ bus1_handle_queue_release(anchor);
+ }
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_release_slow() - slow-path of handle release
+ * @handle: handle to release
+ * @strong: whether to release a strong reference
+ *
+ * This is the slow-path of bus1_handle_release(). See there for details.
+ */
+void bus1_handle_release_slow(struct bus1_handle *handle, bool strong)
+{
+ const bool is_anchor = (handle == handle->anchor);
+ struct bus1_peer *owner, *holder;
+
+ /*
+ * Caller must own an active reference to the holder of @handle.
+ * Furthermore, since the caller also owns a weak reference to @handle
+ * we know that its holder cannot be NULL nor modified in parallel.
+ */
+ holder = handle->holder;
+ WARN_ON(!holder);
+ lockdep_assert_held(&holder->active);
+
+ if (is_anchor)
+ owner = holder;
+ else
+ owner = bus1_handle_acquire_owner(handle);
+
+ bus1_mutex_lock2(&holder->data.lock,
+ owner ? &owner->data.lock : NULL);
+ bus1_handle_release_locked(handle, owner, strong);
+ bus1_mutex_unlock2(&holder->data.lock,
+ owner ? &owner->data.lock : NULL);
+
+ if (!is_anchor)
+ bus1_peer_release(owner);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_destroy_locked() - stage node destruction
+ * @handle: handle to destroy
+ * @tx: transaction to use
+ *
+ * This stages a destruction on @handle. That is, it marks @handle as destroyed
+ * and stages a release-notification for all live handles via @tx. It is the
+ * responsibility of the caller to commit @tx.
+ *
+ * The given handle must be an anchor and not destroyed, yet. Furthermore, the
+ * caller must hold the local-lock and data-lock of the owner.
+ */
+void bus1_handle_destroy_locked(struct bus1_handle *handle, struct bus1_tx *tx)
+{
+ struct bus1_peer *owner = handle->holder;
+ struct bus1_handle *t, *safe;
+
+ if (WARN_ON(handle != handle->anchor || !owner))
+ return;
+
+ lockdep_assert_held(&owner->local.lock);
+ lockdep_assert_held(&owner->data.lock);
+
+ if (WARN_ON(test_and_set_bit(BUS1_HANDLE_BIT_DESTROYED,
+ &handle->node.flags)))
+ return;
+
+ /* flush release and reuse qnode for destruction */
+ if (bus1_queue_node_is_queued(&handle->qnode)) {
+ bus1_queue_remove(&owner->data.queue, &owner->waitq,
+ &handle->qnode);
+ bus1_handle_unref(handle);
+ }
+ bus1_queue_node_deinit(&handle->qnode);
+ bus1_queue_node_init(&handle->qnode, BUS1_MSG_NODE_DESTROY);
+
+ bus1_tx_stage_sync(tx, &handle->qnode);
+ bus1_handle_ref(handle);
+
+ /* collect all handles in the transaction */
+ rbtree_postorder_for_each_entry_safe(t, safe,
+ &handle->node.map_handles,
+ remote.rb_to_anchor) {
+ /*
+ * Bail if the qnode of the remote-handle was already used for
+ * a destruction notification.
+ */
+ if (WARN_ON(t->qnode.group))
+ continue;
+
+ /*
+ * We hold the owner-lock, so we cannot lock any other peer.
+ * Therefore, just acquire the peer and remember it on @tx. It
+ * will be staged just before @tx is committed.
+ * Note that this modifies the qnode of the remote only
+ * partially. Neither timestamps nor rb-links are modified.
+ */
+ t->qnode.owner = bus1_handle_acquire_holder(t);
+ if (t->qnode.owner) {
+ bus1_tx_stage_later(tx, &t->qnode);
+ bus1_handle_ref(t);
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_is_live_at() - check whether handle is live at a given time
+ * @h: handle to check
+ * @timestamp: timestamp to check
+ *
+ * This checks whether the handle @h is live at the time of @timestamp. The
+ * caller must make sure that @timestamp was acquired on the clock of the
+ * holder of @h.
+ *
+ * Note that this does not synchronize on the node owner. That is, usually you
+ * want to call this at the time of RECV, so it is guaranteed that there is no
+ * staging message in front of @timestamp. Otherwise, a node owner might
+ * acquire a commit-timestamp for the destruction of @h lower than @timestamp.
+ *
+ * The caller must hold the data-lock of the holder of @h.
+ *
+ * Return: True if live at the given timestamp, false if destroyed.
+ */
+bool bus1_handle_is_live_at(struct bus1_handle *h, u64 timestamp)
+{
+ u64 ts;
+
+ WARN_ON(timestamp & 1);
+ lockdep_assert_held(&h->holder->data.lock);
+
+ if (!test_bit(BUS1_HANDLE_BIT_DESTROYED, &h->anchor->node.flags))
+ return true;
+
+ /*
+ * If BIT_DESTROYED is set, we know that the qnode can only be used for
+ * a destruction notification. Furthermore, we know that its timestamp
+ * is protected by the data-lock of the holder, so we can read it
+ * safely here.
+ * If the timestamp is not set, or staging, or higher than, or equal
+ * to, @timestamp, then the destruction cannot have been ordered before
+ * @timestamp, so the handle must be live.
+ */
+ ts = bus1_queue_node_get_timestamp(&h->qnode);
+ return (ts == 0) || (ts & 1) || (timestamp <= ts);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_import() - import handle
+ * @peer: peer to operate on
+ * @id: ID of handle
+ * @is_newp: store whether handle is new
+ *
+ * This searches the ID-namespace of @peer for a handle with the given ID. If
+ * found, it is referenced, returned to the caller, and @is_newp is set to
+ * false.
+ *
+ * If not found and @id is a remote ID, then an error is returned. But if it
+ * is a local ID, a new handle is created and placed in the lookup tree. In
+ * this case @is_newp is set to true.
+ *
+ * Return: Pointer to referenced handle is returned.
+ */
+struct bus1_handle *bus1_handle_import(struct bus1_peer *peer,
+ u64 id,
+ bool *is_newp)
+{
+ struct bus1_handle *h;
+ struct rb_node *n, **slot;
+
+ lockdep_assert_held(&peer->local.lock);
+
+ n = NULL;
+ slot = &peer->local.map_handles.rb_node;
+ while (*slot) {
+ n = *slot;
+ h = container_of(n, struct bus1_handle, rb_to_peer);
+ if (id < h->id) {
+ slot = &n->rb_left;
+ } else if (id > h->id) {
+ slot = &n->rb_right;
+ } else /* if (id == h->id) */ {
+ *is_newp = false;
+ return bus1_handle_ref(h);
+ }
+ }
+
+ if (id & (BUS1_HANDLE_FLAG_MANAGED | BUS1_HANDLE_FLAG_REMOTE))
+ return ERR_PTR(-ENXIO);
+
+ h = bus1_handle_new_anchor(peer);
+ if (IS_ERR(h))
+ return ERR_CAST(h);
+
+ h->id = id;
+ bus1_handle_ref(h);
+ rb_link_node(&h->rb_to_peer, n, slot);
+ rb_insert_color(&h->rb_to_peer, &peer->local.map_handles);
+
+ *is_newp = true;
+ return h;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_identify() - identify handle
+ * @h: handle to operate on
+ *
+ * This returns the ID of @h. If no ID was assigned, yet, a new one is picked.
+ *
+ * Return: The ID of @h is returned.
+ */
+u64 bus1_handle_identify(struct bus1_handle *h)
+{
+ WARN_ON(!h->holder);
+ lockdep_assert_held(&h->holder->local.lock);
+
+ if (h->id == BUS1_HANDLE_INVALID) {
+ h->id = ++h->holder->local.handle_ids << 3;
+ h->id |= BUS1_HANDLE_FLAG_MANAGED;
+ if (h != h->anchor)
+ h->id |= BUS1_HANDLE_FLAG_REMOTE;
+ }
+
+ return h->id;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_export() - export handle
+ * @handle: handle to operate on
+ *
+ * This exports @handle into the ID namespace of its holder. That is, if
+ * @handle is not linked into the ID namespace yet, it is linked into it.
+ *
+ * If @handle is already linked, nothing is done.
+ */
+void bus1_handle_export(struct bus1_handle *handle)
+{
+ struct bus1_handle *h;
+ struct rb_node *n, **slot;
+
+ /*
+ * The caller must own a weak reference to @handle when calling this.
+ * Hence, we know that its holder is valid. Also verify that the caller
+ * holds the required active reference and local lock.
+ */
+ WARN_ON(!handle->holder);
+ lockdep_assert_held(&handle->holder->local.lock);
+
+ if (RB_EMPTY_NODE(&handle->rb_to_peer)) {
+ bus1_handle_identify(handle);
+
+ n = NULL;
+ slot = &handle->holder->local.map_handles.rb_node;
+ while (*slot) {
+ n = *slot;
+ h = container_of(n, struct bus1_handle, rb_to_peer);
+ if (WARN_ON(handle->id == h->id))
+ return;
+ else if (handle->id < h->id)
+ slot = &n->rb_left;
+ else /* if (handle->id > h->id) */
+ slot = &n->rb_right;
+ }
+
+ bus1_handle_ref(handle);
+ rb_link_node(&handle->rb_to_peer, n, slot);
+ rb_insert_color(&handle->rb_to_peer,
+ &handle->holder->local.map_handles);
+ }
+}
+
+static void bus1_handle_forget_internal(struct bus1_handle *h, bool erase_rb)
+{
+ /*
+ * The passed handle might not have any weak references. Hence, we
+ * require the caller to pass the holder explicitly as @peer. However,
+ * if @handle has weak references, we want to WARN if it does not match
+ * @peer. Since this is unlocked, we use ACCESS_ONCE() here to get a
+ * consistent value. This is purely for debugging.
+ */
+ lockdep_assert_held(&h->holder->local.lock);
+
+ if (bus1_handle_is_public(h) || RB_EMPTY_NODE(&h->rb_to_peer))
+ return;
+
+ if (erase_rb)
+ rb_erase(&h->rb_to_peer, &h->holder->local.map_handles);
+ RB_CLEAR_NODE(&h->rb_to_peer);
+ h->id = BUS1_HANDLE_INVALID;
+ bus1_handle_unref(h);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_forget() - forget handle
+ * @h: handle to operate on, or NULL
+ *
+ * If @h is not public, but linked into the ID-lookup tree, this will remove it
+ * from the tree and clear the ID of @h. It basically undoes what
+ * bus1_handle_import() and bus1_handle_export() do.
+ *
+ * Note that there is no counter in bus1_handle_import() or
+ * bus1_handle_export(). That is, if you call bus1_handle_import() multiple
+ * times, a single bus1_handle_forget() undoes it. It is the callers
+ * responsibility to not release the local-lock randomly, and to properly
+ * detect cases where the same handle is used multiple times.
+ */
+void bus1_handle_forget(struct bus1_handle *h)
+{
+ if (h)
+ bus1_handle_forget_internal(h, true);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_forget_keep() - forget handle but keep rb-tree order
+ * @h: handle to operate on, or NULL
+ *
+ * This is like bus1_handle_forget(), but does not modify the ID-namespace
+ * rb-tree. That is, the backlink in @h is cleared (h->rb_to_peer), but the
+ * rb-tree is not rebalanced. As such, you can use it with
+ * rbtree_postorder_for_each_entry_safe() to drop all entries.
+ */
+void bus1_handle_forget_keep(struct bus1_handle *h)
+{
+ if (h)
+ bus1_handle_forget_internal(h, false);
+}
diff --git a/ipc/bus1/handle.h b/ipc/bus1/handle.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9f01569
--- /dev/null
+++ b/ipc/bus1/handle.h
@@ -0,0 +1,312 @@
+#ifndef __BUS1_HANDLE_H
+#define __BUS1_HANDLE_H
+
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2013-2016 Red Hat, Inc.
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the
+ * Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at
+ * your option) any later version.
+ */
+
+/**
+ * DOC: Handles
+ *
+ * The object system on a bus is based on 'nodes' and 'handles'. Any peer can
+ * allocate new, local objects at any time. The creator automatically becomes
+ * the sole owner of the object. References to objects can be passed as payload
+ * of messages. The recipient will then gain their own reference to the object
+ * as well. Additionally, an object can be the destination of a message, in
+ * which case the message is always sent to the original creator (and thus the
+ * owner) of the object.
+ *
+ * Internally, objects are called 'nodes'. A reference to an object is a
+ * 'handle'. Whenever a new node is created, the owner implicitly gains an
+ * handle as well. In fact, handles are the only way to refer to a node. The
+ * node itself is entirely hidden in the implementation, and visible in the API
+ * as an "anchor handle".
+ *
+ * Whenever a handle is passed as payload of a message, the target peer will
+ * gain a handle linked to the same underlying node. This works regardless
+ * of whether the sender is the owner of the underlying node, or not.
+ *
+ * Each peer can identify all its handles (both owned and un-owned) by a 64-bit
+ * integer. The namespace is local to each peer, and the numbers cannot be
+ * compared with the numbers of other peers (in fact, they are very likely
+ * to clash, but might still have *different* underlying nodes). However, if a
+ * peer receives a reference to the same node multiple times, the resulting
+ * handle will be the same. The kernel keeps count of how often each peer owns
+ * a handle.
+ *
+ * If a peer no longer requires a specific handle, it can release it. If the
+ * peer releases its last reference to a handle, the handle will be destroyed.
+ *
+ * The owner of a node (and *only* the owner) can trigger the destruction of a
+ * node (even if other peers still own handles to it). In this case, all peers
+ * that own a handle are notified of this fact.
+ * Once all handles to a specific node have been released (except for the handle
+ * internally pinned in the node itself), the owner of the node is notified of
+ * this, so it can potentially destroy both any linked state and the node
+ * itself.
+ *
+ * Node destruction is fully synchronized with any transaction. That is, a node
+ * and all its handles are valid in every message that is transmitted *before*
+ * the notification of its destruction. Furthermore, no message after this
+ * notification will carry the ID of such a destroyed node.
+ * Note that message transactions are asynchronous. That is, there is no unique
+ * point in time that a message is synchronized with another message. Hence,
+ * whether a specific handle passed with a message is still valid or not,
+ * cannot be predicted by the sender, but only by one of the receivers.
+ */
+
+#include <linux/atomic.h>
+#include <linux/err.h>
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/kref.h>
+#include <linux/rbtree.h>
+#include "util.h"
+#include "util/queue.h"
+
+struct bus1_peer;
+struct bus1_tx;
+
+/**
+ * enum bus1_handle_bits - node flags
+ * @BUS1_HANDLE_BIT_RELEASED: The anchor handle has been released.
+ * Any further attach operation will still
+ * work, but result in a stale attach,
+ * even in case of re-attach of the anchor
+ * itself.
+ * @BUS1_HANDLE_BIT_DESTROYED: A destruction has already been
+ * scheduled for this node.
+ */
+enum bus1_handle_bits {
+ BUS1_HANDLE_BIT_RELEASED,
+ BUS1_HANDLE_BIT_DESTROYED,
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct bus1_handle - object handle
+ * @ref: object reference counter
+ * @n_weak: number of weak references
+ * @n_user: number of user references
+ * @holder: holder of this handle
+ * @anchor: anchor handle
+ * @tlink: singly-linked list for free use
+ * @rb_to_peer: rb-link into peer by ID
+ * @id: current ID
+ * @qnode: queue node for notifications
+ * @node.map_handles: map of attached handles by peer
+ * @node.flags: node flags
+ * @node.n_strong: number of strong references
+ * @remote.rb_to_anchor: rb-link into node by peer
+ */
+struct bus1_handle {
+ struct kref ref;
+ atomic_t n_weak;
+ atomic_t n_user;
+ struct bus1_peer *holder;
+ struct bus1_handle *anchor;
+ struct bus1_handle *tlink;
+ struct rb_node rb_to_peer;
+ u64 id;
+ struct bus1_queue_node qnode;
+ union {
+ struct {
+ struct rb_root map_handles;
+ unsigned long flags;
+ atomic_t n_strong;
+ } node;
+ struct {
+ struct rb_node rb_to_anchor;
+ } remote;
+ };
+};
+
+struct bus1_handle *bus1_handle_new_anchor(struct bus1_peer *holder);
+struct bus1_handle *bus1_handle_new_remote(struct bus1_peer *holder,
+ struct bus1_handle *other);
+void bus1_handle_free(struct kref *ref);
+struct bus1_peer *bus1_handle_acquire_owner(struct bus1_handle *handle);
+
+struct bus1_handle *bus1_handle_ref_by_other(struct bus1_peer *peer,
+ struct bus1_handle *handle);
+
+struct bus1_handle *bus1_handle_acquire_slow(struct bus1_handle *handle,
+ bool strong);
+struct bus1_handle *bus1_handle_acquire_locked(struct bus1_handle *handle,
+ bool strong);
+void bus1_handle_release_slow(struct bus1_handle *h, bool strong);
+
+void bus1_handle_destroy_locked(struct bus1_handle *h, struct bus1_tx *tx);
+bool bus1_handle_is_live_at(struct bus1_handle *h, u64 timestamp);
+
+struct bus1_handle *bus1_handle_import(struct bus1_peer *peer,
+ u64 id,
+ bool *is_newp);
+u64 bus1_handle_identify(struct bus1_handle *h);
+void bus1_handle_export(struct bus1_handle *h);
+void bus1_handle_forget(struct bus1_handle *h);
+void bus1_handle_forget_keep(struct bus1_handle *h);
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_is_anchor() - check whether handle is an anchor
+ * @h: handle to check
+ *
+ * This checks whether @h is an anchor. That is, @h was created via
+ * bus1_handle_new_anchor(), rather than via bus1_handle_new_remote().
+ *
+ * Return: True if it is an anchor, false if not.
+ */
+static inline bool bus1_handle_is_anchor(struct bus1_handle *h)
+{
+ return h == h->anchor;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_is_live() - check whether handle is live
+ * @h: handle to check
+ *
+ * This checks whether the given handle is still live. That is, its anchor was
+ * not destroyed, yet.
+ *
+ * Return: True if it is live, false if already destroyed.
+ */
+static inline bool bus1_handle_is_live(struct bus1_handle *h)
+{
+ return !test_bit(BUS1_HANDLE_BIT_DESTROYED, &h->anchor->node.flags);
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_is_public() - check whether handle is public
+ * @h: handle to check
+ *
+ * This checks whether the given handle is public. That is, it was exported to
+ * user-space and at least one public reference is left.
+ *
+ * Return: True if it is public, false if not.
+ */
+static inline bool bus1_handle_is_public(struct bus1_handle *h)
+{
+ return atomic_read(&h->n_user) > 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_ref() - acquire object reference
+ * @h: handle to operate on, or NULL
+ *
+ * This acquires an object reference to @h. The caller must already hold a
+ * reference. Otherwise, the behavior is undefined.
+ *
+ * If NULL is passed, this is a no-op.
+ *
+ * Return: @h is returned.
+ */
+static inline struct bus1_handle *bus1_handle_ref(struct bus1_handle *h)
+{
+ if (h)
+ kref_get(&h->ref);
+ return h;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_unref() - release object reference
+ * @h: handle to operate on, or NULL
+ *
+ * This releases an object reference. If the reference count drops to 0, the
+ * object is released (rcu-delayed).
+ *
+ * If NULL is passed, this is a no-op.
+ *
+ * Return: NULL is returned.
+ */
+static inline struct bus1_handle *bus1_handle_unref(struct bus1_handle *h)
+{
+ if (h)
+ kref_put(&h->ref, bus1_handle_free);
+ return NULL;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_acquire() - acquire weak/strong reference
+ * @h: handle to operate on, or NULL
+ * @strong: whether to acquire a strong reference
+ *
+ * This acquires a weak/strong reference to the node @h is attached to.
+ * This always succeeds. However, if a conflict is detected, @h is
+ * unreferenced and the conflicting handle is returned (with an object
+ * reference taken and strong reference acquired).
+ *
+ * If NULL is passed, this is a no-op.
+ *
+ * Return: Pointer to the acquired handle is returned.
+ */
+static inline struct bus1_handle *
+bus1_handle_acquire(struct bus1_handle *h,
+ bool strong)
+{
+ if (h) {
+ if (bus1_atomic_add_if_ge(&h->n_weak, 1, 1) < 1) {
+ h = bus1_handle_acquire_slow(h, strong);
+ } else if (bus1_atomic_add_if_ge(&h->anchor->node.n_strong,
+ 1, 1) < 1) {
+ WARN_ON(h != bus1_handle_acquire_slow(h, strong));
+ WARN_ON(atomic_dec_return(&h->n_weak) < 1);
+ }
+ }
+ return h;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_release() - release weak/strong reference
+ * @h: handle to operate on, or NULL
+ * @strong: whether to release a strong reference
+ *
+ * This releases a weak or strong reference to the node @h is attached to.
+ *
+ * If NULL is passed, this is a no-op.
+ *
+ * Return: NULL is returned.
+ */
+static inline struct bus1_handle *
+bus1_handle_release(struct bus1_handle *h, bool strong)
+{
+ if (h) {
+ if (strong &&
+ bus1_atomic_add_if_ge(&h->anchor->node.n_strong, -1, 2) < 2)
+ bus1_handle_release_slow(h, true);
+ else if (bus1_atomic_add_if_ge(&h->n_weak, -1, 2) < 2)
+ bus1_handle_release_slow(h, false);
+ }
+ return NULL;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_handle_release_n() - release multiple references
+ * @h: handle to operate on, or NULL
+ * @n: number of references to release
+ * @strong: whether to release strong references
+ *
+ * This releases @n weak or strong references to the node @h is attached to.
+ *
+ * If NULL is passed, this is a no-op.
+ *
+ * Return: NULL is returned.
+ */
+static inline struct bus1_handle *
+bus1_handle_release_n(struct bus1_handle *h, unsigned int n, bool strong)
+{
+ if (h && n > 0) {
+ if (n > 1) {
+ if (strong)
+ WARN_ON(atomic_sub_return(n - 1,
+ &h->anchor->node.n_strong) < 1);
+ WARN_ON(atomic_sub_return(n - 1, &h->n_weak) < 1);
+ }
+ bus1_handle_release(h, strong);
+ }
+ return NULL;
+}
+
+#endif /* __BUS1_HANDLE_H */
diff --git a/ipc/bus1/peer.c b/ipc/bus1/peer.c
index 3421f8c..a1525cb 100644
--- a/ipc/bus1/peer.c
+++ b/ipc/bus1/peer.c
@@ -74,6 +74,8 @@ struct bus1_peer *bus1_peer_new(void)

/* initialize peer-private section */
mutex_init(&peer->local.lock);
+ peer->local.map_handles = RB_ROOT;
+ peer->local.handle_ids = 0;

if (!IS_ERR_OR_NULL(bus1_debugdir)) {
char idstr[22];
@@ -129,6 +131,7 @@ struct bus1_peer *bus1_peer_free(struct bus1_peer *peer)
bus1_peer_disconnect(peer);

/* deinitialize peer-private section */
+ WARN_ON(!RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&peer->local.map_handles));
mutex_destroy(&peer->local.lock);

/* deinitialize data section */
diff --git a/ipc/bus1/peer.h b/ipc/bus1/peer.h
index 149ddf6..655d3ac 100644
--- a/ipc/bus1/peer.h
+++ b/ipc/bus1/peer.h
@@ -93,6 +93,8 @@ struct bus1_peer {

struct {
struct mutex lock;
+ struct rb_root map_handles;
+ u64 handle_ids;
} local;
};

diff --git a/ipc/bus1/util.h b/ipc/bus1/util.h
index b9f9e8d..c22ecd5 100644
--- a/ipc/bus1/util.h
+++ b/ipc/bus1/util.h
@@ -27,6 +27,16 @@

struct dentry;

+/**
+ * BUS1_TAIL - tail pointer in singly-linked lists
+ *
+ * Several places of bus1 use singly-linked lists. Usually, the tail pointer is
+ * simply set to NULL. However, sometimes we need to be able to detect whether
+ * a node is linked in O(1). For that we set the tail pointer to BUS1_TAIL
+ * rather than NULL.
+ */
+#define BUS1_TAIL ERR_PTR(-1)
+
#if defined(CONFIG_DEBUG_FS)

struct dentry *
@@ -48,4 +58,77 @@ bus1_debugfs_create_atomic_x(const char *name,

#endif

+/**
+ * bus1_atomic_add_if_ge() - add, if above threshold
+ * @a: atomic_t to operate on
+ * @add: value to add
+ * @t: threshold
+ *
+ * Atomically add @add to @a, if @a is greater than, or equal to, @t.
+ *
+ * If [a + add] triggers an overflow, the operation is undefined. The caller
+ * must verify that this cannot happen.
+ *
+ * Return: The old value of @a is returned.
+ */
+static inline int bus1_atomic_add_if_ge(atomic_t *a, int add, int t)
+{
+ int v, v1;
+
+ for (v = atomic_read(a); v >= t; v = v1) {
+ v1 = atomic_cmpxchg(a, v, v + add);
+ if (likely(v1 == v))
+ return v;
+ }
+
+ return v;
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_mutex_lock2() - lock two mutices of the same class
+ * @a: first mutex, or NULL
+ * @b: second mutex, or NULL
+ *
+ * This locks both mutices @a and @b. The order in which they are taken is
+ * their memory location, thus allowing to lock 2 mutices of the same class at
+ * the same time.
+ *
+ * It is valid to pass the same mutex as @a and @b, in which case it is only
+ * locked once.
+ *
+ * Use bus1_mutex_unlock2() to exit the critical section.
+ */
+static inline void bus1_mutex_lock2(struct mutex *a, struct mutex *b)
+{
+ if (a < b) {
+ if (a)
+ mutex_lock(a);
+ if (b && b != a)
+ mutex_lock_nested(b, !!a);
+ } else {
+ if (b)
+ mutex_lock(b);
+ if (a && a != b)
+ mutex_lock_nested(a, !!b);
+ }
+}
+
+/**
+ * bus1_mutex_unlock2() - lock two mutices of the same class
+ * @a: first mutex, or NULL
+ * @b: second mutex, or NULL
+ *
+ * Unlock both mutices @a and @b. If they point to the same mutex, it is only
+ * unlocked once.
+ *
+ * Usually used in combination with bus1_mutex_lock2().
+ */
+static inline void bus1_mutex_unlock2(struct mutex *a, struct mutex *b)
+{
+ if (a)
+ mutex_unlock(a);
+ if (b && b != a)
+ mutex_unlock(b);
+}
+
#endif /* __BUS1_UTIL_H */
--
2.10.1
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