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SubjectRe: [PATCH] PCI: pci-stub: accept exceptions to the ID- and class-based matching
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On 10/25/16 20:42, Alex Williamson wrote:
> On Tue, 25 Oct 2016 20:24:19 +0200
> Laszlo Ersek <lersek@redhat.com> wrote:
>
>> Some systems have multiple instances of the exact same kind of PCI device
>> installed. When VFIO users intend to assign these devices to VMs, they
>> occasionally don't want to assign all of them; they'd keep a few for
>> host-side use. The current ID- and class-based matching in pci-stub
>> doesn't accommodate this use case, so users are left with either
>> rc.local-style host boot scripts, or QEMU wrapper scripts (which are
>> inferior to a pure libvirt environment).
>>
>> Introduce the "except" module parameter for pci-stub. In addition to
>> "ids", users can specify a list of Domain:Bus:Device.Function tuples. The
>> tuples are parsed and saved before pci_add_dynid() is called. The pci-stub
>> probe function will fail for the listed devices, for the initial and all
>> later (explicit) binding attempts.
>>
>> Cc: Alex Williamson <alex.williamson@redhat.com>
>> Cc: Andrei Grigore <andrei.grg@gmail.com>
>> Cc: Bjorn Helgaas <bhelgaas@google.com>
>> Cc: Jayme Howard <g.prime@gmail.com>
>> Reported-by: Andrei Grigore <andrei.grg@gmail.com>
>> Ref: https://www.redhat.com/archives/vfio-users/2016-October/msg00121.html
>> Signed-off-by: Laszlo Ersek <lersek@redhat.com>
>> ---
>> drivers/pci/pci-stub.c | 63 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>> 1 file changed, 63 insertions(+)
>>
>> diff --git a/drivers/pci/pci-stub.c b/drivers/pci/pci-stub.c
>> index 886fb3570278..120c29609c44 100644
>> --- a/drivers/pci/pci-stub.c
>> +++ b/drivers/pci/pci-stub.c
>> @@ -26,8 +26,44 @@ MODULE_PARM_DESC(ids, "Initial PCI IDs to add to the stub driver, format is "
>> "\"vendor:device[:subvendor[:subdevice[:class[:class_mask]]]]\""
>> " and multiple comma separated entries can be specified");
>>
>> +#define MAX_EXCEPT 16
>> +
>> +static unsigned num_except;
>> +static struct except {
>> + u16 domain;
>> + u16 devid;
>> +} except[MAX_EXCEPT];
>> +
>> +/*
>> + * Accommodate substrings like "0000:00:1c.4," MAX_EXCEPT times, with the comma
>> + * replaced with '\0' in the last instance
>> + */
>> +static char except_str[13 * MAX_EXCEPT] __initdata;
>> +
>> +module_param_string(except, except_str, sizeof except_str, 0);
>> +MODULE_PARM_DESC(except, "Comma-separated list of PCI addresses to except "
>> + "from the ID- and class-based binding. The address format is "
>> + "Domain:Bus:Device.Function (all components are required and "
>> + "written in hex), for example, 0000:00:1c.4. At most "
>> + __stringify(MAX_EXCEPT) " exceptions are supported.");
>
> So a user needs to specify both a set of set of vendor:device ids AND an
> exception list? Wouldn't it be easier to make a list of _included_
> devices by address, w/o needing an ids= list?

First, I didn't want to drop the ids=... parameter for compatibility
reasons.

Second (because I realize you're likely not suggesting to *drop* "ids",
just to provide a positive-sense replacement for it), I have no idea how
to influence the PCI subsystem like this. As far as I know (which is
very little, admittedly), the only way to get the PCI subsystem to call
back into a specific driver probe function is to provide
device/vendor/subsystem IDs, and class patterns, with that device driver.

If I don't provide those IDs (either statically or dynamically), then
the driver will bind nothing, because the core won't invoke the probe
function for any device.

If I provided a match-all pattern (not sure how), then the core would
call the probe function for all devices. While that might help move the
actual positive filtering into the stub probe function (i.e., without
the "ids" parameter), I don't think it would be appreciated.

> FWIW, I think the reason
> this hasn't been done to date is that PCI bus addresses (except for
> root bus devices) are not stable. Depending on the system, the address
> of a given device may change, not only based on the slot where the
> device is installed, but whether other devices in other slots are
> populated.

I agree.

However, while the addresses are not stable in the face of hardware
changes, I think the addresses don't change haphazardly (that is,
without hardware changes).

So, if you plug in another card, your current pci-stub.except=...
parameter might become invalid; but that's not very different from the
case when you plug in the second instance of a preexistent card right
now -- then the pci-stub.ids=... filter won't match uniquely anymore,
and assignment vs. host-side use might not work as intented.

> This is why when ACPI needs to describe a PCI device (such
> as in the DMAR tables), it does so via paths. We don't know the bus
> number that will be assigned to a device, but we do know
> deterministically how to traverse to it, for instance root bus -> root
> dev.fn -> intermediate dev.fn -> target dev.fn. Thanks,

Yes, UEFI device paths follow this model as well. In UEFI, device paths
(which cover a lot more than PCI) are very clearly separated from
domain/bus/device/function quadruplets.

Are there utilities in the kernel for parsing a textual device path into
a binary representation, and then locating the PCI device with the
binary devpath? (This is doable in UEFI.)

... Anyhow, when I started working on this patch, the first thing I
searched for was existing practice. There is "prior art" for specifying
PCI BDFs on the kernel command line; please see the following commits:

ea9e9d802902 Specify PCI based UART for earlyprintk
c43088e3b8ca Documentation/kernel-parameters: add missing pciserial to
the earlyprintk

Thanks
Laszlo

>
>> +
>> +static inline bool exception_matches(const struct except *ex,
>> + const struct pci_dev *dev)
>> +{
>> + return ex->domain == pci_domain_nr(dev->bus) &&
>> + ex->devid == PCI_DEVID(dev->bus->number, dev->devfn);
>> +}
>> +
>> static int pci_stub_probe(struct pci_dev *dev, const struct pci_device_id *id)
>> {
>> + unsigned i;
>> +
>> + for (i = 0; i < num_except; i++)
>> + if (exception_matches(&except[i], dev)) {
>> + dev_info(&dev->dev, "skipped by stub\n");
>> + return -EPERM;
>> + }
>> +
>> dev_info(&dev->dev, "claimed by stub\n");
>> return 0;
>> }
>> @@ -47,6 +83,33 @@ static int __init pci_stub_init(void)
>> if (rc)
>> return rc;
>>
>> + /* parse exceptions */
>> + p = except_str;
>> + while ((id = strsep(&p, ","))) {
>> + int fields;
>> + unsigned domain, bus, dev, fn;
>> +
>> + if (*id == '\0')
>> + continue;
>> +
>> + fields = sscanf(id, "%x:%x:%x.%x", &domain, &bus, &dev, &fn);
>> + if (fields != 4 || domain > 0xffff || bus > 0xff ||
>> + dev > 0x1f || fn > 0x7) {
>> + printk(KERN_WARNING
>> + "pci-stub: invalid exception \"%s\"\n", id);
>> + continue;
>> + }
>> +
>> + if (num_except < MAX_EXCEPT) {
>> + struct except *ex = &except[num_except++];
>> +
>> + ex->domain = domain;
>> + ex->devid = PCI_DEVID(bus, PCI_DEVFN(dev, fn));
>> + } else
>> + printk(KERN_WARNING
>> + "pci-stub: no room for exception \"%s\"\n", id);
>> + }
>> +
>> /* no ids passed actually */
>> if (ids[0] == '\0')
>> return 0;
>

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