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SubjectRe: [PATCH 10/10] fault injection: inject faults in new/rare callchains
2016-10-17 0:56 GMT+09:00 Vegard Nossum <vegard.nossum@oracle.com>:
> Before this patch, fault injection uses a combination of randomness and
> frequency to determine where to inject faults. The problem with this is
> that code paths which are executed very rarely get proportional amounts
> of faults injected.
>
> A better heuristic is to look at the actual callchain leading up to the
> possible failure point; if we see a callchain that we've never seen up
> until this point, chances are it's a rare one and we should definitely
> inject a fault here (since we might not get the chance again later).
>
> This uses a probabilistic set structure (similar to a bloom filter) to
> determine whether we have seen a particular callchain before by hashing
> the stack trace and atomically testing/setting a bit corresponding to
> the current callchain.
>
> There is a possibility of false negatives (i.e. we think we have seen a
> particular callchain before when in fact we haven't, therefore we don't
> inject a fault where we should have). We might use some sort of random
> seed here, but the additional complexity doesn't seem worth it to me.
>
> This finds a lot more bugs than just plain fault injection.
>
> To enable at run-time:
>
> echo Y > /sys/kernel/debug/fail*/fail_new_callsites
>
> Signed-off-by: Vegard Nossum <vegard.nossum@oracle.com>
>
> ---
>
> v2: turned this into a runtime knob as suggested by Akinobu Mita and
> bumped the hashtable size from 32 to 128 KiB (16 to 64 KiB on 32-bit).
> ---
> Documentation/fault-injection/fault-injection.txt | 8 +++++
> include/linux/fault-inject.h | 2 ++
> lib/Kconfig.debug | 7 +++-
> lib/fault-inject.c | 40 ++++++++++++++++++++---
> 4 files changed, 51 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/fault-injection/fault-injection.txt b/Documentation/fault-injection/fault-injection.txt
> index 2ef8531..1cbfbbb 100644
> --- a/Documentation/fault-injection/fault-injection.txt
> +++ b/Documentation/fault-injection/fault-injection.txt
> @@ -81,6 +81,14 @@ configuration of fault-injection capabilities.
> Any positive value limits failures to only processes indicated by
> /proc/<pid>/make-it-fail==1.
>
> +- /sys/kernel/debug/fail*/fail_new_callsites:
> +
> + Format: { 'Y' | 'N' }
> + A value of 'Y' will cause a callsite which has never been seen
> + before (since the last boot) to fail immediately. This can be
> + useful for triggering fault injection for very rare or hard-to-hit
> + call chains.
> +
> - /sys/kernel/debug/fail*/require-start:
> - /sys/kernel/debug/fail*/require-end:
> - /sys/kernel/debug/fail*/reject-start:
> diff --git a/include/linux/fault-inject.h b/include/linux/fault-inject.h
> index 9f4956d..022da94 100644
> --- a/include/linux/fault-inject.h
> +++ b/include/linux/fault-inject.h
> @@ -19,6 +19,7 @@ struct fault_attr {
> atomic_t space;
> unsigned long verbose;
> bool task_filter;
> + bool fail_new_callsites;
> unsigned long stacktrace_depth;
> unsigned long require_start;
> unsigned long require_end;
> @@ -34,6 +35,7 @@ struct fault_attr {
> .interval = 1, \
> .times = ATOMIC_INIT(1), \
> .require_end = ULONG_MAX, \
> + .fail_new_callsites = false, \
> .stacktrace_depth = 32, \
> .ratelimit_state = RATELIMIT_STATE_INIT_DISABLED, \
> .verbose = 2, \
> diff --git a/lib/Kconfig.debug b/lib/Kconfig.debug
> index 1f13d02..d06a51d 100644
> --- a/lib/Kconfig.debug
> +++ b/lib/Kconfig.debug
> @@ -1699,7 +1699,12 @@ config FAULT_INJECTION_STACKTRACE_FILTER
> select STACKTRACE
> select FRAME_POINTER if !MIPS && !PPC && !S390 && !MICROBLAZE && !ARM_UNWIND && !ARC && !SCORE
> help
> - Provide stacktrace filter for fault-injection capabilities
> + Provide stacktrace filter for fault-injection capabilities.
> +
> + This also allows you to enable fault-injection for new callsites,
> + i.e. a forced fault the first time a given call chain is seen.
> + This can be useful for triggering fault injection for very rare
> + or hard-to-hit call chains.
>
> config LATENCYTOP
> bool "Latency measuring infrastructure"
> diff --git a/lib/fault-inject.c b/lib/fault-inject.c
> index adba7c9..a401b14 100644
> --- a/lib/fault-inject.c
> +++ b/lib/fault-inject.c
> @@ -63,7 +63,7 @@ static bool fail_task(struct fault_attr *attr, struct task_struct *task)
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_FAULT_INJECTION_STACKTRACE_FILTER
>
> -static bool fail_stacktrace(struct fault_attr *attr)
> +static bool fail_stacktrace(struct fault_attr *attr, unsigned int *hash)
> {
> struct stack_trace trace;
> int depth = attr->stacktrace_depth;
> @@ -88,12 +88,20 @@ static bool fail_stacktrace(struct fault_attr *attr)
> entries[n] < attr->require_end)
> found = true;
> }
> +
> + if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_FAULT_INJECTION_AT_NEW_CALLSITES)) {
> + const char *start = (const char *) &entries[0];
> + const char *end = (const char *) &entries[trace.nr_entries];
> +
> + *hash = full_name_hash(0, start, end - start);
> + }
> +
> return found;
> }
>
> #else
>
> -static inline bool fail_stacktrace(struct fault_attr *attr)
> +static inline bool fail_stacktrace(struct fault_attr *attr, unsigned int *hash)
> {
> return true;
> }
> @@ -134,6 +142,8 @@ static bool __fail(struct fault_attr *attr)
>
> bool should_fail(struct fault_attr *attr, ssize_t size)
> {
> + unsigned int hash = 0;
> +
> /* No need to check any other properties if the probability is 0 */
> if (attr->probability == 0)
> return false;
> @@ -149,6 +159,25 @@ bool should_fail(struct fault_attr *attr, ssize_t size)
> return false;
> }
>
> + if (!fail_stacktrace(attr, &hash))
> + return false;
> +

Why is this call moved from the end of should_fail() to here?
This changes the behavior of fault injection when stacktrace filter
is enabled. So please prepare as another patch for this change with
a good reason.

> + if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_FAULT_INJECTION_STACKTRACE_FILTER) &&
> + attr->fail_new_callsites) {
> + static unsigned long seen_hashtable[16 * 1024];
> +

Please use DECLARE_BITMAP macro.

> + hash &= 8 * sizeof(seen_hashtable) - 1;
> + if (!test_and_set_bit(hash & (BITS_PER_LONG - 1),
> + &seen_hashtable[hash / BITS_PER_LONG]))
> + {

It is unnecessary to pass adjusted bit number and bitmap offset to
test_and_set_bit(). (i.e. test_and_set_bit(hash, seen_hashtable))

> + /*
> + * If it's the first time we see this stacktrace, fail it
> + * without a second thought.
> + */
> + goto fail;
> + }
> + }
> +
> if (attr->interval > 1) {
> attr->count++;
> if (attr->count % attr->interval)
> @@ -158,9 +187,7 @@ bool should_fail(struct fault_attr *attr, ssize_t size)
> if (attr->probability <= prandom_u32() % 100)
> return false;
>
> - if (!fail_stacktrace(attr))
> - return false;
> -
> +fail:
> return __fail(attr);
> }
> EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(should_fail);
> @@ -241,6 +268,9 @@ struct dentry *fault_create_debugfs_attr(const char *name,
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_FAULT_INJECTION_STACKTRACE_FILTER
>
> + if (!debugfs_create_bool("fail_new_callsites", mode, dir,
> + &attr->fail_new_callsites))
> + goto fail;
> if (!debugfs_create_stacktrace_depth("stacktrace-depth", mode, dir,
> &attr->stacktrace_depth))
> goto fail;
> --
> 2.10.0.479.g221bd91
>

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