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Subject[PATCH v3] pipe: limit the per-user amount of pages allocated in pipes
Date
On no-so-small systems, it is possible for a single process to cause an
OOM condition by filling large pipes with data that are never read. A
typical process filling 4000 pipes with 1 MB of data will use 4 GB of
memory. On small systems it may be tricky to set the pipe max size to
prevent this from happening.

This patch makes it possible to enforce a per-user soft limit above
which new pipes will be limited to a single page, effectively limiting
them to 4 kB each, as well as a hard limit above which no new pipes may
be created for this user. This has the effect of protecting the system
against memory abuse without hurting other users, and still allowing
pipes to work correctly though with less data at once.

The limit are controlled by two new sysctls : pipe-user-pages-soft, and
pipe-user-pages-hard. Both may be disabled by setting them to zero. The
default soft limit allows the default number of FDs per process (1024)
to create pipes of the default size (64kB), thus reaching a limit of 64MB
before starting to create only smaller pipes. With 256 processes limited
to 1024 FDs each, this results in 1024*64kB + (256*1024 - 1024) * 4kB =
1084 MB of memory allocated for a user. The hard limit is disabled by
default to avoid breaking existing applications that make intensive use
of pipes (eg: for splicing).

Reported-by: socketpair@gmail.com
Reported-by: Tetsuo Handa <penguin-kernel@I-love.SAKURA.ne.jp>
Mitigates: CVE-2013-4312 (Linux 2.0+)
Suggested-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Willy Tarreau <w@1wt.eu>
---
This one cleans up the capable() test as suggested by Tetsuo Handa,
and includes the hard-limit control as well in order to properly
protect the system against large numbers of processes, which shows
a clear improvement in tests.

Linus I think this one is ready for merging, I don't know if you want
to pick it yourself or let it flow via Al. Either way is fine to me.

v3:
- changed the test so that capable(CAP_SYS_ADMIN) is only made if
necessary
- renamed the sysctl pipe-user-pages-soft
- added a new sysctl to enforce a hard limit
v2:
- added && !capable(CAP_SYS_ADMIN)
- removed EXPORT_SYMBOL(user_max_pipe_pages)
- added reported-by + mitigates, explain better example.
---
Documentation/sysctl/fs.txt | 23 ++++++++++++++++++++++
fs/pipe.c | 47 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
include/linux/pipe_fs_i.h | 3 +++
include/linux/sched.h | 1 +
kernel/sysctl.c | 14 ++++++++++++++
5 files changed, 86 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/sysctl/fs.txt b/Documentation/sysctl/fs.txt
index 88152f2..302b5ed 100644
--- a/Documentation/sysctl/fs.txt
+++ b/Documentation/sysctl/fs.txt
@@ -32,6 +32,8 @@ Currently, these files are in /proc/sys/fs:
- nr_open
- overflowuid
- overflowgid
+- pipe-user-pages-hard
+- pipe-user-pages-soft
- protected_hardlinks
- protected_symlinks
- suid_dumpable
@@ -159,6 +161,27 @@ The default is 65534.

==============================================================

+pipe-user-pages-hard:
+
+Maximum total number of pages a non-privileged user may allocate for pipes.
+Once this limit is reached, no new pipes may be allocated until usage goes
+below the limit again. When set to 0, no limit is applied, which is the default
+setting.
+
+==============================================================
+
+pipe-user-pages-soft:
+
+Maximum total number of pages a non-privileged user may allocate for pipes
+before the pipe size gets limited to a single page. Once this limit is reached,
+new pipes will be limited to a single page in size for this user in order to
+limit total memory usage, and trying to increase them using fcntl() will be
+denied until usage goes below the limit again. The default value allows to
+allocate up to 1024 pipes at their default size. When set to 0, no limit is
+applied.
+
+==============================================================
+
protected_hardlinks:

A long-standing class of security issues is the hardlink-based
diff --git a/fs/pipe.c b/fs/pipe.c
index 42cf8dd..ab8dad3 100644
--- a/fs/pipe.c
+++ b/fs/pipe.c
@@ -38,6 +38,12 @@ unsigned int pipe_max_size = 1048576;
*/
unsigned int pipe_min_size = PAGE_SIZE;

+/* Maximum allocatable pages per user. Hard limit is unset by default, soft
+ * matches default values.
+ */
+unsigned long pipe_user_pages_hard;
+unsigned long pipe_user_pages_soft = PIPE_DEF_BUFFERS * INR_OPEN_CUR;
+
/*
* We use a start+len construction, which provides full use of the
* allocated memory.
@@ -583,20 +589,49 @@ pipe_fasync(int fd, struct file *filp, int on)
return retval;
}

+static void account_pipe_buffers(struct pipe_inode_info *pipe,
+ unsigned long old, unsigned long new)
+{
+ atomic_long_add(new - old, &pipe->user->pipe_bufs);
+}
+
+static bool too_many_pipe_buffers_soft(struct user_struct *user)
+{
+ return pipe_user_pages_soft &&
+ atomic_long_read(&user->pipe_bufs) >= pipe_user_pages_soft;
+}
+
+static bool too_many_pipe_buffers_hard(struct user_struct *user)
+{
+ return pipe_user_pages_hard &&
+ atomic_long_read(&user->pipe_bufs) >= pipe_user_pages_hard;
+}
+
struct pipe_inode_info *alloc_pipe_info(void)
{
struct pipe_inode_info *pipe;

pipe = kzalloc(sizeof(struct pipe_inode_info), GFP_KERNEL);
if (pipe) {
- pipe->bufs = kzalloc(sizeof(struct pipe_buffer) * PIPE_DEF_BUFFERS, GFP_KERNEL);
+ unsigned long pipe_bufs = PIPE_DEF_BUFFERS;
+ struct user_struct *user = get_current_user();
+
+ if (!too_many_pipe_buffers_hard(user)) {
+ if (too_many_pipe_buffers_soft(user))
+ pipe_bufs = 1;
+ pipe->bufs = kzalloc(sizeof(struct pipe_buffer) * pipe_bufs, GFP_KERNEL);
+ }
+
if (pipe->bufs) {
init_waitqueue_head(&pipe->wait);
pipe->r_counter = pipe->w_counter = 1;
- pipe->buffers = PIPE_DEF_BUFFERS;
+ pipe->buffers = pipe_bufs;
+ pipe->user = user;
+ account_pipe_buffers(pipe, 0, pipe_bufs);
mutex_init(&pipe->mutex);
return pipe;
}
+ free_uid(user);
kfree(pipe);
}

@@ -607,6 +642,8 @@ void free_pipe_info(struct pipe_inode_info *pipe)
{
int i;

+ account_pipe_buffers(pipe, pipe->buffers, 0);
+ free_uid(pipe->user);
for (i = 0; i < pipe->buffers; i++) {
struct pipe_buffer *buf = pipe->bufs + i;
if (buf->ops)
@@ -998,6 +1035,7 @@ static long pipe_set_size(struct pipe_inode_info *pipe, unsigned long nr_pages)
memcpy(bufs + head, pipe->bufs, tail * sizeof(struct pipe_buffer));
}

+ account_pipe_buffers(pipe, pipe->buffers, nr_pages);
pipe->curbuf = 0;
kfree(pipe->bufs);
pipe->bufs = bufs;
@@ -1069,6 +1107,11 @@ long pipe_fcntl(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg)
if (!capable(CAP_SYS_RESOURCE) && size > pipe_max_size) {
ret = -EPERM;
goto out;
+ } else if ((too_many_pipe_buffers_hard(pipe->user) ||
+ too_many_pipe_buffers_soft(pipe->user)) &&
+ !capable(CAP_SYS_RESOURCE) && !capable(CAP_SYS_ADMIN)) {
+ ret = -EPERM;
+ goto out;
}
ret = pipe_set_size(pipe, nr_pages);
break;
diff --git a/include/linux/pipe_fs_i.h b/include/linux/pipe_fs_i.h
index eb8b8ac..7878980 100644
--- a/include/linux/pipe_fs_i.h
+++ b/include/linux/pipe_fs_i.h
@@ -57,6 +57,7 @@ struct pipe_inode_info {
struct fasync_struct *fasync_readers;
struct fasync_struct *fasync_writers;
struct pipe_buffer *bufs;
+ struct user_struct *user;
};

/*
@@ -123,6 +124,8 @@ void pipe_unlock(struct pipe_inode_info *);
void pipe_double_lock(struct pipe_inode_info *, struct pipe_inode_info *);

extern unsigned int pipe_max_size, pipe_min_size;
+extern unsigned long pipe_user_pages_hard;
+extern unsigned long pipe_user_pages_soft;
int pipe_proc_fn(struct ctl_table *, int, void __user *, size_t *, loff_t *);


diff --git a/include/linux/sched.h b/include/linux/sched.h
index 21a6e96..1c0193b 100644
--- a/include/linux/sched.h
+++ b/include/linux/sched.h
@@ -831,6 +831,7 @@ struct user_struct {
#endif
unsigned long locked_shm; /* How many pages of mlocked shm ? */
unsigned long unix_inflight; /* How many files in flight in unix sockets */
+ atomic_long_t pipe_bufs; /* how many pages are allocated in pipe buffers */

#ifdef CONFIG_KEYS
struct key *uid_keyring; /* UID specific keyring */
diff --git a/kernel/sysctl.c b/kernel/sysctl.c
index dc6858d..2781141 100644
--- a/kernel/sysctl.c
+++ b/kernel/sysctl.c
@@ -1735,6 +1735,20 @@ static struct ctl_table fs_table[] = {
.proc_handler = &pipe_proc_fn,
.extra1 = &pipe_min_size,
},
+ {
+ .procname = "pipe-user-pages-hard",
+ .data = &pipe_user_pages_hard,
+ .maxlen = sizeof(pipe_user_pages_hard),
+ .mode = 0644,
+ .proc_handler = proc_doulongvec_minmax,
+ },
+ {
+ .procname = "pipe-user-pages-soft",
+ .data = &pipe_user_pages_soft,
+ .maxlen = sizeof(pipe_user_pages_soft),
+ .mode = 0644,
+ .proc_handler = proc_doulongvec_minmax,
+ },
{ }
};

--
1.7.12.1

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