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SubjectRe: [PATCH 0/3] TLB flush multiple pages per IPI v5

* Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill@shutemov.name> wrote:

> On Tue, Jun 09, 2015 at 08:34:35AM -0700, Dave Hansen wrote:
> > On 06/09/2015 05:43 AM, Ingo Molnar wrote:
> > > +static char tlb_flush_target[PAGE_SIZE] __aligned(4096);
> > > +static void fn_flush_tlb_one(void)
> > > +{
> > > + unsigned long addr = (unsigned long)&tlb_flush_target;
> > > +
> > > + tlb_flush_target[0]++;
> > > + __flush_tlb_one(addr);
> > > +}
> >
> > So we've got an increment of a variable in kernel memory (which is
> > almost surely in the L1), then we flush that memory location, and repeat
> > the increment.
>
> BTW, Ingo, have you disabled direct mapping of kernel memory with 2M/1G
> pages for the test?

No, the kernel was using gbpages.

> I'm just thinking if there is chance that the test shooting out 1G tlb entry. In
> this case we're measure wrong thing.

Yeah, you are right, it's slightly wrong, but still gave us the right numbers to
work with.

I've updated the benchmarks with 4K flushes as well. Changes to the previous
measurement:

- I've refined the testing methodology. (It now looks at the true distribution of
delays, not just the minimum or an average: this is especially important for
cache-cold numbers were perturbations (such as irq or SMI events) can generate
outliers in both directions.)

- Added tests to attempt to measure the TLB miss costs, I've split the INVLPG
measurements into over a dozen separate variants, which should help measure the
overall impact of TLB flushes and should help quantify the 'hidden' cost cost
associated with TLB flushes as well.

Here are the numbers:

Old 64-bit CPU (AMD) using 2MB/4K pages:

[ 8.122002] x86/bench: Running x86 benchmarks: cache- hot / cold cycles
[ 12.269003] x86/bench:######## MM methods: #######################################
[ 12.369003] x86/bench: __flush_tlb() fn : 127 / 273
[ 12.469003] x86/bench: __flush_tlb_global() fn : 589 / 1501
[ 12.568003] x86/bench: access 2M page fn : 0 / 440
[ 12.668003] x86/bench: invlpg 2M page fn : 93 / 512
[ 12.768003] x86/bench: access+invlpg 2M page fn : 107 / 512
[ 12.868003] x86/bench: invlpg+access 2M page fn : 94 / 535
[ 12.972003] x86/bench: flush+access 2M page fn : 113 / 1060
[ 13.070003] x86/bench: access 1x 4K page fn : 0 / 5
[ 13.166003] x86/bench: access 2x 4K page fn : 1 / 150
[ 13.264003] x86/bench: access 3x 4K page fn : 1 / 331
[ 13.360003] x86/bench: access 4x 4K page fn : 1 / 360
[ 13.463003] x86/bench: invlpg+access 1x 4K page fn : 95 / 247
[ 13.566003] x86/bench: invlpg+access 2x 4K page fn : 188 / 543
[ 13.668003] x86/bench: invlpg+access 3x 4K page fn : 281 / 836
[ 13.774003] x86/bench: invlpg+access 4x 4K page fn : 374 / 1165
[ 13.878003] x86/bench: flush+access 1x 4K page fn : 114 / 275
[ 13.981003] x86/bench: flush+access 2x 4K page fn : 115 / 480
[ 14.083003] x86/bench: flush+access 3x 4K page fn : 115 / 671
[ 14.183003] x86/bench: flush+access 4x 4K page fn : 116 / 670
[ 14.286003] x86/bench: flush 4K page fn : 108 / 247
[ 14.385003] x86/bench: access+invlpg 4K page fn : 94 / 287
[ 14.502003] x86/bench: __flush_tlb_range() fn : 280 / 5173

Newer 64-bit CPU (Intel) using gbpages/4K pages:

[ ] x86/bench: Running x86 benchmarks: cache- hot / cold cycles
[ ] x86/bench:######## MM methods: #######################################
[ 124.362251] x86/bench: __flush_tlb() fn : 152 / 168
[ 125.287283] x86/bench: __flush_tlb_global() fn : 936 / 1312
[ 126.227641] x86/bench: access GB page fn : 12 / 304
[ 127.152369] x86/bench: invlpg GB page fn : 280 / 584
[ 128.084376] x86/bench: access+invlpg GB page fn : 280 / 592
[ 129.018430] x86/bench: invlpg+access GB page fn : 280 / 596
[ 129.939640] x86/bench: flush+access GB page fn : 152 / 396
[ 130.849827] x86/bench: access 1x 4K page fn : 0 / 0
[ 131.796836] x86/bench: access 2x 4K page fn : 12 / 432
[ 132.738849] x86/bench: access 3x 4K page fn : 16 / 736
[ 133.661315] x86/bench: access 4x 4K page fn : 12 / 736
[ 134.575238] x86/bench: invlpg+access 1x 4K page fn : 280 / 356
[ 135.506638] x86/bench: invlpg+access 2x 4K page fn : 500 / 1152
[ 136.432645] x86/bench: invlpg+access 3x 4K page fn : 728 / 1920
[ 137.355536] x86/bench: invlpg+access 4x 4K page fn : 956 / 3084
[ 138.296174] x86/bench: flush+access 1x 4K page fn : 148 / 280
[ 139.229264] x86/bench: flush+access 2x 4K page fn : 152 / 728
[ 140.165103] x86/bench: flush+access 3x 4K page fn : 136 / 736
[ 141.088691] x86/bench: flush+access 4x 4K page fn : 152 / 820
[ 141.994946] x86/bench: flush 4K page fn : 280 / 328
[ 142.902499] x86/bench: access+invlpg 4K page fn : 280 / 352
[ 143.814408] x86/bench: __flush_tlb_range() fn : 424 / 2100

Notes:

- 'access' means an ACCESS_ONCE() load.

- 'flush' means a CR3 based full flush

- 'invlpg' means an __flush_tlb_one() INVLPG flush

- the 4K pages are vmalloc()-ed pages.

- 1x, 2x, 3x, 4x means up to 4 adjacent 4K vmalloc()-ed pages are accessed, the
first byte in each

- PGE is turned off in the CR4 for these measuremnts, to make sure the
vmalloc()-ed page(s) get flushed by the CR3 method as well.

- there's a bit of a jitter in the numbers, for example the 'flush+access 3x 4K'
number is lower - but the jitter is in the 10 cycles range max

As you can see (assuming the numbers are correct), the 'full' CR3 based flushing
is superior to any __flush_tlb_one() method:

[ 134.575238] x86/bench: invlpg+access 1x 4K page fn : 280 / 356
[ 135.506638] x86/bench: invlpg+access 2x 4K page fn : 500 / 1152
[ 136.432645] x86/bench: invlpg+access 3x 4K page fn : 728 / 1920
[ 137.355536] x86/bench: invlpg+access 4x 4K page fn : 956 / 3084

[ 138.296174] x86/bench: flush+access 1x 4K page fn : 148 / 280
[ 139.229264] x86/bench: flush+access 2x 4K page fn : 152 / 728
[ 140.165103] x86/bench: flush+access 3x 4K page fn : 136 / 736
[ 141.088691] x86/bench: flush+access 4x 4K page fn : 152 / 820

In the cache-hot case: with the CR3 based method the _full_ cost of flushing (i.e.
the cost of the flush plus the cost of the access) is roughly constant. With
INVLPG it's both higher, and increases linearly.

In the cache-cold case: the costs are increasing linearly, but it's much higher in
the INVLPG case.

So in fact I'd argue that, somewhat counter-intuitively, we should consider doing
a full flush even for single-page flushes, for example for page faults...

I'll do more measurements (and will publish the latest patches) to increase
confidence in the numbers.

Thanks,

Ingo


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