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SubjectRe: [PATCH kernel v10 33/34] vfio: powerpc/spapr: Register memory and define IOMMU v2
On 05/14/2015 07:30 AM, Alex Williamson wrote:
> On Tue, 2015-05-12 at 01:39 +1000, Alexey Kardashevskiy wrote:
>> The existing implementation accounts the whole DMA window in
>> the locked_vm counter. This is going to be worse with multiple
>> containers and huge DMA windows. Also, real-time accounting would requite
>> additional tracking of accounted pages due to the page size difference -
>> IOMMU uses 4K pages and system uses 4K or 64K pages.
>>
>> Another issue is that actual pages pinning/unpinning happens on every
>> DMA map/unmap request. This does not affect the performance much now as
>> we spend way too much time now on switching context between
>> guest/userspace/host but this will start to matter when we add in-kernel
>> DMA map/unmap acceleration.
>>
>> This introduces a new IOMMU type for SPAPR - VFIO_SPAPR_TCE_v2_IOMMU.
>> New IOMMU deprecates VFIO_IOMMU_ENABLE/VFIO_IOMMU_DISABLE and introduces
>> 2 new ioctls to register/unregister DMA memory -
>> VFIO_IOMMU_SPAPR_REGISTER_MEMORY and VFIO_IOMMU_SPAPR_UNREGISTER_MEMORY -
>> which receive user space address and size of a memory region which
>> needs to be pinned/unpinned and counted in locked_vm.
>> New IOMMU splits physical pages pinning and TCE table update
>> into 2 different operations. It requires:
>> 1) guest pages to be registered first
>> 2) consequent map/unmap requests to work only with pre-registered memory.
>> For the default single window case this means that the entire guest
>> (instead of 2GB) needs to be pinned before using VFIO.
>> When a huge DMA window is added, no additional pinning will be
>> required, otherwise it would be guest RAM + 2GB.
>>
>> The new memory registration ioctls are not supported by
>> VFIO_SPAPR_TCE_IOMMU. Dynamic DMA window and in-kernel acceleration
>> will require memory to be preregistered in order to work.
>>
>> The accounting is done per the user process.
>>
>> This advertises v2 SPAPR TCE IOMMU and restricts what the userspace
>> can do with v1 or v2 IOMMUs.
>>
>> In order to support memory pre-registration, we need a way to track
>> the use of every registered memory region and only allow unregistration
>> if a region is not in use anymore. So we need a way to tell from what
>> region the just cleared TCE was from.
>>
>> This adds a userspace view of the TCE table into iommu_table struct.
>> It contains userspace address, one per TCE entry. The table is only
>> allocated when the ownership over an IOMMU group is taken which means
>> it is only used from outside of the powernv code (such as VFIO).
>>
>> Signed-off-by: Alexey Kardashevskiy <aik@ozlabs.ru>
>> [aw: for the vfio related changes]
>> Acked-by: Alex Williamson <alex.williamson@redhat.com>
>> ---
>>
>> Alex, should I remove your "acked-by" in the cases like this and
>> get another one?
>
>
> Generally if it's more than a trivial change, you'll want fresh acks.
>
>> ---
>> Changes:
>> v10:
>> * moved it_userspace allocation to vfio_iommu_spapr_tce as it VFIO
>> specific thing
>> * squashed "powerpc/iommu: Add userspace view of TCE table" into this as
>> it is
>> a part of IOMMU v2
>> * s/tce_iommu_use_page_v2/tce_iommu_prereg_ua_to_hpa/
>> * fixed some function names to have "tce_iommu_" in the beginning rather
>> just "tce_"
>> * as mm_iommu_mapped_inc() can now fail, check for the return code
>>
>> v9:
>> * s/tce_get_hva_cached/tce_iommu_use_page_v2/
>>
>> v7:
>> * now memory is registered per mm (i.e. process)
>> * moved memory registration code to powerpc/mmu
>> * merged "vfio: powerpc/spapr: Define v2 IOMMU" into this
>> * limited new ioctls to v2 IOMMU
>> * updated doc
>> * unsupported ioclts return -ENOTTY instead of -EPERM
>>
>> v6:
>> * tce_get_hva_cached() returns hva via a pointer
>>
>> v4:
>> * updated docs
>> * s/kzmalloc/vzalloc/
>> * in tce_pin_pages()/tce_unpin_pages() removed @vaddr, @size and
>> replaced offset with index
>> * renamed vfio_iommu_type_register_memory to vfio_iommu_spapr_register_memory
>> and removed duplicating vfio_iommu_spapr_register_memory
>> ---
>> Documentation/vfio.txt | 31 ++-
>> arch/powerpc/include/asm/iommu.h | 6 +
>> drivers/vfio/vfio_iommu_spapr_tce.c | 516 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------
>> include/uapi/linux/vfio.h | 27 ++
>> 4 files changed, 494 insertions(+), 86 deletions(-)
>>
>> diff --git a/Documentation/vfio.txt b/Documentation/vfio.txt
>> index 96978ec..7dcf2b5 100644
>> --- a/Documentation/vfio.txt
>> +++ b/Documentation/vfio.txt
>> @@ -289,10 +289,12 @@ PPC64 sPAPR implementation note
>>
>> This implementation has some specifics:
>>
>> -1) Only one IOMMU group per container is supported as an IOMMU group
>> -represents the minimal entity which isolation can be guaranteed for and
>> -groups are allocated statically, one per a Partitionable Endpoint (PE)
>> +1) On older systems (POWER7 with P5IOC2/IODA1) only one IOMMU group per
>> +container is supported as an IOMMU table is allocated at the boot time,
>> +one table per a IOMMU group which is a Partitionable Endpoint (PE)
>> (PE is often a PCI domain but not always).
>> +Newer systems (POWER8 with IODA2) have improved hardware design which allows
>> +to remove this limitation and have multiple IOMMU groups per a VFIO container.
>>
>> 2) The hardware supports so called DMA windows - the PCI address range
>> within which DMA transfer is allowed, any attempt to access address space
>> @@ -427,6 +429,29 @@ The code flow from the example above should be slightly changed:
>>
>> ....
>>
>> +5) There is v2 of SPAPR TCE IOMMU. It deprecates VFIO_IOMMU_ENABLE/
>> +VFIO_IOMMU_DISABLE and implements 2 new ioctls:
>> +VFIO_IOMMU_SPAPR_REGISTER_MEMORY and VFIO_IOMMU_SPAPR_UNREGISTER_MEMORY
>> +(which are unsupported in v1 IOMMU).
>> +
>> +PPC64 paravirtualized guests generate a lot of map/unmap requests,
>> +and the handling of those includes pinning/unpinning pages and updating
>> +mm::locked_vm counter to make sure we do not exceed the rlimit.
>> +The v2 IOMMU splits accounting and pinning into separate operations:
>> +
>> +- VFIO_IOMMU_SPAPR_REGISTER_MEMORY/VFIO_IOMMU_SPAPR_UNREGISTER_MEMORY ioctls
>> +receive a user space address and size of the block to be pinned.
>> +Bisecting is not supported and VFIO_IOMMU_UNREGISTER_MEMORY is expected to
>> +be called with the exact address and size used for registering
>> +the memory block. The userspace is not expected to call these often.
>> +The ranges are stored in a linked list in a VFIO container.
>> +
>> +- VFIO_IOMMU_MAP_DMA/VFIO_IOMMU_UNMAP_DMA ioctls only update the actual
>> +IOMMU table and do not do pinning; instead these check that the userspace
>> +address is from pre-registered range.
>> +
>> +This separation helps in optimizing DMA for guests.
>> +
>> -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>>
>> [1] VFIO was originally an acronym for "Virtual Function I/O" in its
>> diff --git a/arch/powerpc/include/asm/iommu.h b/arch/powerpc/include/asm/iommu.h
>> index c8bad21..763c041 100644
>> --- a/arch/powerpc/include/asm/iommu.h
>> +++ b/arch/powerpc/include/asm/iommu.h
>> @@ -113,10 +113,16 @@ struct iommu_table {
>> unsigned long it_page_shift;/* table iommu page size */
>> #ifdef CONFIG_IOMMU_API
>> struct list_head it_group_list;/* List of iommu_table_group_link */
>> + unsigned long *it_userspace; /* userspace view of the table */
>> #endif
>> struct iommu_table_ops *it_ops;
>> };
>>
>> +#define IOMMU_TABLE_USERSPACE_ENTRY(tbl, entry) \
>> + ((tbl)->it_userspace ? \
>> + &((tbl)->it_userspace[(entry) - (tbl)->it_offset]) : \
>> + NULL)
>> +
>> /* Pure 2^n version of get_order */
>> static inline __attribute_const__
>> int get_iommu_order(unsigned long size, struct iommu_table *tbl)
>> diff --git a/drivers/vfio/vfio_iommu_spapr_tce.c b/drivers/vfio/vfio_iommu_spapr_tce.c
>> index 8943b29..e7e8db3 100644
>> --- a/drivers/vfio/vfio_iommu_spapr_tce.c
>> +++ b/drivers/vfio/vfio_iommu_spapr_tce.c
>> @@ -19,8 +19,10 @@
>> #include <linux/uaccess.h>
>> #include <linux/err.h>
>> #include <linux/vfio.h>
>> +#include <linux/vmalloc.h>
>> #include <asm/iommu.h>
>> #include <asm/tce.h>
>> +#include <asm/mmu_context.h>
>>
>> #define DRIVER_VERSION "0.1"
>> #define DRIVER_AUTHOR "aik@ozlabs.ru"
>> @@ -81,6 +83,11 @@ static void decrement_locked_vm(long npages)
>> * into DMA'ble space using the IOMMU
>> */
>>
>> +struct tce_iommu_group {
>> + struct list_head next;
>> + struct iommu_group *grp;
>> +};
>> +
>> /*
>> * The container descriptor supports only a single group per container.
>> * Required by the API as the container is not supplied with the IOMMU group
>> @@ -88,11 +95,98 @@ static void decrement_locked_vm(long npages)
>> */
>> struct tce_container {
>> struct mutex lock;
>> - struct iommu_group *grp;
>> bool enabled;
>> unsigned long locked_pages;
>> + bool v2;
>> + struct iommu_table *tables[IOMMU_TABLE_GROUP_MAX_TABLES];
>> + struct list_head group_list;
>
> You're wasting space by not packing your bools next to each other.

I'll fix it :)


>> };
>>
>> +static long tce_iommu_unregister_pages(struct tce_container *container,
>> + __u64 vaddr, __u64 size)
>> +{
>> + long ret;
>> + struct mm_iommu_table_group_mem_t *mem;
>> +
>> + if ((vaddr & ~PAGE_MASK) || (size & ~PAGE_MASK))
>> + return -EINVAL;
>> +
>> + mem = mm_iommu_get(vaddr, size >> PAGE_SHIFT);
>> + if (!mem)
>> + return -EINVAL;
>> +
>> + ret = mm_iommu_put(mem); /* undo kref_get() from mm_iommu_get() */
>> + if (!ret)
>> + ret = mm_iommu_put(mem);
>
> Should \put\ really be able to fail?

tce_iommu_unregister_pages() is called from ioctl so yes, the userspace
deserves to know that the memory will remain pinned.

> I think you really need to examine
> your reference model, mm_iommu_put() looks pretty suspicious. If
> there's an implicit reference by being mapped, it should be handled that
> way, not via an atomic that gets decremented then corrected.

One implicit reference (*) in @mapped (from atomic_set(&mem->mapped, 1)) is
only to protect against the race between checking for active mappings and
putting the reference a registered memory descriptor.

If tce_iommu_unregister_pages() is called when @mapped > 1, then EBUSY is
returned.

If tce_iommu_unregister_pages() is called when @mapped == 1 or 0, then
there is no active mapping, @mapped becomes zero (if it is not already) and
we can safely put the descriptor. All consequent mm_iommu_mapped_inc()
calls will fail to increment @mapped and return error.

After looking there more, there are 2 bugs though:

--- a/arch/powerpc/mm/mmu_context_hash64_iommu.c
+++ b/arch/powerpc/mm/mmu_context_hash64_iommu.c
@@ -178,9 +178,9 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(mm_iommu_get);

long mm_iommu_put(struct mm_iommu_table_group_mem_t *mem)
{
- if (1 != atomic_dec_if_positive(&mem->mapped)) {
+ if (atomic_dec_if_positive(&mem->mapped) > 1) {
/* There are mappings, exit */
- atomic_inc(&mem->mapped);
+ atomic_inc_not_zero(&mem->mapped);
return -EBUSY;
}

s/1!=/1</ is to allow putting second/third/... reference of mem->kref and
atomic_inc_not_zero() is to not elevate the counter if another thread
managed to release the very last mapping and decrement my implicit
reference (*).
Am I still missing something here?

> That's not only not atomic, but causes lots of fallout with references that don't
> get released.
> Notice how you don't even check the return value at the
> call location of this function?

Ouch. This is a bug. @ret needs to be returned to the userspace.

> How many references does that
> potentially leave and where do the get resolved?

Every successful "register" should be coupled with successful "unregister"
(if it failed - just repeat). If this did not happen, memory remains pinned
till the process exit, and then it is unpinned unconditionally.

--
Alexey


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