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Subject[RFC][PATCHSET v3] non-recursive pathname resolution & RCU symlinks

> There are several things in that queue; most of it is fs/namei.c
> rewrite and closer to the end we get
> * non-recursive link_path_walk()
> * the only symlink-related limitation is that there should be no
> more than 40 symlinks traversals, no matter how nested they are.
> * stack footprint independent from the nesting and about on par with
> mainline in "no symlinks" case.
> * some work towards the symlink traversal without dropping from
> RCU mode; not complete, but much better starting point than the current
> mainline.
> * IMO more readable logics around the pathname resolution in
> general, but then I'd spent the last couple of weeks messing with that code,
> so my perception might be seriously warped.

... and in addition to that - symlink traversal without dropping out of
RCU mode. For now - only the fast symlinks, but extending that to symlinks
with non-trivial ->follow_link() is pretty straightforward.

> Most of that stuff is mine, with exception of 3 commits from
> Neil's series (with some modifications). I've marked those with [N] in
> the list below.

6 patches from Neil's series now, plus one from David Howells (marked [D]).

> It really needs review and more testing; it *does* pass xfstests,
> LTP and local tests with no regressions, but at the very least it'll need
> careful profiling, as well as more eyes to read it through. The whole
> thing is based at -rc1. Individual patches are in followups; those who
> prefer to access it via git can fetch it at
> git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/viro/vfs.git link_path_walk

Same branch, rebased on -rc3. Still passes all tests with no regressions.
Balance is at about -0.2KLoC...

Please, read and comment.

Series layout is pretty much unchanged - the first 76 commits (out of 110 ;-/)
are fairly close to what had been posted in the previous series.

* assorted preliminary patches:

[1/110] 9p: don't bother with 4K allocation for 24-byte local array...
[2/110] 9p: don't bother with __getname() in ->follow_link()
[3/110][N] ovl: rearrange ovl_follow_link to it doesn't need to call ->put_link
[4/110] ext4: split inode_operations for encrypted symlinks off the rest

* getting rid of boilerplate for inline symlinks

[5/110] libfs: simple_follow_link()
[6/110] ext2: use simple_follow_link()
[7/110] befs: switch to simple_follow_link()
[8/110] ext3: switch to simple_follow_link()
[9/110] ext4: switch to simple_follow_link()
[10/110] jffs2: switch to simple_follow_link()
[11/110] shmem: switch to simple_follow_link()
[12/110] debugfs: switch to simple_follow_link()
[13/110] ufs: switch to simple_follow_link()
[14/110] ubifs: switch to simple_follow_link()
[15/110] sysv: switch to simple_follow_link()
[16/110] jfs: switch to simple_follow_link()
[17/110] freevxfs: switch to simple_follow_link()
[18/110] exofs: switch to {simple,page}_symlink_inode_operations
[19/110] ceph: switch to simple_follow_link()

* more assorted preparations:
[20/110] logfs: fix a pagecache leak for symlinks
[21/110][N] SECURITY: remove nameidata arg from inode_follow_link.
[22/110] uninline walk_component()

* getting trailing symlinks handling in do_last() into saner shape:
[23/110] namei: take O_NOFOLLOW treatment into do_last()
[24/110] do_last: kill symlink_ok
[25/110] do_last: regularize the logics around following symlinks

* getting rid of nameidata on stack during ->rmdir()/->unlink() and double
nameidata during ->rename():
[26/110] namei: get rid of lookup_hash()
[27/110] name: shift nameidata down into user_path_walk()

* single instance of nameidata across the adjacent path_mountpoint() calls:
[28/110] namei: lift nameidata into filename_mountpoint()

At that point preparations end. The next one changes the calling conventions
for ->follow_link/->put_link. We still are passing nameidata to
->follow_link(), but almost all instances do not use it anymore. Moreover,
nd->saved_names[] is gone and so's nameidata in generic_readlink().
That one has the biggest footprint outside of fs/namei.c - it's a flagday
change.

[29/110] new ->follow_link() and ->put_link() calling conventions

* some preparations for link_path_walk() massage:
[30/110] namei.c: separate the parts of follow_link() that find the link body
[31/110] namei: don't bother with ->follow_link() if ->i_link is set
[32/110] namei: introduce nameidata->link
[33/110] do_last: move path there from caller's stack frame

* link_path_walk()/follow_link() rewrite. It's done in small steps,
getting the damn thing into form that would allow to get rid of recursion:

[34/110] namei: expand nested_symlink() in its only caller
[35/110] namei: expand the call of follow_link() in link_path_walk()
[36/110] namei: move the calls of may_follow_link() into follow_link()
[37/110] namei: rename follow_link to trailing_symlink, move it down
[38/110] link_path_walk: handle get_link() returning ERR_PTR() immediately
[39/110] link_path_walk: don't bother with walk_component() after jumping link
[40/110] link_path_walk: turn inner loop into explicit goto
[41/110] link_path_walk: massage a bit more
[42/110] link_path_walk: get rid of duplication
[43/110] link_path_walk: final preparations to killing recursion

* dumb and staightforward "put all variables we needed to be separate in
each frame into an array of structs" killing of recursion. Array is still
on stack frame of link_path_walk(), we are still with the same depth limits,
etc. All of that will change shortly afterwards.
[44/110] link_path_walk: kill the recursion

* post-operation cleanup:
[45/110] link_path_walk: split "return from recursive call" path
[46/110] link_path_walk: cleanup - turn goto start; into continue;

* array moves into nameidata, with extra (0th) element used instead of
link/cookie pairs of local variables we used to have in trailing symlink
loops:
[47/110] namei: move link/cookie pairs into nameidata

* more post-op cleanup - arguments of several functions are always the
fields of the same array element or pointers to such:
[48/110] namei: trim redundant arguments of trailing_symlink()
[49/110] namei: trim redundant arguments of fs/namei.c:put_link()
[50/110] namei: trim the arguments of get_link()

* trim the array in nameidata to a couple of elements, use it until we
need more and allocate a big (41-element) array when needed. Result:
no more nesting limitations.
[51/110] namei: remove restrictions on nesting depth

* the use of array is seriously counterintuitive - for everything except
the last component we are _not_ using the first element of array; moreover,
way too many places are manipulating nd->depth. I've tried to sanitize
all of that in one patch, but after several failures I ended up splitting
the massage into smaller steps. The composition of those has ended up
fairly small, but convincing yourself that it's correct will mean reporoducing
this splitup ;-/
[52/110] link_path_walk: nd->depth massage, part 1
[53/110] link_path_walk: nd->depth massage, part 2
[54/110] link_path_walk: nd->depth massage, part 3
[55/110] link_path_walk: nd->depth massage, part 4
[56/110] trailing_symlink: nd->depth massage, part 5
[57/110] get_link: nd->depth massage, part 6
[58/110] trailing_symlink: nd->depth massage, part 7
[59/110] put_link: nd->depth massage, part 8
[60/110] link_path_walk: nd->depth massage, part 9
[61/110] link_path_walk: nd->depth massage, part 10
[62/110] link_path_walk: end of nd->depth massage
[63/110] namei: we never need more than MAXSYMLINKS entries in nd->stack

* getting more regular rules for calling terminate_walk()/put_link().
The reason for that part is (besides getting simpler logics in the end) that
with RCU-symlink series we'll really need to have terminate_walk() trigger
put_link() on everything we have on stack:

[64/110] namei: lift (open-coded) terminate_walk() in follow_dotdot_rcu() into
callers
[65/110] lift terminate_walk() into callers of walk_component()
[66/110] namei: lift (open-coded) terminate_walk() into callers of get_link()
[67/110] namei: take put_link() into {lookup,mountpoint,do}_last()
[68/110] namei: have terminate_walk() do put_link() on everything left
[69/110] link_path_walk: move the OK: inside the loop

* more put_link() work - basically, we are consolidating the "we decide
that we'd found a symlink that needs to be followed" logics. Again,
that's one of the areas RCU-symlink will need to modify:

[70/110] namei: new calling conventions for walk_component()
[71/110] namei: make should_follow_link() store the link in nd->link
[72/110] namei: move link count check and stack allocation into pick_link()

Next 4 commits are about not passing nameidata to ->follow_link() -
it's the same situation as with pt_regs and IRQ handlers and the same kind
of solution. Only 2 instances out of 26 use nameidata at all, and only
to pass it to nd_jump_link(); seeing that we already have the "begin
using this nameidata instance/end using it" pairs bracketing the areas
where thread works with given instance (we need that for sane freeing
of on-demand allocated nd->stack), the solution is obvious...

[73/110] lustre: rip the private symlink nesting limit out
[74/110][N] VFS: replace {, total_}link_count in task_struct with pointer to
nameidata
[75/110] namei: simplify the callers of follow_managed()
[76/110] don't pass nameidata to ->follow_link()

That's where the parts common with v2 end. The rest is new.
get_link() reorganization - make it handle the jump-to-root and return
the remaining part of link to follow, with "/" treated as we do treat
pure jumps (i.e. return NULL). Adjust callers (sucking a lot of duplication
into get_link()).

[77/110] namei: simplify failure exits in get_link()
[78/110] namei: simpler treatment of symlinks with nothing other that / in the body
[79/110] namei: take the treatment of absolute symlinks to get_link()

convert complete_walk() to use of unlazy_walk()/terminate_walk():
[80/110] namei: fold put_link() into the failure case of complete_walk()

the next bunch takes pushing the link on stack from get_link() to pick_link():

[81/110] namei: move bumping the refcount of link->mnt into pick_link()
[82/110] may_follow_link(): trim arguments
[83/110] namei: kill nd->link
[84/110] namei: take increment of nd->depth into pick_link()

Lifting terminate_walk() and link_path_walk() calls up, reorganization and
cleanup of top-level loops:

[85/110] namei: may_follow_link() - lift terminate_walk() on failures into caller
[86/110] namei: split off filename_lookupat() with LOOKUP_PARENT
[87/110] namei: get rid of nameidata->base
[88/110] namei: path_init() calling conventions change
[89/110] namei: lift link_path_walk() call out of trailing_symlink()
[90/110] namei: lift terminate_walk() all the way up
[91/110] link_path_walk: use explicit returns for failure exits

Preparations for RCU work: we need to stop manging nd->seq when finding
a symlink and we'll need to keep inode as well as vfsmount/dentry in
the stack:

[92/110] namei: explicitly pass seq number to unlazy_walk() when dentry != NULL
[93/110] namei: don't mangle nd->seq in lookup_fast()
[94/110] namei: store inode in nd->stack[]
[95/110][D] VFS: Handle lower layer dentry/inode in pathwalk
[96/110] namei: pick_link() callers already have inode

More prep work: RCU-safe Linux S&M interaction (that one's entirely Neil's)
[97/110][N] security/selinux: pass 'flags' arg to avc_audit() and avc_has_perm_flags()
[98/110][N] security: make inode_follow_link RCU-walk aware

minor ->put_link() API change:
[99/110] switch ->put_link() from dentry to inode
[100/110] new helper: free_page_put_link()

More prep work: put_link() and may_follow_link() made RCU-safe
[101/110] namei: make put_link() RCU-safe
[102/110] namei: make may_follow_link() safe in RCU mode

Legitimizing nd->stack[] on unlazy_walk():
[103/110] new helper: __legitimize_mnt()
[104/110] namei: store seq numbers in nd->stack[]
[105/110] namei: make unlazy_walk and terminate_walk handle nd->stack, add unlazy_link

... and payoff - shift unlazying down to get_link() and narrow it to the
"we don't have ->i_link and have to call the actual method" case:
[106/110] namei: don't unlazy until get_link()
[107/110][N] VFS/namei: make the use of touch_atime() in get_link() RCU-safe.
[108/110] enable passing fast relative symlinks without dropping out of RCU mode
[109/110] namei: handle absolute symlinks without dropping out of RCU mode

documenting the API changes so far:
[110/110] update Documentation/filesystems/ regarding the follow_link/put_link changes


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