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Subject[PATCH 20/21] nd_btt: atomic sector updates
From
Date
From: Vishal Verma <vishal.l.verma@linux.intel.com>

BTT stands for Block Translation Table, and is a way to provide power
fail sector atomicity semantics for block devices that have the ability
to perform byte granularity IO. It relies on the ->rw_bytes() capability
of provided nd namespace devices.

The BTT works as a stacked blocked device, and reserves a chunk of space
from the backing device for its accounting metadata. BLK namespaces may
mandate use of a BTT and expect the bus to initialize a BTT if not
already present. Otherwise if a BTT is desired for other namespaces (or
partitions of a namespace) a BTT may be manually configured.

Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@amacapital.net>
Cc: Boaz Harrosh <boaz@plexistor.com>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
Cc: Neil Brown <neilb@suse.de>
Cc: Jeff Moyer <jmoyer@redhat.com>
Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com>
Cc: Greg KH <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
[jmoyer: fix nmi watchdog timeout in btt_map_init]
[jmoyer: move btt initialization to module load path]
[jmoyer: fix memory leak in the btt initialization path]
[jmoyer: Don't overwrite corrupted arenas]
Signed-off-by: Vishal Verma <vishal.l.verma@linux.intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Dan Williams <dan.j.williams@intel.com>
---
Documentation/blockdev/btt.txt | 273 ++++++++
drivers/block/nd/Kconfig | 18 -
drivers/block/nd/Makefile | 2
drivers/block/nd/btt.c | 1423 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
drivers/block/nd/btt.h | 140 ++++
drivers/block/nd/btt_devs.c | 3
drivers/block/nd/core.c | 1
drivers/block/nd/nd.h | 9
drivers/block/nd/region_devs.c | 77 ++
9 files changed, 1944 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 Documentation/blockdev/btt.txt
create mode 100644 drivers/block/nd/btt.c

diff --git a/Documentation/blockdev/btt.txt b/Documentation/blockdev/btt.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..95134d5ec4a0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/blockdev/btt.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,273 @@
+BTT - Block Translation Table
+=============================
+
+
+1. Introduction
+---------------
+
+Persistent memory based storage is able to perform IO at byte (or more
+accurately, cache line) granularity. However, we often want to expose such
+storage as traditional block devices. The block drivers for persistent memory
+will do exactly this. However, they do not provide any atomicity guarantees.
+Traditional SSDs typically provide protection against torn sectors in hardware,
+using stored energy in capacitors to complete in-flight block writes, or perhaps
+in firmware. We don't have this luxury with persistent memory - if a write is in
+progress, and we experience a power failure, the block will contain a mix of old
+and new data. Applications may not be prepared to handle such a scenario.
+
+The Block Translation Table (BTT) provides atomic sector update semantics for
+persistent memory devices, so that applications that rely on sector writes not
+being torn can continue to do so. The BTT manifests itself as a stacked block
+device, and reserves a portion of the underlying storage for its metadata. At
+the heart of it, is an indirection table that re-maps all the blocks on the
+volume. It can be thought of as an extremely simple file system that only
+provides atomic sector updates.
+
+
+2. Static Layout
+----------------
+
+The underlying storage on which a BTT can be laid out is not limited in any way.
+The BTT, however, splits the available space into chunks of up to 512 GiB,
+called "Arenas".
+
+Each arena follows the same layout for its metadata, and all references in an
+arena are internal to it (with the exception of one field that points to the
+next arena). The following depicts the "On-disk" metadata layout:
+
+
+ Backing Store +-------> Arena
++---------------+ | +------------------+
+| | | | Arena info block |
+| Arena 0 +---+ | 4K |
+| 512G | +------------------+
+| | | |
++---------------+ | |
+| | | |
+| Arena 1 | | Data Blocks |
+| 512G | | |
+| | | |
++---------------+ | |
+| . | | |
+| . | | |
+| . | | |
+| | | |
+| | | |
++---------------+ +------------------+
+ | |
+ | BTT Map |
+ | |
+ | |
+ +------------------+
+ | |
+ | BTT Flog |
+ | |
+ +------------------+
+ | Info block copy |
+ | 4K |
+ +------------------+
+
+
+3. Theory of Operation
+----------------------
+
+
+a. The BTT Map
+--------------
+
+The map is a simple lookup/indirection table that maps an LBA to an internal
+block. Each map entry is 32 bits. The two most significant bits are special
+flags, and the remaining form the internal block number.
+
+Bit Description
+31 : TRIM flag - marks if the block was trimmed or discarded
+30 : ERROR flag - marks an error block. Cleared on write.
+29 - 0 : Mappings to internal 'postmap' blocks
+
+
+Some of the terminology that will be subsequently used:
+
+External LBA : LBA as made visible to upper layers.
+ABA : Arena Block Address - Block offset/number within an arena
+Premap ABA : The block offset into an arena, which was decided upon by range
+ checking the External LBA
+Postmap ABA : The block number in the "Data Blocks" area obtained after
+ indirection from the map
+nfree : The number of free blocks that are maintained at any given time.
+ This is the number of concurrent writes that can happen to the
+ arena.
+
+
+For example, after adding a BTT, we surface a disk of 1024G. We get a read for
+the external LBA at 768G. This falls into the second arena, and of the 512G
+worth of blocks that this arena contributes, this block is at 256G. Thus, the
+premap ABA is 256G. We now refer to the map, and find out the mapping for block
+'X' (256G) points to block 'Y', say '64'. Thus the postmap ABA is 64.
+
+
+b. The BTT Flog
+---------------
+
+The BTT provides sector atomicity by making every write an "allocating write",
+i.e. Every write goes to a "free" block. A running list of free blocks is
+maintained in the form of the BTT flog. 'Flog' is a combination of the words
+"free list" and "log". The flog contains 'nfree' entries, and an entry contains:
+
+lba : The premap ABA that is being written to
+old_map : The old postmap ABA - after 'this' write completes, this will be a
+ free block.
+new_map : The new postmap ABA. The map will up updated to reflect this
+ lba->postmap_aba mapping, but we log it here in case we have to
+ recover.
+seq : Sequence number to mark which of the 2 sections of this flog entry is
+ valid/newest. It cycles between 01->10->11->01 (binary) under normal
+ operation, with 00 indicating an uninitialized state.
+lba' : alternate lba entry
+old_map': alternate old postmap entry
+new_map': alternate new postmap entry
+seq' : alternate sequence number.
+
+Each of the above fields is 32-bit, making one entry 16 bytes. Flog updates are
+done such that for any entry being written, it:
+a. overwrites the 'old' section in the entry based on sequence numbers
+b. writes the new entry such that the sequence number is written last.
+
+
+c. The concept of lanes
+-----------------------
+
+While 'nfree' describes the number of concurrent IOs an arena can process
+concurrently, 'nlanes' is the number of IOs the BTT device as a whole can
+process.
+ nlanes = min(nfree, num_cpus)
+A lane number is obtained at the start of any IO, and is used for indexing into
+all the on-disk and in-memory data structures for the duration of the IO. It is
+protected by a spinlock.
+
+
+d. In-memory data structure: Read Tracking Table (RTT)
+------------------------------------------------------
+
+Consider a case where we have two threads, one doing reads and the other,
+writes. We can hit a condition where the writer thread grabs a free block to do
+a new IO, but the (slow) reader thread is still reading from it. In other words,
+the reader consulted a map entry, and started reading the corresponding block. A
+writer started writing to the same external LBA, and finished the write updating
+the map for that external LBA to point to its new postmap ABA. At this point the
+internal, postmap block that the reader is (still) reading has been inserted
+into the list of free blocks. If another write comes in for the same LBA, it can
+grab this free block, and start writing to it, causing the reader to read
+incorrect data. To prevent this, we introduce the RTT.
+
+The RTT is a simple, per arena table with 'nfree' entries. Every reader inserts
+into rtt[lane_number], the postmap ABA it is reading, and clears it after the
+read is complete. Every writer thread, after grabbing a free block, checks the
+RTT for its presence. If the postmap free block is in the RTT, it waits till the
+reader clears the RTT entry, and only then starts writing to it.
+
+
+e. In-memory data structure: map locks
+--------------------------------------
+
+Consider a case where two writer threads are writing to the same LBA. There can
+be a race in the following sequence of steps:
+
+free[lane] = map[premap_aba]
+map[premap_aba] = postmap_aba
+
+Both threads can update their respective free[lane] with the same old, freed
+postmap_aba. This has made the layout inconsistent by losing a free entry, and
+at the same time, duplicating another free entry for two lanes.
+
+To solve this, we could have a single map lock (per arena) that has to be taken
+before performing the above sequence, but we feel that could be too contentious.
+Instead we use an array of (nfree) map_locks that is indexed by
+(premap_aba modulo nfree).
+
+
+f. Reconstruction from the Flog
+-------------------------------
+
+On startup, we analyze the BTT flog to create our list of free blocks. We walk
+through all the entries, and for each lane, of the set of two possible
+'sections', we always look at the most recent one only (based on the sequence
+number). The reconstruction rules/steps are simple:
+- Read map[log_entry.lba].
+- If log_entry.new matches the map entry, then log_entry.old is free.
+- If log_entry.new does not match the map entry, then log_entry.new is free.
+ (This case can only be caused by power-fails/unsafe shutdowns)
+
+
+g. Summarizing - Read and Write flows
+-------------------------------------
+
+Read:
+
+1. Convert external LBA to arena number + pre-map ABA
+2. Get a lane (and take lane_lock)
+3. Read map to get the entry for this pre-map ABA
+4. Enter post-map ABA into RTT[lane]
+5. If TRIM flag set in map, return zeroes, and end IO (go to step 8)
+6. If ERROR flag set in map, end IO with EIO (go to step 8)
+7. Read data from this block
+8. Remove post-map ABA entry from RTT[lane]
+9. Release lane (and lane_lock)
+
+Write:
+
+1. Convert external LBA to Arena number + pre-map ABA
+2. Get a lane (and take lane_lock)
+3. Use lane to index into in-memory free list and obtain a new block, next flog
+ index, next sequence number
+4. Scan the RTT to check if free block is present, and spin/wait if it is.
+5. Write data to this free block
+6. Read map to get the existing post-map ABA entry for this pre-map ABA
+7. Write flog entry: [premap_aba / old postmap_aba / new postmap_aba / seq_num]
+8. Write new post-map ABA into map.
+9. Write old post-map entry into the free list
+10. Calculate next sequence number and write into the free list entry
+11. Release lane (and lane_lock)
+
+
+4. Error Handling
+=================
+
+An arena would be in an error state if any of the metadata is corrupted
+irrecoverably, either due to a bug or a media error. The following conditions
+indicate an error:
+- Info block checksum does not match (and recovering from the copy also fails)
+- All internal available blocks are not uniquely and entirely addressed by the
+ sum of mapped blocks and free blocks (from the BTT flog).
+- Rebuilding free list from the flog reveals missing/duplicate/impossible
+ entries
+- A map entry is out of bounds
+
+If any of these error conditions are encountered, the arena is put into a read
+only state using a flag in the info block.
+
+
+5. In-kernel usage
+==================
+
+Any block driver that supports byte granularity IO to the storage may register
+with the BTT. It will have to provide the rw_bytes interface in its
+block_device_operations struct:
+
+ int (*rw_bytes)(struct gendisk *, void *, size_t, off_t, int rw);
+
+It may register with the BTT after it adds its own gendisk, using btt_init:
+
+ struct btt *btt_init(struct gendisk *disk, unsigned long long rawsize,
+ u32 lbasize, u8 uuid[], int maxlane);
+
+note that maxlane is the maximum amount of concurrency the driver wishes to
+allow the BTT to use.
+
+The BTT 'disk' appears as a stacked block device that grabs the underlying block
+device in the O_EXCL mode.
+
+When the driver wishes to remove the backing disk, it should similarly call
+btt_fini using the same struct btt* handle that was provided to it by btt_init.
+
+ void btt_fini(struct btt *btt);
+
diff --git a/drivers/block/nd/Kconfig b/drivers/block/nd/Kconfig
index faa756841773..29d9f8e4eedb 100644
--- a/drivers/block/nd/Kconfig
+++ b/drivers/block/nd/Kconfig
@@ -90,6 +90,22 @@ config BLK_DEV_PMEM
Say Y if you want to use a NVDIMM described by NFIT

config ND_BTT_DEVS
- def_bool y
+ bool
+
+config ND_BTT
+ tristate "BTT: Block Translation Table (atomic sector updates)"
+ depends on ND_CORE
+ default ND_CORE
+ select ND_BTT_DEVS
+
+config ND_MAX_REGIONS
+ int "Maximum number of regions supported by the sub-system"
+ default 64
+ ---help---
+ A 'region' corresponds to an individual DIMM or an interleave
+ set of DIMMs. A typical maximally configured system may have
+ up to 32 DIMMs.
+
+ Leave the default of 64 if you are unsure.

endif
diff --git a/drivers/block/nd/Makefile b/drivers/block/nd/Makefile
index 3e4878e0fe1d..2dc1ab6fdef2 100644
--- a/drivers/block/nd/Makefile
+++ b/drivers/block/nd/Makefile
@@ -17,6 +17,7 @@ endif
obj-$(CONFIG_ND_CORE) += nd.o
obj-$(CONFIG_NFIT_ACPI) += nd_acpi.o
obj-$(CONFIG_BLK_DEV_PMEM) += nd_pmem.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_ND_BTT) += nd_btt.o

nd_acpi-y := acpi.o

@@ -32,3 +33,4 @@ nd-y += label.o
nd-$(CONFIG_ND_BTT_DEVS) += btt_devs.o

nd_pmem-y := pmem.o
+nd_btt-y := btt.o
diff --git a/drivers/block/nd/btt.c b/drivers/block/nd/btt.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..1075012d13c0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/drivers/block/nd/btt.c
@@ -0,0 +1,1423 @@
+/*
+ * Block Translation Table
+ * Copyright (c) 2014-2015, Intel Corporation.
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms and conditions of the GNU General Public License,
+ * version 2, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for
+ * more details.
+ */
+#include <linux/highmem.h>
+#include <linux/debugfs.h>
+#include <linux/blkdev.h>
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/device.h>
+#include <linux/mutex.h>
+#include <linux/hdreg.h>
+#include <linux/genhd.h>
+#include <linux/sizes.h>
+#include <linux/ndctl.h>
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+#include <linux/nd.h>
+#include "btt.h"
+#include "nd.h"
+
+enum log_ent_request {
+ LOG_NEW_ENT = 0,
+ LOG_OLD_ENT
+};
+
+static int btt_major;
+
+static int nd_btt_rw_bytes(struct nd_btt *nd_btt, void *buf, size_t offset,
+ size_t n, unsigned long flags)
+{
+ struct nd_io *ndio = nd_btt->ndio;
+
+ if (unlikely(nd_data_dir(flags) == WRITE)
+ && bdev_read_only(nd_btt->backing_dev))
+ return -EACCES;
+
+ return ndio->rw_bytes(ndio, buf, offset + nd_btt->offset, n, flags);
+}
+
+static int arena_rw_bytes(struct arena_info *arena, void *buf, size_t n,
+ size_t offset, unsigned long flags)
+{
+ /* yes, FIXME, 'offset' and 'n' are swapped */
+ return nd_btt_rw_bytes(arena->nd_btt, buf, offset, n, flags);
+}
+
+static int btt_info_write(struct arena_info *arena, struct btt_sb *super)
+{
+ int ret;
+
+ ret = arena_rw_bytes(arena, super, sizeof(struct btt_sb),
+ arena->info2off, WRITE);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+
+ return arena_rw_bytes(arena, super, sizeof(struct btt_sb),
+ arena->infooff, WRITE);
+}
+
+static int btt_info_read(struct arena_info *arena, struct btt_sb *super)
+{
+ WARN_ON(!super);
+ return arena_rw_bytes(arena, super, sizeof(struct btt_sb),
+ arena->infooff, READ);
+
+}
+
+/*
+ * 'raw' version of btt_map write
+ * Assumptions:
+ * mapping is in little-endian
+ * mapping contains 'E' and 'Z' flags as desired
+ */
+static int __btt_map_write(struct arena_info *arena, u32 lba, __le32 mapping)
+{
+ u64 ns_off = arena->mapoff + (lba * MAP_ENT_SIZE);
+
+ WARN_ON(lba >= arena->external_nlba);
+ return arena_rw_bytes(arena, &mapping, MAP_ENT_SIZE, ns_off, WRITE);
+}
+
+static int btt_map_write(struct arena_info *arena, u32 lba, u32 mapping,
+ u32 z_flag, u32 e_flag)
+{
+ u32 ze;
+ __le32 mapping_le;
+
+ /*
+ * This 'mapping' is supposed to be just the LBA mapping, without
+ * any flags set, so strip the flag bits.
+ */
+ mapping &= MAP_LBA_MASK;
+
+ ze = (z_flag << 1) + e_flag;
+ switch (ze) {
+ case 0:
+ /*
+ * We want to set neither of the Z or E flags, and
+ * in the actual layout, this means setting the bit
+ * positions of both to '1' to indicate a 'normal'
+ * map entry
+ */
+ mapping |= MAP_ENT_NORMAL;
+ break;
+ case 1:
+ mapping |= (1 << MAP_ERR_SHIFT);
+ break;
+ case 2:
+ mapping |= (1 << MAP_TRIM_SHIFT);
+ break;
+ default:
+ /*
+ * The case where Z and E are both sent in as '1' could be
+ * construed as a valid 'normal' case, but we decide not to,
+ * to avoid confusion
+ */
+ WARN_ONCE(1, "Invalid use of Z and E flags\n");
+ return -EIO;
+ }
+
+ mapping_le = cpu_to_le32(mapping);
+ return __btt_map_write(arena, lba, mapping_le);
+}
+
+static int btt_map_read(struct arena_info *arena, u32 lba, u32 *mapping,
+ int *trim, int *error)
+{
+ int ret;
+ __le32 in;
+ u32 raw_mapping, postmap, ze, z_flag, e_flag;
+ u64 ns_off = arena->mapoff + (lba * MAP_ENT_SIZE);
+
+ WARN_ON(lba >= arena->external_nlba);
+
+ ret = arena_rw_bytes(arena, &in, MAP_ENT_SIZE, ns_off, READ);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+
+ raw_mapping = le32_to_cpu(in);
+
+ z_flag = (raw_mapping & MAP_TRIM_MASK) >> MAP_TRIM_SHIFT;
+ e_flag = (raw_mapping & MAP_ERR_MASK) >> MAP_ERR_SHIFT;
+ ze = (z_flag << 1) + e_flag;
+ postmap = raw_mapping & MAP_LBA_MASK;
+
+ /* Reuse the {z,e}_flag variables for *trim and *error */
+ z_flag = 0;
+ e_flag = 0;
+
+ switch (ze) {
+ case 0:
+ /* Initial state. Return postmap = premap */
+ *mapping = lba;
+ break;
+ case 1:
+ *mapping = postmap;
+ e_flag = 1;
+ break;
+ case 2:
+ *mapping = postmap;
+ z_flag = 1;
+ break;
+ case 3:
+ *mapping = postmap;
+ break;
+ default:
+ return -EIO;
+ }
+
+ if (trim)
+ *trim = z_flag;
+ if (error)
+ *error = e_flag;
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static int btt_log_read_pair(struct arena_info *arena, u32 lane,
+ struct log_entry *ent)
+{
+ WARN_ON(!ent);
+ return arena_rw_bytes(arena, ent, 2 * LOG_ENT_SIZE,
+ arena->logoff + (2 * lane * LOG_ENT_SIZE), READ);
+}
+
+static struct dentry *debugfs_root;
+
+static void arena_debugfs_init(struct arena_info *a, struct dentry *parent,
+ int idx)
+{
+ char dirname[32];
+ struct dentry *d;
+
+ /* If for some reason, parent bttN was not created, exit */
+ if (!parent)
+ return;
+
+ snprintf(dirname, 32, "arena%d", idx);
+ d = debugfs_create_dir(dirname, parent);
+ if (IS_ERR_OR_NULL(d))
+ return;
+ a->debugfs_dir = d;
+
+ debugfs_create_x64("size", S_IRUGO, d, &a->size);
+ debugfs_create_x64("external_lba_start", S_IRUGO, d,
+ &a->external_lba_start);
+ debugfs_create_x32("internal_nlba", S_IRUGO, d, &a->internal_nlba);
+ debugfs_create_u32("internal_lbasize", S_IRUGO, d,
+ &a->internal_lbasize);
+ debugfs_create_x32("external_nlba", S_IRUGO, d, &a->external_nlba);
+ debugfs_create_u32("external_lbasize", S_IRUGO, d,
+ &a->external_lbasize);
+ debugfs_create_u32("nfree", S_IRUGO, d, &a->nfree);
+ debugfs_create_u16("version_major", S_IRUGO, d, &a->version_major);
+ debugfs_create_u16("version_minor", S_IRUGO, d, &a->version_minor);
+ debugfs_create_x64("nextoff", S_IRUGO, d, &a->nextoff);
+ debugfs_create_x64("infooff", S_IRUGO, d, &a->infooff);
+ debugfs_create_x64("dataoff", S_IRUGO, d, &a->dataoff);
+ debugfs_create_x64("mapoff", S_IRUGO, d, &a->mapoff);
+ debugfs_create_x64("logoff", S_IRUGO, d, &a->logoff);
+ debugfs_create_x64("info2off", S_IRUGO, d, &a->info2off);
+ debugfs_create_x32("flags", S_IRUGO, d, &a->flags);
+}
+
+static void btt_debugfs_init(struct btt *btt)
+{
+ int i = 0;
+ struct arena_info *arena;
+
+ btt->debugfs_dir = debugfs_create_dir(dev_name(&btt->nd_btt->dev),
+ debugfs_root);
+ if (IS_ERR_OR_NULL(btt->debugfs_dir))
+ return;
+
+ list_for_each_entry(arena, &btt->arena_list, list) {
+ arena_debugfs_init(arena, btt->debugfs_dir, i);
+ i++;
+ }
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function accepts two log entries, and uses the
+ * sequence number to find the 'older' entry.
+ * It also updates the sequence number in this old entry to
+ * make it the 'new' one if the mark_flag is set.
+ * Finally, it returns which of the entries was the older one.
+ *
+ * TODO The logic feels a bit kludge-y. make it better..
+ */
+static int btt_log_get_old(struct log_entry *ent)
+{
+ int old;
+
+ /*
+ * the first ever time this is seen, the entry goes into [0]
+ * the next time, the following logic works out to put this
+ * (next) entry into [1]
+ */
+ if (ent[0].seq == 0) {
+ ent[0].seq = cpu_to_le32(1);
+ return 0;
+ }
+
+ if (ent[0].seq == ent[1].seq)
+ return -EINVAL;
+ if (le32_to_cpu(ent[0].seq) + le32_to_cpu(ent[1].seq) > 5)
+ return -EINVAL;
+
+ if (le32_to_cpu(ent[0].seq) < le32_to_cpu(ent[1].seq)) {
+ if (le32_to_cpu(ent[1].seq) - le32_to_cpu(ent[0].seq) == 1)
+ old = 0;
+ else
+ old = 1;
+ } else {
+ if (le32_to_cpu(ent[0].seq) - le32_to_cpu(ent[1].seq) == 1)
+ old = 1;
+ else
+ old = 0;
+ }
+
+ return old;
+}
+
+static struct device *to_dev(struct arena_info *arena)
+{
+ return &arena->nd_btt->dev;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function copies the desired (old/new) log entry into ent if
+ * it is not NULL. It returns the sub-slot number (0 or 1)
+ * where the desired log entry was found. Negative return values
+ * indicate errors.
+ */
+static int btt_log_read(struct arena_info *arena, u32 lane,
+ struct log_entry *ent, int old_flag)
+{
+ int ret;
+ int old_ent, ret_ent;
+ struct log_entry log[2];
+
+ ret = btt_log_read_pair(arena, lane, log);
+ if (ret)
+ return -EIO;
+
+ old_ent = btt_log_get_old(log);
+ if (old_ent < 0 || old_ent > 1) {
+ dev_info(to_dev(arena),
+ "log corruption (%d): lane %d seq [%d, %d]\n",
+ old_ent, lane, log[0].seq, log[1].seq);
+ /* TODO set error state? */
+ return -EIO;
+ }
+
+ ret_ent = (old_flag ? old_ent : (1 - old_ent));
+
+ if (ent != NULL)
+ memcpy(ent, &log[ret_ent], LOG_ENT_SIZE);
+
+ return ret_ent;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function commits a log entry to media
+ * It does _not_ prepare the freelist entry for the next write
+ * btt_flog_write is the wrapper for updating the freelist elements
+ */
+static int __btt_log_write(struct arena_info *arena, u32 lane,
+ u32 sub, struct log_entry *ent)
+{
+ int ret;
+ /*
+ * Ignore the padding in log_entry for calculating log_half.
+ * The entry is 'committed' when we write the sequence number,
+ * and we want to ensure that that is the last thing written.
+ * We don't bother writing the padding as that would be extra
+ * media wear and write amplification
+ */
+ unsigned int log_half = (LOG_ENT_SIZE - 2 * sizeof(u64)) / 2;
+ u64 ns_off = arena->logoff + (((2 * lane) + sub) * LOG_ENT_SIZE);
+ void *src = ent;
+
+ /* split the 16B write into atomic, durable halves */
+ ret = arena_rw_bytes(arena, src, log_half, ns_off, WRITE);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+
+ ns_off += log_half;
+ src += log_half;
+ return arena_rw_bytes(arena, src, log_half, ns_off, WRITE);
+}
+
+static int btt_flog_write(struct arena_info *arena, u32 lane, u32 sub,
+ struct log_entry *ent)
+{
+ int ret;
+
+ ret = __btt_log_write(arena, lane, sub, ent);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+
+ /* prepare the next free entry */
+ arena->freelist[lane].sub = 1 - arena->freelist[lane].sub;
+ if (++(arena->freelist[lane].seq) == 4)
+ arena->freelist[lane].seq = 1;
+ arena->freelist[lane].block = le32_to_cpu(ent->old_map);
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function initializes the BTT map to a state with all externally
+ * exposed blocks having an identity mapping, and the TRIM flag set
+ */
+static int btt_map_init(struct arena_info *arena)
+{
+ int ret = -EINVAL;
+ void *zerobuf;
+ size_t offset = 0;
+ size_t chunk_size = SZ_2M;
+ size_t mapsize = arena->logoff - arena->mapoff;
+
+ zerobuf = kzalloc(chunk_size, GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!zerobuf)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ while (mapsize) {
+ size_t size = min(mapsize, chunk_size);
+
+ ret = arena_rw_bytes(arena, zerobuf, size,
+ arena->mapoff + offset, WRITE);
+ if (ret)
+ goto free;
+
+ offset += size;
+ mapsize -= size;
+ cond_resched();
+ }
+
+ free:
+ kfree(zerobuf);
+ return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function initializes the BTT log with 'fake' entries pointing
+ * to the initial reserved set of blocks as being free
+ */
+static int btt_log_init(struct arena_info *arena)
+{
+ int ret;
+ u32 i;
+ struct log_entry log, zerolog;
+
+ memset(&zerolog, 0, sizeof(zerolog));
+
+ for (i = 0; i < arena->nfree; i++) {
+ log.lba = cpu_to_le32(i);
+ log.old_map = cpu_to_le32(arena->external_nlba + i);
+ log.new_map = cpu_to_le32(arena->external_nlba + i);
+ log.seq = cpu_to_le32(LOG_SEQ_INIT);
+ ret = __btt_log_write(arena, i, 0, &log);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+ ret = __btt_log_write(arena, i, 1, &zerolog);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int btt_freelist_init(struct arena_info *arena)
+{
+ int old, new, ret;
+ u32 i, map_entry;
+ struct log_entry log_new, log_old;
+
+ arena->freelist = kcalloc(arena->nfree, sizeof(struct free_entry),
+ GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!arena->freelist)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < arena->nfree; i++) {
+ old = btt_log_read(arena, i, &log_old, LOG_OLD_ENT);
+ if (old < 0)
+ return old;
+
+ new = btt_log_read(arena, i, &log_new, LOG_NEW_ENT);
+ if (new < 0)
+ return new;
+
+ /* sub points to the next one to be overwritten */
+ arena->freelist[i].sub = 1 - new;
+ arena->freelist[i].seq = nd_inc_seq(le32_to_cpu(log_new.seq));
+ arena->freelist[i].block = le32_to_cpu(log_new.old_map);
+
+ /* This implies a newly created or untouched flog entry */
+ if (log_new.old_map == log_new.new_map)
+ continue;
+
+ /* Check if map recovery is needed */
+ ret = btt_map_read(arena, le32_to_cpu(log_new.lba), &map_entry,
+ NULL, NULL);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+ if ((le32_to_cpu(log_new.new_map) != map_entry) &&
+ (le32_to_cpu(log_new.old_map) == map_entry)) {
+ /*
+ * Last transaction wrote the flog, but wasn't able
+ * to complete the map write. So fix up the map.
+ */
+ ret = btt_map_write(arena, le32_to_cpu(log_new.lba),
+ le32_to_cpu(log_new.new_map), 0, 0);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+ }
+
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int btt_rtt_init(struct arena_info *arena)
+{
+ arena->rtt = kcalloc(arena->nfree, sizeof(u32), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (arena->rtt == NULL)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int btt_maplocks_init(struct arena_info *arena)
+{
+ u32 i;
+
+ arena->map_locks = kcalloc(arena->nfree, sizeof(struct aligned_lock),
+ GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!arena->map_locks)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < arena->nfree; i++)
+ spin_lock_init(&arena->map_locks[i].lock);
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static struct arena_info *alloc_arena(struct btt *btt, size_t size,
+ size_t start, size_t arena_off)
+{
+ struct arena_info *arena;
+ u64 logsize, mapsize, datasize;
+ u64 available = size;
+
+ arena = kzalloc(sizeof(struct arena_info), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!arena)
+ return NULL;
+ arena->nd_btt = btt->nd_btt;
+
+ if (!size)
+ return arena;
+
+ arena->size = size;
+ arena->external_lba_start = start;
+ arena->external_lbasize = btt->lbasize;
+ arena->internal_lbasize = roundup(arena->external_lbasize,
+ INT_LBASIZE_ALIGNMENT);
+ arena->nfree = BTT_DEFAULT_NFREE;
+ arena->version_major = 1;
+ arena->version_minor = 1;
+
+ if (available % BTT_PG_SIZE)
+ available -= (available % BTT_PG_SIZE);
+
+ /* Two pages are reserved for the super block and its copy */
+ available -= 2 * BTT_PG_SIZE;
+
+ /* The log takes a fixed amount of space based on nfree */
+ logsize = roundup(2 * arena->nfree * sizeof(struct log_entry),
+ BTT_PG_SIZE);
+ available -= logsize;
+
+ /* Calculate optimal split between map and data area */
+ arena->internal_nlba = div_u64(available - BTT_PG_SIZE,
+ arena->internal_lbasize + MAP_ENT_SIZE);
+ arena->external_nlba = arena->internal_nlba - arena->nfree;
+
+ mapsize = roundup((arena->external_nlba * MAP_ENT_SIZE), BTT_PG_SIZE);
+ datasize = available - mapsize;
+
+ /* 'Absolute' values, relative to start of storage space */
+ arena->infooff = arena_off;
+ arena->dataoff = arena->infooff + BTT_PG_SIZE;
+ arena->mapoff = arena->dataoff + datasize;
+ arena->logoff = arena->mapoff + mapsize;
+ arena->info2off = arena->logoff + logsize;
+ return arena;
+}
+
+static void free_arenas(struct btt *btt)
+{
+ struct arena_info *arena, *next;
+
+ list_for_each_entry_safe(arena, next, &btt->arena_list, list) {
+ list_del(&arena->list);
+ kfree(arena->rtt);
+ kfree(arena->map_locks);
+ kfree(arena->freelist);
+ debugfs_remove_recursive(arena->debugfs_dir);
+ kfree(arena);
+ }
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function checks if the metadata layout is valid and error free
+ */
+static int arena_is_valid(struct arena_info *arena, struct btt_sb *super,
+ u8 *uuid)
+{
+ u64 checksum;
+
+ if (memcmp(super->uuid, uuid, 16))
+ return 0;
+
+ checksum = le64_to_cpu(super->checksum);
+ super->checksum = 0;
+ if (checksum != btt_sb_checksum(super))
+ return 0;
+ super->checksum = cpu_to_le64(checksum);
+
+ /* TODO: figure out action for this */
+ if ((le32_to_cpu(super->flags) & IB_FLAG_ERROR_MASK) != 0)
+ dev_info(to_dev(arena), "Found arena with an error flag\n");
+
+ return 1;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function reads an existing valid btt superblock and
+ * populates the corresponding arena_info struct
+ */
+static void parse_arena_meta(struct arena_info *arena, struct btt_sb *super,
+ u64 arena_off)
+{
+ arena->internal_nlba = le32_to_cpu(super->internal_nlba);
+ arena->internal_lbasize = le32_to_cpu(super->internal_lbasize);
+ arena->external_nlba = le32_to_cpu(super->external_nlba);
+ arena->external_lbasize = le32_to_cpu(super->external_lbasize);
+ arena->nfree = le32_to_cpu(super->nfree);
+ arena->version_major = le16_to_cpu(super->version_major);
+ arena->version_minor = le16_to_cpu(super->version_minor);
+
+ arena->nextoff = (super->nextoff == 0) ? 0 : (arena_off +
+ le64_to_cpu(super->nextoff));
+ arena->infooff = arena_off;
+ arena->dataoff = arena_off + le64_to_cpu(super->dataoff);
+ arena->mapoff = arena_off + le64_to_cpu(super->mapoff);
+ arena->logoff = arena_off + le64_to_cpu(super->logoff);
+ arena->info2off = arena_off + le64_to_cpu(super->info2off);
+
+ arena->size = (super->nextoff > 0) ? (le64_to_cpu(super->nextoff)) :
+ (arena->info2off - arena->infooff + BTT_PG_SIZE);
+
+ arena->flags = le32_to_cpu(super->flags);
+}
+
+static int discover_arenas(struct btt *btt)
+{
+ int ret = 0;
+ struct arena_info *arena;
+ struct btt_sb *super;
+ size_t remaining = btt->rawsize;
+ u64 cur_nlba = 0;
+ size_t cur_off = 0;
+ int num_arenas = 0;
+
+ super = kzalloc(sizeof(*super), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!super)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ while (remaining) {
+ /* Alloc memory for arena */
+ arena = alloc_arena(btt, 0, 0, 0);
+ if (!arena) {
+ ret = -ENOMEM;
+ goto out_super;
+ }
+
+ arena->infooff = cur_off;
+ ret = btt_info_read(arena, super);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out;
+
+ if (!arena_is_valid(arena, super, btt->nd_btt->uuid)) {
+ if (remaining == btt->rawsize) {
+ btt->init_state = INIT_NOTFOUND;
+ dev_info(to_dev(arena), "No existing arenas\n");
+ goto out;
+ } else {
+ dev_info(to_dev(arena),
+ "Found corrupted metadata!\n");
+ ret = -ENODEV;
+ goto out;
+ }
+ }
+
+ arena->external_lba_start = cur_nlba;
+ parse_arena_meta(arena, super, cur_off);
+
+ ret = btt_freelist_init(arena);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out;
+
+ ret = btt_rtt_init(arena);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out;
+
+ ret = btt_maplocks_init(arena);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out;
+
+ list_add_tail(&arena->list, &btt->arena_list);
+
+ remaining -= arena->size;
+ cur_off += arena->size;
+ cur_nlba += arena->external_nlba;
+ num_arenas++;
+
+ if (arena->nextoff == 0)
+ break;
+ }
+ btt->num_arenas = num_arenas;
+ btt->nlba = cur_nlba;
+ btt->init_state = INIT_READY;
+
+ kfree(super);
+ return ret;
+
+ out:
+ kfree(arena);
+ free_arenas(btt);
+ out_super:
+ kfree(super);
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static int create_arenas(struct btt *btt)
+{
+ size_t remaining = btt->rawsize;
+ size_t cur_off = 0;
+
+ while (remaining) {
+ struct arena_info *arena;
+ size_t arena_size = min_t(u64, ARENA_MAX_SIZE, remaining);
+
+ remaining -= arena_size;
+ if (arena_size < ARENA_MIN_SIZE)
+ break;
+
+ arena = alloc_arena(btt, arena_size, btt->nlba, cur_off);
+ if (!arena) {
+ free_arenas(btt);
+ return -ENOMEM;
+ }
+ btt->nlba += arena->external_nlba;
+ if (remaining >= ARENA_MIN_SIZE)
+ arena->nextoff = arena->size;
+ else
+ arena->nextoff = 0;
+ cur_off += arena_size;
+ list_add_tail(&arena->list, &btt->arena_list);
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function completes arena initialization by writing
+ * all the metadata.
+ * It is only called for an uninitialized arena when a write
+ * to that arena occurs for the first time.
+ */
+static int btt_arena_write_layout(struct arena_info *arena, u8 *uuid)
+{
+ int ret;
+ struct btt_sb *super;
+
+ ret = btt_map_init(arena);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+
+ ret = btt_log_init(arena);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+
+ super = kzalloc(sizeof(struct btt_sb), GFP_NOIO);
+ if (!super)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ strncpy(super->signature, BTT_SIG, BTT_SIG_LEN);
+ memcpy(super->uuid, uuid, 16);
+ super->flags = cpu_to_le32(arena->flags);
+ super->version_major = cpu_to_le16(arena->version_major);
+ super->version_minor = cpu_to_le16(arena->version_minor);
+ super->external_lbasize = cpu_to_le32(arena->external_lbasize);
+ super->external_nlba = cpu_to_le32(arena->external_nlba);
+ super->internal_lbasize = cpu_to_le32(arena->internal_lbasize);
+ super->internal_nlba = cpu_to_le32(arena->internal_nlba);
+ super->nfree = cpu_to_le32(arena->nfree);
+ super->infosize = cpu_to_le32(sizeof(struct btt_sb));
+
+ /* TODO: make these relative to arena start. For now we get this
+ * since each file = 1 arena = 1 dimm, but will change */
+ super->nextoff = cpu_to_le64(arena->nextoff);
+ /*
+ * Subtract arena->infooff (arena start) so numbers are relative
+ * to 'this' arena
+ */
+ super->dataoff = cpu_to_le64(arena->dataoff - arena->infooff);
+ super->mapoff = cpu_to_le64(arena->mapoff - arena->infooff);
+ super->logoff = cpu_to_le64(arena->logoff - arena->infooff);
+ super->info2off = cpu_to_le64(arena->info2off - arena->infooff);
+
+ super->flags = 0;
+ super->checksum = cpu_to_le64(btt_sb_checksum(super));
+
+ ret = btt_info_write(arena, super);
+
+ kfree(super);
+ return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function completes the initialization for the BTT namespace
+ * such that it is ready to accept IOs
+ */
+static int btt_meta_init(struct btt *btt)
+{
+ int ret = 0;
+ struct arena_info *arena;
+
+ mutex_lock(&btt->init_lock);
+ list_for_each_entry(arena, &btt->arena_list, list) {
+ ret = btt_arena_write_layout(arena, btt->nd_btt->uuid);
+ if (ret)
+ goto unlock;
+
+ ret = btt_freelist_init(arena);
+ if (ret)
+ goto unlock;
+
+ ret = btt_rtt_init(arena);
+ if (ret)
+ goto unlock;
+
+ ret = btt_maplocks_init(arena);
+ if (ret)
+ goto unlock;
+ }
+
+ btt->init_state = INIT_READY;
+
+ unlock:
+ mutex_unlock(&btt->init_lock);
+ return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function calculates the arena in which the given LBA lies
+ * by doing a linear walk. This is acceptable since we expect only
+ * a few arenas. If we have backing devices that get much larger,
+ * we can construct a balanced binary tree of arenas at init time
+ * so that this range search becomes faster.
+ */
+static int lba_to_arena(struct btt *btt, sector_t sector, __u32 *premap,
+ struct arena_info **arena)
+{
+ struct arena_info *arena_list;
+ __u64 lba = div_u64(sector << SECTOR_SHIFT, btt->lbasize);
+
+ list_for_each_entry(arena_list, &btt->arena_list, list) {
+ if (lba < arena_list->external_nlba) {
+ *arena = arena_list;
+ *premap = lba;
+ return 0;
+ }
+ lba -= arena_list->external_nlba;
+ }
+
+ return -EIO;
+}
+
+/*
+ * The following (lock_map, unlock_map) are mostly just to improve
+ * readability, since they index into an array of locks
+ */
+static void lock_map(struct arena_info *arena, u32 premap)
+{
+ u32 idx = (premap * MAP_ENT_SIZE / L1_CACHE_BYTES) % arena->nfree;
+
+ spin_lock(&arena->map_locks[idx].lock);
+}
+
+static void unlock_map(struct arena_info *arena, u32 premap)
+{
+ u32 idx = (premap * MAP_ENT_SIZE / L1_CACHE_BYTES) % arena->nfree;
+
+ spin_unlock(&arena->map_locks[idx].lock);
+}
+
+static u64 to_namespace_offset(struct arena_info *arena, u64 lba)
+{
+ return arena->dataoff + ((u64)lba * arena->internal_lbasize);
+}
+
+static int btt_data_read(struct arena_info *arena, struct page *page,
+ unsigned int off, u32 lba, u32 len)
+{
+ int ret;
+ u64 nsoff = to_namespace_offset(arena, lba);
+ void *mem = kmap_atomic(page);
+
+ ret = arena_rw_bytes(arena, mem + off, len, nsoff, READ);
+ kunmap_atomic(mem);
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static int btt_data_write(struct arena_info *arena, u32 lba,
+ struct page *page, unsigned int off, u32 len)
+{
+ int ret;
+ u64 nsoff = to_namespace_offset(arena, lba);
+ void *mem = kmap_atomic(page);
+
+ ret = arena_rw_bytes(arena, mem + off, len, nsoff, WRITE);
+ kunmap_atomic(mem);
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static void zero_fill_data(struct page *page, unsigned int off, u32 len)
+{
+ void *mem = kmap_atomic(page);
+
+ memset(mem + off, 0, len);
+ kunmap_atomic(mem);
+}
+
+static int btt_read_pg(struct btt *btt, struct page *page, unsigned int off,
+ sector_t sector, unsigned int len)
+{
+ int ret = 0;
+ int t_flag, e_flag;
+ struct arena_info *arena = NULL;
+ u32 lane = 0, premap, postmap;
+
+ while (len) {
+ u32 cur_len;
+
+ lane = nd_region_acquire_lane(btt->nd_region);
+
+ ret = lba_to_arena(btt, sector, &premap, &arena);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out_lane;
+
+ cur_len = min(arena->external_lbasize, len);
+
+ ret = btt_map_read(arena, premap, &postmap, &t_flag, &e_flag);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out_lane;
+
+ /*
+ * We loop to make sure that the post map LBA didn't change
+ * from under us between writing the RTT and doing the actual
+ * read.
+ */
+ while (1) {
+ u32 new_map;
+
+ if (t_flag) {
+ zero_fill_data(page, off, cur_len);
+ goto out_lane;
+ }
+
+ if (e_flag) {
+ ret = -EIO;
+ goto out_lane;
+ }
+
+ arena->rtt[lane] = RTT_VALID | postmap;
+ /*
+ * Barrier to make sure this write is not reordered
+ * to do the verification map_read before the RTT store
+ */
+ barrier();
+
+ ret = btt_map_read(arena, premap, &new_map, &t_flag,
+ &e_flag);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out_rtt;
+
+ if (postmap == new_map)
+ break;
+
+ postmap = new_map;
+ }
+
+ ret = btt_data_read(arena, page, off, postmap, cur_len);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out_rtt;
+
+ arena->rtt[lane] = RTT_INVALID;
+ nd_region_release_lane(btt->nd_region, lane);
+
+ len -= cur_len;
+ off += cur_len;
+ sector += arena->external_lbasize >> SECTOR_SHIFT;
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+
+ out_rtt:
+ arena->rtt[lane] = RTT_INVALID;
+ out_lane:
+ nd_region_release_lane(btt->nd_region, lane);
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static int btt_write_pg(struct btt *btt, sector_t sector, struct page *page,
+ unsigned int off, unsigned int len)
+{
+ int ret = 0;
+ struct arena_info *arena = NULL;
+ u32 premap = 0, old_postmap, new_postmap, lane = 0, i;
+ struct log_entry log;
+ int sub;
+
+ while (len) {
+ u32 cur_len;
+
+ lane = nd_region_acquire_lane(btt->nd_region);
+
+ ret = lba_to_arena(btt, sector, &premap, &arena);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out_lane;
+ cur_len = min(arena->external_lbasize, len);
+
+ if ((arena->flags & IB_FLAG_ERROR_MASK) != 0) {
+ ret = -EIO;
+ goto out_lane;
+ }
+
+ new_postmap = arena->freelist[lane].block;
+
+ /* Wait if the new block is being read from */
+ for (i = 0; i < arena->nfree; i++)
+ while (arena->rtt[i] == (RTT_VALID | new_postmap))
+ cpu_relax();
+
+
+ if (new_postmap >= arena->internal_nlba) {
+ ret = -EIO;
+ goto out_lane;
+ } else
+ ret = btt_data_write(arena, new_postmap, page,
+ off, cur_len);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out_lane;
+
+ lock_map(arena, premap);
+ ret = btt_map_read(arena, premap, &old_postmap, NULL, NULL);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out_map;
+ if (old_postmap >= arena->internal_nlba) {
+ ret = -EIO;
+ goto out_map;
+ }
+
+ log.lba = cpu_to_le32(premap);
+ log.old_map = cpu_to_le32(old_postmap);
+ log.new_map = cpu_to_le32(new_postmap);
+ log.seq = cpu_to_le32(arena->freelist[lane].seq);
+ sub = arena->freelist[lane].sub;
+ ret = btt_flog_write(arena, lane, sub, &log);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out_map;
+
+ ret = btt_map_write(arena, premap, new_postmap, 0, 0);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out_map;
+
+ unlock_map(arena, premap);
+ nd_region_release_lane(btt->nd_region, lane);
+
+ len -= cur_len;
+ off += cur_len;
+ sector += arena->external_lbasize >> SECTOR_SHIFT;
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+
+ out_map:
+ unlock_map(arena, premap);
+ out_lane:
+ nd_region_release_lane(btt->nd_region, lane);
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static int btt_do_bvec(struct btt *btt, struct page *page,
+ unsigned int len, unsigned int off, int rw,
+ sector_t sector)
+{
+ int ret;
+
+ if (rw == READ) {
+ ret = btt_read_pg(btt, page, off, sector, len);
+ flush_dcache_page(page);
+ } else {
+ flush_dcache_page(page);
+ ret = btt_write_pg(btt, sector, page, off, len);
+ }
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static void btt_make_request(struct request_queue *q, struct bio *bio)
+{
+ struct block_device *bdev = bio->bi_bdev;
+ struct btt *btt = q->queuedata;
+ int rw;
+ struct bio_vec bvec;
+ sector_t sector;
+ struct bvec_iter iter;
+ int err = 0;
+
+ sector = bio->bi_iter.bi_sector;
+ if (bio_end_sector(bio) > get_capacity(bdev->bd_disk)) {
+ err = -EIO;
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ BUG_ON(bio->bi_rw & REQ_DISCARD);
+
+ rw = bio_rw(bio);
+ if (rw == READA)
+ rw = READ;
+
+ bio_for_each_segment(bvec, bio, iter) {
+ unsigned int len = bvec.bv_len;
+
+ BUG_ON(len > PAGE_SIZE);
+ /* Make sure len is in multiples of lbasize. */
+ /* XXX is this right? */
+ BUG_ON(len < btt->lbasize);
+ BUG_ON(len % btt->lbasize);
+
+ err = btt_do_bvec(btt, bvec.bv_page, len, bvec.bv_offset,
+ rw, sector);
+ if (err) {
+ dev_info(&btt->nd_btt->dev,
+ "io error in %s sector %lld, len %d,\n",
+ (rw == READ) ? "READ" : "WRITE",
+ (unsigned long long) sector, len);
+ goto out;
+ }
+ sector += len >> SECTOR_SHIFT;
+ }
+
+out:
+ bio_endio(bio, err);
+}
+
+static int btt_getgeo(struct block_device *bd, struct hd_geometry *geo)
+{
+ /* some standard values */
+ geo->heads = 1 << 6;
+ geo->sectors = 1 << 5;
+ geo->cylinders = get_capacity(bd->bd_disk) >> 11;
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static const struct block_device_operations btt_fops = {
+ .owner = THIS_MODULE,
+ /* TODO: Disable rw_page till lazy init is reworked */
+ /*.rw_page = btt_rw_page, */
+ .getgeo = btt_getgeo,
+};
+
+static int btt_blk_init(struct btt *btt)
+{
+ int ret;
+
+ /* create a new disk and request queue for btt */
+ btt->btt_queue = blk_alloc_queue(GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!btt->btt_queue)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ btt->btt_disk = alloc_disk(0);
+ if (!btt->btt_disk) {
+ ret = -ENOMEM;
+ goto out_free_queue;
+ }
+
+ sprintf(btt->btt_disk->disk_name, "%s", dev_name(&btt->nd_btt->dev));
+ btt->btt_disk->driverfs_dev = &btt->nd_btt->dev;
+ btt->btt_disk->major = btt_major;
+ btt->btt_disk->first_minor = 0;
+ btt->btt_disk->fops = &btt_fops;
+ btt->btt_disk->private_data = btt;
+ btt->btt_disk->queue = btt->btt_queue;
+ btt->btt_disk->flags = GENHD_FL_EXT_DEVT;
+
+ blk_queue_make_request(btt->btt_queue, btt_make_request);
+ blk_queue_max_hw_sectors(btt->btt_queue, 1024);
+ blk_queue_bounce_limit(btt->btt_queue, BLK_BOUNCE_ANY);
+ blk_queue_logical_block_size(btt->btt_queue, btt->lbasize);
+ btt->btt_queue->queuedata = btt;
+
+ set_capacity(btt->btt_disk, btt->nlba * btt->lbasize >> SECTOR_SHIFT);
+ add_disk(btt->btt_disk);
+
+ return 0;
+
+out_free_queue:
+ blk_cleanup_queue(btt->btt_queue);
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static void btt_blk_cleanup(struct btt *btt)
+{
+ del_gendisk(btt->btt_disk);
+ put_disk(btt->btt_disk);
+ blk_cleanup_queue(btt->btt_queue);
+}
+
+/**
+ * btt_init - initialize a block translation table for the given device
+ * @nd_btt: device with BTT geometry and backing device info
+ * @rawsize: raw size in bytes of the backing device
+ * @lbasize: lba size of the backing device
+ * @uuid: A uuid for the backing device - this is stored on media
+ * @maxlane: maximum number of parallel requests the device can handle
+ *
+ * Initialize a Block Translation Table on a backing device to provide
+ * single sector power fail atomicity.
+ *
+ * Context:
+ * Might sleep.
+ *
+ * Returns:
+ * Pointer to a new struct btt on success, NULL on failure.
+ */
+static struct btt *btt_init(struct nd_btt *nd_btt, unsigned long long rawsize,
+ u32 lbasize, u8 *uuid, struct nd_region *nd_region)
+{
+ int ret;
+ struct btt *btt;
+ struct device *dev = &nd_btt->dev;
+
+ btt = kzalloc(sizeof(struct btt), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!btt)
+ return NULL;
+
+ btt->nd_btt = nd_btt;
+ btt->rawsize = rawsize;
+ btt->lbasize = lbasize;
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&btt->arena_list);
+ mutex_init(&btt->init_lock);
+ btt->nd_region = nd_region;
+
+ ret = discover_arenas(btt);
+ if (ret) {
+ dev_err(dev, "init: error in arena_discover: %d\n", ret);
+ goto out_free;
+ }
+
+ if (btt->init_state != INIT_READY) {
+ btt->num_arenas = (rawsize / ARENA_MAX_SIZE) +
+ ((rawsize % ARENA_MAX_SIZE) ? 1 : 0);
+ dev_dbg(dev, "init: %d arenas for %llu rawsize\n",
+ btt->num_arenas, rawsize);
+
+ ret = create_arenas(btt);
+ if (ret) {
+ dev_info(dev, "init: create_arenas: %d\n", ret);
+ goto out_free;
+ }
+
+ ret = btt_meta_init(btt);
+ if (ret) {
+ dev_err(dev, "init: error in meta_init: %d\n", ret);
+ return NULL;
+ }
+ }
+
+ ret = btt_blk_init(btt);
+ if (ret) {
+ dev_err(dev, "init: error in blk_init: %d\n", ret);
+ goto out_free;
+ }
+
+ btt_debugfs_init(btt);
+
+ return btt;
+
+ out_free:
+ kfree(btt);
+ return NULL;
+}
+
+/**
+ * btt_fini - de-initialize a BTT
+ * @btt: the BTT handle that was generated by btt_init
+ *
+ * De-initialize a Block Translation Table on device removal
+ *
+ * Context:
+ * Might sleep.
+ */
+static void btt_fini(struct btt *btt)
+{
+ if (btt) {
+ btt_blk_cleanup(btt);
+ free_arenas(btt);
+ debugfs_remove_recursive(btt->debugfs_dir);
+ kfree(btt);
+ }
+}
+
+static int link_btt(struct nd_btt *nd_btt)
+{
+ struct block_device *bdev = nd_btt->backing_dev;
+ struct kobject *dir = &part_to_dev(bdev->bd_part)->kobj;
+
+ return sysfs_create_link(dir, &nd_btt->dev.kobj, "nd_btt");
+}
+
+static void unlink_btt(struct nd_btt *nd_btt)
+{
+ struct block_device *bdev = nd_btt->backing_dev;
+ struct kobject *dir;
+
+ /* if backing_dev was deleted first we may have nothing to unlink */
+ if (!nd_btt->backing_dev)
+ return;
+
+ dir = &part_to_dev(bdev->bd_part)->kobj;
+ sysfs_remove_link(dir, "nd_btt");
+}
+
+static int nd_btt_probe(struct device *dev)
+{
+ struct nd_btt *nd_btt = to_nd_btt(dev);
+ struct nd_io_claim *ndio_claim = nd_btt->ndio_claim;
+ struct nd_region *nd_region;
+ struct block_device *bdev;
+ struct btt *btt;
+ size_t rawsize;
+ int rc;
+
+ if (!ndio_claim || !nd_btt->uuid || !nd_btt->backing_dev
+ || !nd_btt->lbasize)
+ return -ENODEV;
+
+ rc = link_btt(nd_btt);
+ if (rc)
+ return rc;
+
+ bdev = nd_btt->backing_dev;
+ /* the first 4K of a device is padding */
+ nd_btt->offset = nd_partition_offset(bdev) + SZ_4K;
+ rawsize = (bdev->bd_part->nr_sects << SECTOR_SHIFT) - SZ_4K;
+ if (rawsize < ARENA_MIN_SIZE) {
+ rc = -ENXIO;
+ goto err_btt;
+ }
+ nd_btt->ndio = nd_btt->ndio_claim->parent;
+ nd_region = to_nd_region(nd_btt->ndio->dev->parent);
+ btt = btt_init(nd_btt, rawsize, nd_btt->lbasize, nd_btt->uuid,
+ nd_region);
+ if (!btt) {
+ rc = -ENOMEM;
+ goto err_btt;
+ }
+ btt->backing_dev = bdev;
+ dev_set_drvdata(dev, btt);
+
+ return 0;
+ err_btt:
+ unlink_btt(nd_btt);
+ return rc;
+}
+
+static int nd_btt_remove(struct device *dev)
+{
+ struct nd_btt *nd_btt = to_nd_btt(dev);
+ struct btt *btt = dev_get_drvdata(dev);
+
+ btt_fini(btt);
+ unlink_btt(nd_btt);
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static struct nd_device_driver nd_btt_driver = {
+ .probe = nd_btt_probe,
+ .remove = nd_btt_remove,
+ .drv = {
+ .name = "nd_btt",
+ },
+ .type = ND_DRIVER_BTT,
+};
+
+static int __init nd_btt_init(void)
+{
+ int rc;
+
+ BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(struct btt_sb) != SZ_4K);
+
+ btt_major = register_blkdev(0, "btt");
+ if (btt_major < 0)
+ return btt_major;
+
+ debugfs_root = debugfs_create_dir("btt", NULL);
+ if (IS_ERR_OR_NULL(debugfs_root)) {
+ rc = -ENXIO;
+ goto err_debugfs;
+ }
+
+ rc = nd_driver_register(&nd_btt_driver);
+ if (rc < 0)
+ goto err_driver;
+ return 0;
+
+ err_driver:
+ debugfs_remove_recursive(debugfs_root);
+ err_debugfs:
+ unregister_blkdev(btt_major, "btt");
+
+ return rc;
+}
+
+static void __exit nd_btt_exit(void)
+{
+ driver_unregister(&nd_btt_driver.drv);
+ debugfs_remove_recursive(debugfs_root);
+ unregister_blkdev(btt_major, "btt");
+}
+
+MODULE_ALIAS_ND_DEVICE(ND_DEVICE_BTT);
+MODULE_AUTHOR("Vishal Verma <vishal.l.verma@linux.intel.com>");
+MODULE_LICENSE("GPL v2");
+module_init(nd_btt_init);
+module_exit(nd_btt_exit);
diff --git a/drivers/block/nd/btt.h b/drivers/block/nd/btt.h
index e8f6d8e0ddd3..d4e67c75c91f 100644
--- a/drivers/block/nd/btt.h
+++ b/drivers/block/nd/btt.h
@@ -19,6 +19,39 @@

#define BTT_SIG_LEN 16
#define BTT_SIG "BTT_ARENA_INFO\0"
+#define MAP_ENT_SIZE 4
+#define MAP_TRIM_SHIFT 31
+#define MAP_TRIM_MASK (1 << MAP_TRIM_SHIFT)
+#define MAP_ERR_SHIFT 30
+#define MAP_ERR_MASK (1 << MAP_ERR_SHIFT)
+#define MAP_LBA_MASK (~((1 << MAP_TRIM_SHIFT) | (1 << MAP_ERR_SHIFT)))
+#define MAP_ENT_NORMAL 0xC0000000
+#define LOG_ENT_SIZE sizeof(struct log_entry)
+#define ARENA_MIN_SIZE (1UL << 24) /* 16 MB */
+#define ARENA_MAX_SIZE (1ULL << 39) /* 512 GB */
+#define RTT_VALID (1UL << 31)
+#define RTT_INVALID 0
+#define INT_LBASIZE_ALIGNMENT 256
+#define BTT_PG_SIZE 4096
+#define BTT_DEFAULT_NFREE ND_MAX_LANES
+#define LOG_SEQ_INIT 1
+
+#define IB_FLAG_ERROR 0x00000001
+#define IB_FLAG_ERROR_MASK 0x00000001
+
+enum btt_init_state {
+ INIT_UNCHECKED = 0,
+ INIT_NOTFOUND,
+ INIT_READY
+};
+
+struct log_entry {
+ __le32 lba;
+ __le32 old_map;
+ __le32 new_map;
+ __le32 seq;
+ __le64 padding[2];
+};

struct btt_sb {
u8 signature[BTT_SIG_LEN];
@@ -42,4 +75,111 @@ struct btt_sb {
__le64 checksum;
};

+struct free_entry {
+ u32 block;
+ u8 sub;
+ u8 seq;
+};
+
+struct aligned_lock {
+ union {
+ spinlock_t lock;
+ u8 cacheline_padding[L1_CACHE_BYTES];
+ };
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct arena_info - handle for an arena
+ * @size: Size in bytes this arena occupies on the raw device.
+ * This includes arena metadata.
+ * @external_lba_start: The first external LBA in this arena.
+ * @internal_nlba: Number of internal blocks available in the arena
+ * including nfree reserved blocks
+ * @internal_lbasize: Internal and external lba sizes may be different as
+ * we can round up 'odd' external lbasizes such as 520B
+ * to be aligned.
+ * @external_nlba: Number of blocks contributed by the arena to the number
+ * reported to upper layers. (internal_nlba - nfree)
+ * @external_lbasize: LBA size as exposed to upper layers.
+ * @nfree: A reserve number of 'free' blocks that is used to
+ * handle incoming writes.
+ * @version_major: Metadata layout version major.
+ * @version_minor: Metadata layout version minor.
+ * @nextoff: Offset in bytes to the start of the next arena.
+ * @infooff: Offset in bytes to the info block of this arena.
+ * @dataoff: Offset in bytes to the data area of this arena.
+ * @mapoff: Offset in bytes to the map area of this arena.
+ * @logoff: Offset in bytes to the log area of this arena.
+ * @info2off: Offset in bytes to the backup info block of this arena.
+ * @freelist: Pointer to in-memory list of free blocks
+ * @rtt: Pointer to in-memory "Read Tracking Table"
+ * @map_locks: Spinlocks protecting concurrent map writes
+ * @nd_btt: Pointer to parent nd_btt structure.
+ * @list: List head for list of arenas
+ * @debugfs_dir: Debugfs dentry
+ * @flags: Arena flags - may signify error states.
+ *
+ * arena_info is a per-arena handle. Once an arena is narrowed down for an
+ * IO, this struct is passed around for the duration of the IO.
+ */
+struct arena_info {
+ u64 size; /* Total bytes for this arena */
+ u64 external_lba_start;
+ u32 internal_nlba;
+ u32 internal_lbasize;
+ u32 external_nlba;
+ u32 external_lbasize;
+ u32 nfree;
+ u16 version_major;
+ u16 version_minor;
+ /* Byte offsets to the different on-media structures */
+ u64 nextoff;
+ u64 infooff;
+ u64 dataoff;
+ u64 mapoff;
+ u64 logoff;
+ u64 info2off;
+ /* Pointers to other in-memory structures for this arena */
+ struct free_entry *freelist;
+ u32 *rtt;
+ struct aligned_lock *map_locks;
+ struct nd_btt *nd_btt;
+ struct list_head list;
+ struct dentry *debugfs_dir;
+ /* Arena flags */
+ u32 flags;
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct btt - handle for a BTT instance
+ * @btt_disk: Pointer to the gendisk for BTT device
+ * @btt_queue: Pointer to the request queue for the BTT device
+ * @arena_list: Head of the list of arenas
+ * @debugfs_dir: Debugfs dentry
+ * @backing_dev: Backing block device for the BTT
+ * @nd_btt: Parent nd_btt struct
+ * @nlba: Number of logical blocks exposed to the upper layers
+ * after removing the amount of space needed by metadata
+ * @rawsize: Total size in bytes of the available backing device
+ * @lbasize: LBA size as requested and presented to upper layers
+ * @lanes: Per-lane spinlocks
+ * @init_lock: Mutex used for the BTT initialization
+ * @init_state: Flag describing the initialization state for the BTT
+ * @num_arenas: Number of arenas in the BTT instance
+ */
+struct btt {
+ struct gendisk *btt_disk;
+ struct request_queue *btt_queue;
+ struct list_head arena_list;
+ struct dentry *debugfs_dir;
+ struct block_device *backing_dev;
+ struct nd_btt *nd_btt;
+ u64 nlba;
+ unsigned long long rawsize;
+ u32 lbasize;
+ struct nd_region *nd_region;
+ struct mutex init_lock;
+ int init_state;
+ int num_arenas;
+};
#endif
diff --git a/drivers/block/nd/btt_devs.c b/drivers/block/nd/btt_devs.c
index 746d582910b6..6db50443cb2f 100644
--- a/drivers/block/nd/btt_devs.c
+++ b/drivers/block/nd/btt_devs.c
@@ -342,7 +342,8 @@ struct nd_btt *nd_btt_create(struct nd_bus *nd_bus)
*/
u64 btt_sb_checksum(struct btt_sb *btt_sb)
{
- u64 sum, sum_save;
+ u64 sum;
+ __le64 sum_save;

sum_save = btt_sb->checksum;
btt_sb->checksum = 0;
diff --git a/drivers/block/nd/core.c b/drivers/block/nd/core.c
index a093c6468a53..065ab9b5ec61 100644
--- a/drivers/block/nd/core.c
+++ b/drivers/block/nd/core.c
@@ -149,6 +149,7 @@ u64 nd_fletcher64(void __iomem *addr, size_t len)

return hi32 << 32 | lo32;
}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(nd_fletcher64);

static void nd_bus_release(struct device *dev)
{
diff --git a/drivers/block/nd/nd.h b/drivers/block/nd/nd.h
index b4f95ccc0252..ef77b5893628 100644
--- a/drivers/block/nd/nd.h
+++ b/drivers/block/nd/nd.h
@@ -21,6 +21,12 @@
#include "label.h"

enum {
+ /*
+ * Limits the maximum number of block apertures a dimm can
+ * support and is an input to the geometry/on-disk-format of a
+ * BTT instance
+ */
+ ND_MAX_LANES = 256,
SECTOR_SHIFT = 9,
};

@@ -109,6 +115,7 @@ struct nd_region {
u64 ndr_size;
u64 ndr_start;
int id;
+ int num_lanes;
struct nd_mapping mapping[0];
};

@@ -239,6 +246,8 @@ struct nd_btt *to_nd_btt(struct device *dev);
struct btt_sb;
u64 btt_sb_checksum(struct btt_sb *btt_sb);
struct nd_region *to_nd_region(struct device *dev);
+unsigned int nd_region_acquire_lane(struct nd_region *nd_region);
+void nd_region_release_lane(struct nd_region *nd_region, unsigned int lane);
int nd_region_to_namespace_type(struct nd_region *nd_region);
int nd_region_register_namespaces(struct nd_region *nd_region, int *err);
u64 nd_region_interleave_set_cookie(struct nd_region *nd_region);
diff --git a/drivers/block/nd/region_devs.c b/drivers/block/nd/region_devs.c
index 1b2c81e0eb0f..0aab8bb0a982 100644
--- a/drivers/block/nd/region_devs.c
+++ b/drivers/block/nd/region_devs.c
@@ -22,6 +22,72 @@

#include <asm-generic/io-64-nonatomic-lo-hi.h>

+static struct {
+ struct {
+ int count[CONFIG_ND_MAX_REGIONS];
+ spinlock_t lock[CONFIG_ND_MAX_REGIONS];
+ } lane[NR_CPUS];
+} nd_percpu_lane;
+
+static void nd_region_init_locks(void)
+{
+ int i, j;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < NR_CPUS; i++)
+ for (j = 0; j < CONFIG_ND_MAX_REGIONS; j++)
+ spin_lock_init(&nd_percpu_lane.lane[i].lock[j]);
+}
+
+/**
+ * nd_region_acquire_lane - allocate and lock a lane
+ * @nd_region: region id and number of lanes possible
+ *
+ * A lane correlates to a BLK-data-window and/or a log slot in the BTT.
+ * We optimize for the common case where there are 256 lanes, one
+ * per-cpu. For larger systems we need to lock to share lanes. For now
+ * this implementation assumes the cost of maintaining an allocator for
+ * free lanes is on the order of the lock hold time, so it implements a
+ * static lane = cpu % num_lanes mapping.
+ *
+ * In the case of a BTT instance on top of a BLK namespace a lane may be
+ * acquired recursively. We lock on the first instance.
+ *
+ * In the case of a BTT instance on top of PMEM, we only acquire a lane
+ * for the BTT metadata updates.
+ */
+unsigned int nd_region_acquire_lane(struct nd_region *nd_region)
+{
+ unsigned int cpu, lane;
+
+ cpu = get_cpu();
+
+ if (nd_region->num_lanes < NR_CPUS) {
+ unsigned int id = nd_region->id;
+
+ lane = cpu % nd_region->num_lanes;
+ if (nd_percpu_lane.lane[cpu].count[id]++ == 0)
+ spin_lock(&nd_percpu_lane.lane[lane].lock[id]);
+ } else
+ lane = cpu;
+
+ return lane;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(nd_region_acquire_lane);
+
+void nd_region_release_lane(struct nd_region *nd_region, unsigned int lane)
+{
+ if (nd_region->num_lanes < NR_CPUS) {
+ unsigned int cpu = get_cpu();
+ unsigned int id = nd_region->id;
+
+ if (--nd_percpu_lane.lane[cpu].count[id] == 0)
+ spin_unlock(&nd_percpu_lane.lane[lane].lock[id]);
+ put_cpu();
+ }
+ put_cpu();
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(nd_region_release_lane);
+
static DEFINE_IDA(region_ida);

static void nd_region_release(struct device *dev)
@@ -679,6 +745,8 @@ static void nd_blk_init(struct nd_bus *nd_bus, struct nd_region *nd_region,
}

nd_region->ndr_mappings = 1;
+ nd_region->num_lanes = min_t(unsigned short,
+ readw(&nd_mem->nfit_bdw->num_bdw), ND_MAX_LANES);
nd_mapping = &nd_region->mapping[0];
nd_mapping->nd_dimm = nd_dimm;
nd_mapping->size = readq(&nd_mem->nfit_bdw->blk_capacity);
@@ -692,6 +760,7 @@ static void nd_spa_range_init(struct nd_bus *nd_bus, struct nd_region *nd_region
struct nd_spa *nd_spa = nd_region->nd_spa;
u16 spa_index = readw(&nd_spa->nfit_spa->spa_index);

+ nd_region->num_lanes = ND_MAX_LANES;
nd_region->dev.type = type;
for (i = 0; i < nd_region->ndr_mappings; i++) {
struct nd_memdev *nd_memdev = nd_memdev_from_spa(nd_bus,
@@ -736,6 +805,12 @@ static struct nd_region *nd_region_create(struct nd_bus *nd_bus,
if (nd_region->id < 0) {
kfree(nd_region);
return NULL;
+ } else if (nd_region->id >= CONFIG_ND_MAX_REGIONS) {
+ dev_err(&nd_bus->dev, "max region limit %d reached\n",
+ CONFIG_ND_MAX_REGIONS);
+ ida_simple_remove(&region_ida, nd_region->id);
+ kfree(nd_region);
+ return NULL;
}
nd_region->nd_spa = nd_spa;
nd_region->ndr_mappings = num_mappings;
@@ -769,6 +844,8 @@ int nd_bus_register_regions(struct nd_bus *nd_bus)
struct nd_spa *nd_spa;
int rc = 0;

+ nd_region_init_locks();
+
mutex_lock(&nd_bus_list_mutex);
list_for_each_entry(nd_spa, &nd_bus->spas, list) {
int spa_type;


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