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Subject[PATCH v5 06/10] rbtree: Implement generic latch_tree
Implement a latched RB-tree in order to get unconditional RCU/lockless
lookups.

Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com>
Cc: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Cc: David Woodhouse <David.Woodhouse@intel.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Mathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@efficios.com>
Cc: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
---
include/linux/rbtree_latch.h | 212 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
1 file changed, 212 insertions(+)

--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/linux/rbtree_latch.h
@@ -0,0 +1,212 @@
+/*
+ * Latched RB-trees
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2015 Intel Corp., Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
+ *
+ * Since RB-trees have non atomic modifications they're not immediately suited
+ * for RCU/lockless queries. Even though we made RB tree lookups non-fatal for
+ * lockless lookups; we cannot guarantee they return a correct result.
+ *
+ * The simplest solution is a seqlock + rb-tree, this will allow lockless
+ * lookups; but has the constraint (inherent to the seqlock) that read sides
+ * cannot nest in write sides.
+ *
+ * If we need to allow unconditional lookups (say as required for NMI context
+ * usage) we need a more complex setup; this data structure provides this by
+ * employing the latch technique -- see @raw_write_seqcount_latch -- to
+ * implement a latched RB-tree which does allow for unconditional lookups by
+ * virtue of always having (at least) one stable copy of the tree.
+ *
+ * However, while we have the guarantee that there is at all times one stable
+ * copy, this does not guarantee an iteration will not observe modifications.
+ * What might have been a stable copy at the start of the iteration, need not
+ * remain so for the duration of the iteration.
+ *
+ * Therefore, this does require a lockless RB-tree iteration to be non-fatal;
+ * see the comment in lib/rbtree.c. Note however that we only require the first
+ * condition -- not seeing partial stores -- because the latch thing isolates
+ * us from loops. If we were to interrupt a modification the lookup would be
+ * pointed at the stable tree and complete while the modification was halted.
+ */
+
+#ifndef RB_TREE_LATCH_H
+#define RB_TREE_LATCH_H
+
+#include <linux/rbtree.h>
+#include <linux/seqlock.h>
+
+struct latch_tree_node {
+ struct rb_node node[2];
+};
+
+struct latch_tree_root {
+ seqcount_t seq;
+ struct rb_root tree[2];
+};
+
+/**
+ * latch_tree_ops - operators to define the tree order
+ * @less: used for insertion; provides the (partial) order between two elements.
+ * @comp: used for lookups; provides the order between the search key and an element.
+ *
+ * The operators are related like:
+ *
+ * comp(a->key,b) < 0 := less(a,b)
+ * comp(a->key,b) > 0 := less(b,a)
+ * comp(a->key,b) == 0 := !less(a,b) && !less(b,a)
+ *
+ * If these operators define a partial order on the elements we make no
+ * guarantee on which of the elements matching the key is found. See
+ * latch_tree_find().
+ */
+struct latch_tree_ops {
+ bool (*less)(struct latch_tree_node *a, struct latch_tree_node *b);
+ int (*comp)(void *key, struct latch_tree_node *b);
+};
+
+static __always_inline struct latch_tree_node *
+__lt_from_rb(struct rb_node *node, int idx)
+{
+ return container_of(node, struct latch_tree_node, node[idx]);
+}
+
+static __always_inline void
+__lt_insert(struct latch_tree_node *ltn, struct latch_tree_root *ltr, int idx,
+ bool (*less)(struct latch_tree_node *a, struct latch_tree_node *b))
+{
+ struct rb_root *root = &ltr->tree[idx];
+ struct rb_node **link = &root->rb_node;
+ struct rb_node *node = &ltn->node[idx];
+ struct rb_node *parent = NULL;
+ struct latch_tree_node *ltp;
+
+ while (*link) {
+ parent = *link;
+ ltp = __lt_from_rb(parent, idx);
+
+ if (less(ltn, ltp))
+ link = &parent->rb_left;
+ else
+ link = &parent->rb_right;
+ }
+
+ rb_link_node_rcu(node, parent, link);
+ rb_insert_color(node, root);
+}
+
+static __always_inline void
+__lt_erase(struct latch_tree_node *ltn, struct latch_tree_root *ltr, int idx)
+{
+ rb_erase(&ltn->node[idx], &ltr->tree[idx]);
+}
+
+static __always_inline struct latch_tree_node *
+__lt_find(void *key, struct latch_tree_root *ltr, int idx,
+ int (*comp)(void *key, struct latch_tree_node *node))
+{
+ struct rb_node *node = rcu_dereference_raw(ltr->tree[idx].rb_node);
+ struct latch_tree_node *ltn;
+ int c;
+
+ while (node) {
+ ltn = __lt_from_rb(node, idx);
+ c = comp(key, ltn);
+
+ if (c < 0)
+ node = rcu_dereference_raw(node->rb_left);
+ else if (c > 0)
+ node = rcu_dereference_raw(node->rb_right);
+ else
+ return ltn;
+ }
+
+ return NULL;
+}
+
+/**
+ * latch_tree_insert() - insert @node into the trees @root
+ * @node: nodes to insert
+ * @root: trees to insert @node into
+ * @ops: operators defining the node order
+ *
+ * It inserts @node into @root in an ordered fashion such that we can always
+ * observe one complete tree. See the comment for raw_write_seqcount_latch().
+ *
+ * The inserts use rcu_assign_pointer() to publish the element such that the
+ * tree structure is stored before we can observe the new @node.
+ *
+ * All modifications (latch_tree_insert, latch_tree_remove) are assumed to be
+ * serialized.
+ */
+static __always_inline void
+latch_tree_insert(struct latch_tree_node *node,
+ struct latch_tree_root *root,
+ const struct latch_tree_ops *ops)
+{
+ raw_write_seqcount_latch(&root->seq);
+ __lt_insert(node, root, 0, ops->less);
+ raw_write_seqcount_latch(&root->seq);
+ __lt_insert(node, root, 1, ops->less);
+}
+
+/**
+ * latch_tree_erase() - removes @node from the trees @root
+ * @node: nodes to remote
+ * @root: trees to remove @node from
+ * @ops: operators defining the node order
+ *
+ * Removes @node from the trees @root in an ordered fashion such that we can
+ * always observe one complete tree. See the comment for
+ * raw_write_seqcount_latch().
+ *
+ * It is assumed that @node will observe one RCU quiescent state before being
+ * reused of freed.
+ *
+ * All modifications (latch_tree_insert, latch_tree_remove) are assumed to be
+ * serialized.
+ */
+static __always_inline void
+latch_tree_erase(struct latch_tree_node *node,
+ struct latch_tree_root *root,
+ const struct latch_tree_ops *ops)
+{
+ raw_write_seqcount_latch(&root->seq);
+ __lt_erase(node, root, 0);
+ raw_write_seqcount_latch(&root->seq);
+ __lt_erase(node, root, 1);
+}
+
+/**
+ * latch_tree_find() - find the node matching @key in the trees @root
+ * @key: search key
+ * @root: trees to search for @key
+ * @ops: operators defining the node order
+ *
+ * Does a lockless lookup in the trees @root for the node matching @key.
+ *
+ * It is assumed that this is called while holding the appropriate RCU read
+ * side lock.
+ *
+ * If the operators define a partial order on the elements (there are multiple
+ * elements which have the same key value) it is undefined which of these
+ * elements will be found. Nor is it possible to iterate the tree to find
+ * further elements with the same key value.
+ *
+ * Returns: a pointer to the node matching @key or NULL.
+ */
+static __always_inline struct latch_tree_node *
+latch_tree_find(void *key, struct latch_tree_root *root,
+ const struct latch_tree_ops *ops)
+{
+ struct latch_tree_node *node;
+ unsigned int seq;
+
+ do {
+ seq = raw_read_seqcount(&root->seq);
+ node = __lt_find(key, root, seq & 1, ops->comp);
+ } while (read_seqcount_retry(&root->seq, seq));
+
+ return node;
+}
+
+#endif /* RB_TREE_LATCH_H */



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