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Subject[PATCH v5 05/10] seqlock: Better document raw_write_seqcount_latch()
Improve the documentation of the latch technique as used in the
current timekeeping code, such that it can be readily employed
elsewhere.

Borrow from the comments in timekeeping and replace those with a
reference to this more generic comment.

Cc: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Cc: David Woodhouse <David.Woodhouse@intel.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Mathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@efficios.com>
Acked-by: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
---
include/linux/seqlock.h | 76 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
kernel/time/timekeeping.c | 27 ----------------
2 files changed, 76 insertions(+), 27 deletions(-)

--- a/include/linux/seqlock.h
+++ b/include/linux/seqlock.h
@@ -233,9 +233,83 @@ static inline void raw_write_seqcount_en
s->sequence++;
}

-/*
+/**
* raw_write_seqcount_latch - redirect readers to even/odd copy
* @s: pointer to seqcount_t
+ *
+ * The latch technique is a multiversion concurrency control method that allows
+ * queries during non atomic modifications. If you can guarantee queries never
+ * interrupt the modification -- e.g. the concurrency is strictly between CPUs
+ * -- you most likely do not need this.
+ *
+ * Where the traditional RCU/lockless data structures rely on atomic
+ * modifications to ensure queries observe either the old or the new state the
+ * latch allows the same for non atomic updates. The trade-off is doubling the
+ * cost of storage; we have to maintain two copies of the entire data
+ * structure.
+ *
+ * Very simply put: we first modify one copy and then the other. This ensures
+ * there is always one copy in a stable state, ready to give us an answer.
+ *
+ * The basic form is a data structure like:
+ *
+ * struct latch_struct {
+ * seqcount_t seq;
+ * struct data_struct data[2];
+ * };
+ *
+ * Where a modification, which is assumed to be externally serialized, does the
+ * following:
+ *
+ * void latch_modify(struct latch_struct *latch, ...)
+ * {
+ * smp_wmb(); <- Ensure that the last data[1] update is visible
+ * latch->seq++;
+ * smp_wmb(); <- Ensure that the seqcount update is visible
+ *
+ * modify(latch->data[0], ...);
+ *
+ * smp_wmb(); <- Ensure that the data[0] update is visible
+ * latch->seq++;
+ * smp_wmb(); <- Ensure that the seqcount update is visible
+ *
+ * modify(latch->data[1], ...);
+ * }
+ *
+ * The query will have a form like:
+ *
+ * struct entry *latch_query(struct latch_struct *latch, ...)
+ * {
+ * struct entry *entry;
+ * unsigned seq, idx;
+ *
+ * do {
+ * seq = latch->seq;
+ * smp_rmb();
+ *
+ * idx = seq & 0x01;
+ * entry = data_query(latch->data[idx], ...);
+ *
+ * smp_rmb();
+ * } while (seq != latch->seq);
+ *
+ * return entry;
+ * }
+ *
+ * So during the modification, queries are first redirected to data[1]. Then we
+ * modify data[0]. When that is complete, we redirect queries back to data[0]
+ * and we can modify data[1].
+ *
+ * NOTE: The non-requirement for atomic modifications does _NOT_ include
+ * the publishing of new entries in the case where data is a dynamic
+ * data structure.
+ *
+ * An iteration might start in data[0] and get suspended long enough
+ * to miss an entire modification sequence, once it resumes it might
+ * observe the new entry.
+ *
+ * NOTE: When data is a dynamic data structure; one should use regular RCU
+ * patterns to manage the lifetimes of the objects within.
*/
static inline void raw_write_seqcount_latch(seqcount_t *s)
{
--- a/kernel/time/timekeeping.c
+++ b/kernel/time/timekeeping.c
@@ -339,32 +339,7 @@ static inline s64 timekeeping_get_ns_raw
* We want to use this from any context including NMI and tracing /
* instrumenting the timekeeping code itself.
*
- * So we handle this differently than the other timekeeping accessor
- * functions which retry when the sequence count has changed. The
- * update side does:
- *
- * smp_wmb(); <- Ensure that the last base[1] update is visible
- * tkf->seq++;
- * smp_wmb(); <- Ensure that the seqcount update is visible
- * update(tkf->base[0], tkr);
- * smp_wmb(); <- Ensure that the base[0] update is visible
- * tkf->seq++;
- * smp_wmb(); <- Ensure that the seqcount update is visible
- * update(tkf->base[1], tkr);
- *
- * The reader side does:
- *
- * do {
- * seq = tkf->seq;
- * smp_rmb();
- * idx = seq & 0x01;
- * now = now(tkf->base[idx]);
- * smp_rmb();
- * } while (seq != tkf->seq)
- *
- * As long as we update base[0] readers are forced off to
- * base[1]. Once base[0] is updated readers are redirected to base[0]
- * and the base[1] update takes place.
+ * Employ the latch technique; see @raw_write_seqcount_latch.
*
* So if a NMI hits the update of base[0] then it will use base[1]
* which is still consistent. In the worst case this can result is a



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