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Subject[PATCH v9 tip 6/9] samples: bpf: simple non-portable kprobe filter example
Date
tracex1_kern.c - C program compiled into BPF.
It attaches to kprobe:netif_receive_skb
When skb->dev->name == "lo", it prints sample debug message into trace_pipe
via bpf_trace_printk() helper function.

tracex1_user.c - corresponding user space component that:
- loads bpf program via bpf() syscall
- opens kprobes:netif_receive_skb event via perf_event_open() syscall
- attaches the program to event via ioctl(event_fd, PERF_EVENT_IOC_SET_BPF, prog_fd);
- prints from trace_pipe

Note, this bpf program is completely non-portable. It must be recompiled
with current kernel headers. kprobe is not a stable ABI and bpf+kprobe scripts
may stop working any time.

bpf verifier will detect that it's using bpf_trace_printk() and kernel will
print warning banner:
** trace_printk() being used. Allocating extra memory. **
** **
** This means that this is a DEBUG kernel and it is **
** unsafe for production use. **

bpf_trace_printk() should be used for debugging of bpf program only.

Usage:
$ sudo tracex1
ping-19826 [000] d.s2 63103.382648: : skb ffff880466b1ca00 len 84
ping-19826 [000] d.s2 63103.382684: : skb ffff880466b1d300 len 84

ping-19826 [000] d.s2 63104.382533: : skb ffff880466b1ca00 len 84
ping-19826 [000] d.s2 63104.382594: : skb ffff880466b1d300 len 84

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@plumgrid.com>
---
samples/bpf/Makefile | 4 ++
samples/bpf/bpf_helpers.h | 6 +++
samples/bpf/bpf_load.c | 125 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---
samples/bpf/bpf_load.h | 3 ++
samples/bpf/libbpf.c | 14 ++++-
samples/bpf/libbpf.h | 5 +-
samples/bpf/sock_example.c | 2 +-
samples/bpf/test_verifier.c | 2 +-
samples/bpf/tracex1_kern.c | 50 +++++++++++++++++
samples/bpf/tracex1_user.c | 25 +++++++++
10 files changed, 224 insertions(+), 12 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 samples/bpf/tracex1_kern.c
create mode 100644 samples/bpf/tracex1_user.c

diff --git a/samples/bpf/Makefile b/samples/bpf/Makefile
index b5b3600dcdf5..51f6f01e5a3a 100644
--- a/samples/bpf/Makefile
+++ b/samples/bpf/Makefile
@@ -6,23 +6,27 @@ hostprogs-y := test_verifier test_maps
hostprogs-y += sock_example
hostprogs-y += sockex1
hostprogs-y += sockex2
+hostprogs-y += tracex1

test_verifier-objs := test_verifier.o libbpf.o
test_maps-objs := test_maps.o libbpf.o
sock_example-objs := sock_example.o libbpf.o
sockex1-objs := bpf_load.o libbpf.o sockex1_user.o
sockex2-objs := bpf_load.o libbpf.o sockex2_user.o
+tracex1-objs := bpf_load.o libbpf.o tracex1_user.o

# Tell kbuild to always build the programs
always := $(hostprogs-y)
always += sockex1_kern.o
always += sockex2_kern.o
+always += tracex1_kern.o

HOSTCFLAGS += -I$(objtree)/usr/include

HOSTCFLAGS_bpf_load.o += -I$(objtree)/usr/include -Wno-unused-variable
HOSTLOADLIBES_sockex1 += -lelf
HOSTLOADLIBES_sockex2 += -lelf
+HOSTLOADLIBES_tracex1 += -lelf

# point this to your LLVM backend with bpf support
LLC=$(srctree)/tools/bpf/llvm/bld/Debug+Asserts/bin/llc
diff --git a/samples/bpf/bpf_helpers.h b/samples/bpf/bpf_helpers.h
index ca0333146006..1c872bcf5a80 100644
--- a/samples/bpf/bpf_helpers.h
+++ b/samples/bpf/bpf_helpers.h
@@ -15,6 +15,12 @@ static int (*bpf_map_update_elem)(void *map, void *key, void *value,
(void *) BPF_FUNC_map_update_elem;
static int (*bpf_map_delete_elem)(void *map, void *key) =
(void *) BPF_FUNC_map_delete_elem;
+static int (*bpf_probe_read)(void *dst, int size, void *unsafe_ptr) =
+ (void *) BPF_FUNC_probe_read;
+static unsigned long long (*bpf_ktime_get_ns)(void) =
+ (void *) BPF_FUNC_ktime_get_ns;
+static int (*bpf_trace_printk)(const char *fmt, int fmt_size, ...) =
+ (void *) BPF_FUNC_trace_printk;

/* llvm builtin functions that eBPF C program may use to
* emit BPF_LD_ABS and BPF_LD_IND instructions
diff --git a/samples/bpf/bpf_load.c b/samples/bpf/bpf_load.c
index 1831d236382b..95c106e4bcdb 100644
--- a/samples/bpf/bpf_load.c
+++ b/samples/bpf/bpf_load.c
@@ -8,29 +8,70 @@
#include <unistd.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
#include <linux/bpf.h>
#include <linux/filter.h>
+#include <linux/perf_event.h>
+#include <sys/syscall.h>
+#include <sys/ioctl.h>
+#include <sys/mman.h>
+#include <poll.h>
#include "libbpf.h"
#include "bpf_helpers.h"
#include "bpf_load.h"

+#define DEBUGFS "/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/"
+
static char license[128];
+static int kern_version;
static bool processed_sec[128];
int map_fd[MAX_MAPS];
int prog_fd[MAX_PROGS];
+int event_fd[MAX_PROGS];
int prog_cnt;

static int load_and_attach(const char *event, struct bpf_insn *prog, int size)
{
- int fd;
bool is_socket = strncmp(event, "socket", 6) == 0;
-
- if (!is_socket)
- /* tracing events tbd */
+ bool is_kprobe = strncmp(event, "kprobe/", 7) == 0;
+ bool is_kretprobe = strncmp(event, "kretprobe/", 10) == 0;
+ enum bpf_prog_type prog_type;
+ char buf[256];
+ int fd, efd, err, id;
+ struct perf_event_attr attr = {};
+
+ attr.type = PERF_TYPE_TRACEPOINT;
+ attr.sample_type = PERF_SAMPLE_RAW;
+ attr.sample_period = 1;
+ attr.wakeup_events = 1;
+
+ if (is_socket) {
+ prog_type = BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCKET_FILTER;
+ } else if (is_kprobe || is_kretprobe) {
+ prog_type = BPF_PROG_TYPE_KPROBE;
+ } else {
+ printf("Unknown event '%s'\n", event);
return -1;
+ }
+
+ if (is_kprobe || is_kretprobe) {
+ if (is_kprobe)
+ event += 7;
+ else
+ event += 10;
+
+ snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf),
+ "echo '%c:%s %s' >> /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/kprobe_events",
+ is_kprobe ? 'p' : 'r', event, event);
+ err = system(buf);
+ if (err < 0) {
+ printf("failed to create kprobe '%s' error '%s'\n",
+ event, strerror(errno));
+ return -1;
+ }
+ }

- fd = bpf_prog_load(BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCKET_FILTER,
- prog, size, license);
+ fd = bpf_prog_load(prog_type, prog, size, license, kern_version);

if (fd < 0) {
printf("bpf_prog_load() err=%d\n%s", errno, bpf_log_buf);
@@ -39,6 +80,41 @@ static int load_and_attach(const char *event, struct bpf_insn *prog, int size)

prog_fd[prog_cnt++] = fd;

+ if (is_socket)
+ return 0;
+
+ strcpy(buf, DEBUGFS);
+ strcat(buf, "events/kprobes/");
+ strcat(buf, event);
+ strcat(buf, "/id");
+
+ efd = open(buf, O_RDONLY, 0);
+ if (efd < 0) {
+ printf("failed to open event %s\n", event);
+ return -1;
+ }
+
+ err = read(efd, buf, sizeof(buf));
+ if (err < 0 || err >= sizeof(buf)) {
+ printf("read from '%s' failed '%s'\n", event, strerror(errno));
+ return -1;
+ }
+
+ close(efd);
+
+ buf[err] = 0;
+ id = atoi(buf);
+ attr.config = id;
+
+ efd = perf_event_open(&attr, -1/*pid*/, 0/*cpu*/, -1/*group_fd*/, 0);
+ if (efd < 0) {
+ printf("event %d fd %d err %s\n", id, efd, strerror(errno));
+ return -1;
+ }
+ event_fd[prog_cnt - 1] = efd;
+ ioctl(efd, PERF_EVENT_IOC_ENABLE, 0);
+ ioctl(efd, PERF_EVENT_IOC_SET_BPF, fd);
+
return 0;
}

@@ -135,6 +211,9 @@ int load_bpf_file(char *path)
if (gelf_getehdr(elf, &ehdr) != &ehdr)
return 1;

+ /* clear all kprobes */
+ i = system("echo \"\" > /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/kprobe_events");
+
/* scan over all elf sections to get license and map info */
for (i = 1; i < ehdr.e_shnum; i++) {

@@ -149,6 +228,14 @@ int load_bpf_file(char *path)
if (strcmp(shname, "license") == 0) {
processed_sec[i] = true;
memcpy(license, data->d_buf, data->d_size);
+ } else if (strcmp(shname, "version") == 0) {
+ processed_sec[i] = true;
+ if (data->d_size != sizeof(int)) {
+ printf("invalid size of version section %zd\n",
+ data->d_size);
+ return 1;
+ }
+ memcpy(&kern_version, data->d_buf, sizeof(int));
} else if (strcmp(shname, "maps") == 0) {
processed_sec[i] = true;
if (load_maps(data->d_buf, data->d_size))
@@ -178,7 +265,8 @@ int load_bpf_file(char *path)
if (parse_relo_and_apply(data, symbols, &shdr, insns))
continue;

- if (memcmp(shname_prog, "events/", 7) == 0 ||
+ if (memcmp(shname_prog, "kprobe/", 7) == 0 ||
+ memcmp(shname_prog, "kretprobe/", 10) == 0 ||
memcmp(shname_prog, "socket", 6) == 0)
load_and_attach(shname_prog, insns, data_prog->d_size);
}
@@ -193,7 +281,8 @@ int load_bpf_file(char *path)
if (get_sec(elf, i, &ehdr, &shname, &shdr, &data))
continue;

- if (memcmp(shname, "events/", 7) == 0 ||
+ if (memcmp(shname, "kprobe/", 7) == 0 ||
+ memcmp(shname, "kretprobe/", 10) == 0 ||
memcmp(shname, "socket", 6) == 0)
load_and_attach(shname, data->d_buf, data->d_size);
}
@@ -201,3 +290,23 @@ int load_bpf_file(char *path)
close(fd);
return 0;
}
+
+void read_trace_pipe(void)
+{
+ int trace_fd;
+
+ trace_fd = open(DEBUGFS "trace_pipe", O_RDONLY, 0);
+ if (trace_fd < 0)
+ return;
+
+ while (1) {
+ static char buf[4096];
+ ssize_t sz;
+
+ sz = read(trace_fd, buf, sizeof(buf));
+ if (sz) {
+ buf[sz] = 0;
+ puts(buf);
+ }
+ }
+}
diff --git a/samples/bpf/bpf_load.h b/samples/bpf/bpf_load.h
index 27789a34f5e6..cbd7c2b532b9 100644
--- a/samples/bpf/bpf_load.h
+++ b/samples/bpf/bpf_load.h
@@ -6,6 +6,7 @@

extern int map_fd[MAX_MAPS];
extern int prog_fd[MAX_PROGS];
+extern int event_fd[MAX_PROGS];

/* parses elf file compiled by llvm .c->.o
* . parses 'maps' section and creates maps via BPF syscall
@@ -21,4 +22,6 @@ extern int prog_fd[MAX_PROGS];
*/
int load_bpf_file(char *path);

+void read_trace_pipe(void);
+
#endif
diff --git a/samples/bpf/libbpf.c b/samples/bpf/libbpf.c
index 46d50b7ddf79..7e1efa7e2ed7 100644
--- a/samples/bpf/libbpf.c
+++ b/samples/bpf/libbpf.c
@@ -81,7 +81,7 @@ char bpf_log_buf[LOG_BUF_SIZE];

int bpf_prog_load(enum bpf_prog_type prog_type,
const struct bpf_insn *insns, int prog_len,
- const char *license)
+ const char *license, int kern_version)
{
union bpf_attr attr = {
.prog_type = prog_type,
@@ -93,6 +93,11 @@ int bpf_prog_load(enum bpf_prog_type prog_type,
.log_level = 1,
};

+ /* assign one field outside of struct init to make sure any
+ * padding is zero initialized
+ */
+ attr.kern_version = kern_version;
+
bpf_log_buf[0] = 0;

return syscall(__NR_bpf, BPF_PROG_LOAD, &attr, sizeof(attr));
@@ -121,3 +126,10 @@ int open_raw_sock(const char *name)

return sock;
}
+
+int perf_event_open(struct perf_event_attr *attr, int pid, int cpu,
+ int group_fd, unsigned long flags)
+{
+ return syscall(__NR_perf_event_open, attr, pid, cpu,
+ group_fd, flags);
+}
diff --git a/samples/bpf/libbpf.h b/samples/bpf/libbpf.h
index 58c5fe1bdba1..ac7b09672b46 100644
--- a/samples/bpf/libbpf.h
+++ b/samples/bpf/libbpf.h
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ int bpf_get_next_key(int fd, void *key, void *next_key);

int bpf_prog_load(enum bpf_prog_type prog_type,
const struct bpf_insn *insns, int insn_len,
- const char *license);
+ const char *license, int kern_version);

#define LOG_BUF_SIZE 65536
extern char bpf_log_buf[LOG_BUF_SIZE];
@@ -182,4 +182,7 @@ extern char bpf_log_buf[LOG_BUF_SIZE];
/* create RAW socket and bind to interface 'name' */
int open_raw_sock(const char *name);

+struct perf_event_attr;
+int perf_event_open(struct perf_event_attr *attr, int pid, int cpu,
+ int group_fd, unsigned long flags);
#endif
diff --git a/samples/bpf/sock_example.c b/samples/bpf/sock_example.c
index c8ad0404416f..a0ce251c5390 100644
--- a/samples/bpf/sock_example.c
+++ b/samples/bpf/sock_example.c
@@ -56,7 +56,7 @@ static int test_sock(void)
};

prog_fd = bpf_prog_load(BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCKET_FILTER, prog, sizeof(prog),
- "GPL");
+ "GPL", 0);
if (prog_fd < 0) {
printf("failed to load prog '%s'\n", strerror(errno));
goto cleanup;
diff --git a/samples/bpf/test_verifier.c b/samples/bpf/test_verifier.c
index b96175e90363..740ce97cda5e 100644
--- a/samples/bpf/test_verifier.c
+++ b/samples/bpf/test_verifier.c
@@ -689,7 +689,7 @@ static int test(void)

prog_fd = bpf_prog_load(BPF_PROG_TYPE_UNSPEC, prog,
prog_len * sizeof(struct bpf_insn),
- "GPL");
+ "GPL", 0);

if (tests[i].result == ACCEPT) {
if (prog_fd < 0) {
diff --git a/samples/bpf/tracex1_kern.c b/samples/bpf/tracex1_kern.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..42176fce4847
--- /dev/null
+++ b/samples/bpf/tracex1_kern.c
@@ -0,0 +1,50 @@
+/* Copyright (c) 2013-2015 PLUMgrid, http://plumgrid.com
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
+ * modify it under the terms of version 2 of the GNU General Public
+ * License as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+#include <linux/skbuff.h>
+#include <linux/netdevice.h>
+#include <uapi/linux/bpf.h>
+#include <linux/version.h>
+#include "bpf_helpers.h"
+
+#define _(P) ({typeof(P) val = 0; bpf_probe_read(&val, sizeof(val), &P); val;})
+
+/* kprobe is NOT a stable ABI
+ * kernel functions can be removed, renamed or completely change semantics.
+ * Number of argumnets and their posistions can change, etc.
+ * This bpf+kprobe example can stop working any time.
+ */
+SEC("kprobe/__netif_receive_skb_core")
+int bpf_prog1(struct pt_regs *ctx)
+{
+ /* attaches to kprobe netif_receive_skb,
+ * looks for packets on loobpack device and prints them
+ */
+ char devname[IFNAMSIZ] = {};
+ struct net_device *dev;
+ struct sk_buff *skb;
+ int len;
+
+ /* non-portable! works for the given kernel only */
+ skb = (struct sk_buff *) ctx->di;
+
+ dev = _(skb->dev);
+
+ len = _(skb->len);
+
+ bpf_probe_read(devname, sizeof(devname), dev->name);
+
+ if (devname[0] == 'l' && devname[1] == 'o') {
+ char fmt[] = "skb %p len %d\n";
+ /* using bpf_trace_printk() for DEBUG ONLY */
+ bpf_trace_printk(fmt, sizeof(fmt), skb, len);
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+char _license[] SEC("license") = "GPL";
+u32 _version SEC("version") = LINUX_VERSION_CODE;
diff --git a/samples/bpf/tracex1_user.c b/samples/bpf/tracex1_user.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..31a48183beea
--- /dev/null
+++ b/samples/bpf/tracex1_user.c
@@ -0,0 +1,25 @@
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <linux/bpf.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include "libbpf.h"
+#include "bpf_load.h"
+
+int main(int ac, char **argv)
+{
+ FILE *f;
+ char filename[256];
+
+ snprintf(filename, sizeof(filename), "%s_kern.o", argv[0]);
+
+ if (load_bpf_file(filename)) {
+ printf("%s", bpf_log_buf);
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+ f = popen("taskset 1 ping -c5 localhost", "r");
+ (void) f;
+
+ read_trace_pipe();
+
+ return 0;
+}
--
1.7.9.5


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