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Subject[PATCH v3 linux-trace 1/8] tracing: attach eBPF programs to tracepoints and syscalls
Date
User interface:
struct perf_event_attr attr = {.type = PERF_TYPE_TRACEPOINT, .config = event_id, ...};
event_fd = perf_event_open(&attr,...);
ioctl(event_fd, PERF_EVENT_IOC_SET_BPF, prog_fd);

prog_fd is a file descriptor associated with eBPF program previously loaded.
event_id is an ID of static tracepoint event or syscall.
(kprobe support is in next patch)

close(event_fd) - automatically detaches eBPF program from it

eBPF programs can call in-kernel helper functions to:
- lookup/update/delete elements in maps
- fetch_ptr/u64/u32/u16/u8 values from unsafe address via probe_kernel_read(),
so that eBPF program can walk any kernel data structures
- probe_memcmp - combination of probe_kernel_read() and memcmp()

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@plumgrid.com>
---
include/linux/bpf.h | 6 +-
include/linux/ftrace_event.h | 11 +++
include/trace/bpf_trace.h | 25 +++++++
include/trace/ftrace.h | 31 +++++++++
include/uapi/linux/bpf.h | 7 ++
include/uapi/linux/perf_event.h | 1 +
kernel/events/core.c | 55 +++++++++++++++
kernel/trace/Makefile | 1 +
kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c | 145 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
kernel/trace/trace_syscalls.c | 35 ++++++++++
10 files changed, 316 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
create mode 100644 include/trace/bpf_trace.h
create mode 100644 kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c

diff --git a/include/linux/bpf.h b/include/linux/bpf.h
index bbfceb756452..a0f6f636ced0 100644
--- a/include/linux/bpf.h
+++ b/include/linux/bpf.h
@@ -130,10 +130,14 @@ struct bpf_prog_aux {

#ifdef CONFIG_BPF_SYSCALL
void bpf_prog_put(struct bpf_prog *prog);
+struct bpf_prog *bpf_prog_get(u32 ufd);
#else
static inline void bpf_prog_put(struct bpf_prog *prog) {}
+static inline struct bpf_prog *bpf_prog_get(u32 ufd)
+{
+ return ERR_PTR(-ENOENT);
+}
#endif
-struct bpf_prog *bpf_prog_get(u32 ufd);
/* verify correctness of eBPF program */
int bpf_check(struct bpf_prog *fp, union bpf_attr *attr);

diff --git a/include/linux/ftrace_event.h b/include/linux/ftrace_event.h
index 0bebb5c348b8..479d0a4a42b3 100644
--- a/include/linux/ftrace_event.h
+++ b/include/linux/ftrace_event.h
@@ -13,6 +13,7 @@ struct trace_array;
struct trace_buffer;
struct tracer;
struct dentry;
+struct bpf_prog;

struct trace_print_flags {
unsigned long mask;
@@ -299,6 +300,7 @@ struct ftrace_event_call {
#ifdef CONFIG_PERF_EVENTS
int perf_refcount;
struct hlist_head __percpu *perf_events;
+ struct bpf_prog *prog;

int (*perf_perm)(struct ftrace_event_call *,
struct perf_event *);
@@ -544,6 +546,15 @@ event_trigger_unlock_commit_regs(struct ftrace_event_file *file,
event_triggers_post_call(file, tt);
}

+#ifdef CONFIG_BPF_SYSCALL
+unsigned int trace_call_bpf(struct bpf_prog *prog, void *ctx);
+#else
+static inline unsigned int trace_call_bpf(struct bpf_prog *prog, void *ctx)
+{
+ return 1;
+}
+#endif
+
enum {
FILTER_OTHER = 0,
FILTER_STATIC_STRING,
diff --git a/include/trace/bpf_trace.h b/include/trace/bpf_trace.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..4e64f61f484d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/trace/bpf_trace.h
@@ -0,0 +1,25 @@
+/* Copyright (c) 2011-2015 PLUMgrid, http://plumgrid.com
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
+ * modify it under the terms of version 2 of the GNU General Public
+ * License as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+#ifndef _LINUX_KERNEL_BPF_TRACE_H
+#define _LINUX_KERNEL_BPF_TRACE_H
+
+/* For tracepoint filters argN fields match one to one to arguments
+ * passed to tracepoint events
+ *
+ * For syscall entry filters argN fields match syscall arguments
+ * For syscall exit filters arg1 is a return value
+ */
+struct bpf_context {
+ u64 arg1;
+ u64 arg2;
+ u64 arg3;
+ u64 arg4;
+ u64 arg5;
+ u64 arg6;
+};
+
+#endif /* _LINUX_KERNEL_BPF_TRACE_H */
diff --git a/include/trace/ftrace.h b/include/trace/ftrace.h
index 139b5067345b..4c275ce2dcf0 100644
--- a/include/trace/ftrace.h
+++ b/include/trace/ftrace.h
@@ -17,6 +17,7 @@
*/

#include <linux/ftrace_event.h>
+#include <trace/bpf_trace.h>

/*
* DECLARE_EVENT_CLASS can be used to add a generic function
@@ -755,12 +756,32 @@ __attribute__((section("_ftrace_events"))) *__event_##call = &event_##call
#undef __perf_task
#define __perf_task(t) (__task = (t))

+/* zero extend integer, pointer or aggregate type to u64 without warnings */
+#define __CAST_TO_U64(EXPR) ({ \
+ u64 ret = 0; \
+ typeof(EXPR) expr = EXPR; \
+ switch (sizeof(expr)) { \
+ case 8: ret = *(u64 *) &expr; break; \
+ case 4: ret = *(u32 *) &expr; break; \
+ case 2: ret = *(u16 *) &expr; break; \
+ case 1: ret = *(u8 *) &expr; break; \
+ } \
+ ret; })
+
+#define __BPF_CAST1(a,...) __CAST_TO_U64(a)
+#define __BPF_CAST2(a,...) __CAST_TO_U64(a), __BPF_CAST1(__VA_ARGS__)
+#define __BPF_CAST3(a,...) __CAST_TO_U64(a), __BPF_CAST2(__VA_ARGS__)
+#define __BPF_CAST4(a,...) __CAST_TO_U64(a), __BPF_CAST3(__VA_ARGS__)
+#define __BPF_CAST5(a,...) __CAST_TO_U64(a), __BPF_CAST4(__VA_ARGS__)
+#define __BPF_CAST6(a,...) __CAST_TO_U64(a), __BPF_CAST5(__VA_ARGS__)
+
#undef DECLARE_EVENT_CLASS
#define DECLARE_EVENT_CLASS(call, proto, args, tstruct, assign, print) \
static notrace void \
perf_trace_##call(void *__data, proto) \
{ \
struct ftrace_event_call *event_call = __data; \
+ struct bpf_prog *prog = event_call->prog; \
struct ftrace_data_offsets_##call __maybe_unused __data_offsets;\
struct ftrace_raw_##call *entry; \
struct pt_regs __regs; \
@@ -771,6 +792,16 @@ perf_trace_##call(void *__data, proto) \
int __data_size; \
int rctx; \
\
+ if (prog) { \
+ __maybe_unused const u64 z = 0; \
+ struct bpf_context __ctx = ((struct bpf_context) { \
+ __BPF_CAST6(args, z, z, z, z, z) \
+ }); \
+ \
+ if (!trace_call_bpf(prog, &__ctx)) \
+ return; \
+ } \
+ \
__data_size = ftrace_get_offsets_##call(&__data_offsets, args); \
\
head = this_cpu_ptr(event_call->perf_events); \
diff --git a/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h b/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h
index 45da7ec7d274..d73d7d0abe6e 100644
--- a/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h
+++ b/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h
@@ -118,6 +118,7 @@ enum bpf_map_type {
enum bpf_prog_type {
BPF_PROG_TYPE_UNSPEC,
BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCKET_FILTER,
+ BPF_PROG_TYPE_TRACEPOINT,
};

/* flags for BPF_MAP_UPDATE_ELEM command */
@@ -162,6 +163,12 @@ enum bpf_func_id {
BPF_FUNC_map_lookup_elem, /* void *map_lookup_elem(&map, &key) */
BPF_FUNC_map_update_elem, /* int map_update_elem(&map, &key, &value, flags) */
BPF_FUNC_map_delete_elem, /* int map_delete_elem(&map, &key) */
+ BPF_FUNC_fetch_ptr, /* void *bpf_fetch_ptr(void *unsafe_ptr) */
+ BPF_FUNC_fetch_u64, /* u64 bpf_fetch_u64(void *unsafe_ptr) */
+ BPF_FUNC_fetch_u32, /* u32 bpf_fetch_u32(void *unsafe_ptr) */
+ BPF_FUNC_fetch_u16, /* u16 bpf_fetch_u16(void *unsafe_ptr) */
+ BPF_FUNC_fetch_u8, /* u8 bpf_fetch_u8(void *unsafe_ptr) */
+ BPF_FUNC_probe_memcmp, /* int bpf_probe_memcmp(unsafe_ptr, safe_ptr, size) */
__BPF_FUNC_MAX_ID,
};

diff --git a/include/uapi/linux/perf_event.h b/include/uapi/linux/perf_event.h
index 9b79abbd1ab8..d7ba67234761 100644
--- a/include/uapi/linux/perf_event.h
+++ b/include/uapi/linux/perf_event.h
@@ -360,6 +360,7 @@ struct perf_event_attr {
#define PERF_EVENT_IOC_SET_OUTPUT _IO ('$', 5)
#define PERF_EVENT_IOC_SET_FILTER _IOW('$', 6, char *)
#define PERF_EVENT_IOC_ID _IOR('$', 7, __u64 *)
+#define PERF_EVENT_IOC_SET_BPF _IOW('$', 8, __u32)

enum perf_event_ioc_flags {
PERF_IOC_FLAG_GROUP = 1U << 0,
diff --git a/kernel/events/core.c b/kernel/events/core.c
index 882f835a0d85..674a8ca17190 100644
--- a/kernel/events/core.c
+++ b/kernel/events/core.c
@@ -42,6 +42,8 @@
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/mman.h>
#include <linux/compat.h>
+#include <linux/bpf.h>
+#include <linux/filter.h>

#include "internal.h"

@@ -3283,6 +3285,7 @@ errout:
}

static void perf_event_free_filter(struct perf_event *event);
+static void perf_event_free_bpf_prog(struct perf_event *event);

static void free_event_rcu(struct rcu_head *head)
{
@@ -3292,6 +3295,7 @@ static void free_event_rcu(struct rcu_head *head)
if (event->ns)
put_pid_ns(event->ns);
perf_event_free_filter(event);
+ perf_event_free_bpf_prog(event);
kfree(event);
}

@@ -3795,6 +3799,7 @@ static inline int perf_fget_light(int fd, struct fd *p)
static int perf_event_set_output(struct perf_event *event,
struct perf_event *output_event);
static int perf_event_set_filter(struct perf_event *event, void __user *arg);
+static int perf_event_set_bpf_prog(struct perf_event *event, u32 prog_fd);

static long perf_ioctl(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg)
{
@@ -3849,6 +3854,9 @@ static long perf_ioctl(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg)
case PERF_EVENT_IOC_SET_FILTER:
return perf_event_set_filter(event, (void __user *)arg);

+ case PERF_EVENT_IOC_SET_BPF:
+ return perf_event_set_bpf_prog(event, arg);
+
default:
return -ENOTTY;
}
@@ -6266,6 +6274,45 @@ static void perf_event_free_filter(struct perf_event *event)
ftrace_profile_free_filter(event);
}

+static int perf_event_set_bpf_prog(struct perf_event *event, u32 prog_fd)
+{
+ struct bpf_prog *prog;
+
+ if (event->attr.type != PERF_TYPE_TRACEPOINT)
+ return -EINVAL;
+
+ if (event->tp_event->prog)
+ return -EEXIST;
+
+ prog = bpf_prog_get(prog_fd);
+ if (IS_ERR(prog))
+ return PTR_ERR(prog);
+
+ if (prog->aux->prog_type != BPF_PROG_TYPE_TRACEPOINT) {
+ /* valid fd, but invalid bpf program type */
+ bpf_prog_put(prog);
+ return -EINVAL;
+ }
+
+ event->tp_event->prog = prog;
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static void perf_event_free_bpf_prog(struct perf_event *event)
+{
+ struct bpf_prog *prog;
+
+ if (!event->tp_event)
+ return;
+
+ prog = event->tp_event->prog;
+ if (prog) {
+ event->tp_event->prog = NULL;
+ bpf_prog_put(prog);
+ }
+}
+
#else

static inline void perf_tp_register(void)
@@ -6281,6 +6328,14 @@ static void perf_event_free_filter(struct perf_event *event)
{
}

+static int perf_event_set_bpf_prog(struct perf_event *event, u32 prog_fd)
+{
+ return -ENOENT;
+}
+
+static void perf_event_free_bpf_prog(struct perf_event *event)
+{
+}
#endif /* CONFIG_EVENT_TRACING */

#ifdef CONFIG_HAVE_HW_BREAKPOINT
diff --git a/kernel/trace/Makefile b/kernel/trace/Makefile
index 979ccde26720..54ae225e5fc6 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/Makefile
+++ b/kernel/trace/Makefile
@@ -53,6 +53,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_EVENT_TRACING) += trace_event_perf.o
endif
obj-$(CONFIG_EVENT_TRACING) += trace_events_filter.o
obj-$(CONFIG_EVENT_TRACING) += trace_events_trigger.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_BPF_SYSCALL) += bpf_trace.o
obj-$(CONFIG_KPROBE_EVENT) += trace_kprobe.o
obj-$(CONFIG_TRACEPOINTS) += power-traces.o
ifeq ($(CONFIG_PM),y)
diff --git a/kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c b/kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..ec065e0a364e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c
@@ -0,0 +1,145 @@
+/* Copyright (c) 2011-2015 PLUMgrid, http://plumgrid.com
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
+ * modify it under the terms of version 2 of the GNU General Public
+ * License as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/types.h>
+#include <linux/slab.h>
+#include <linux/bpf.h>
+#include <linux/filter.h>
+#include <linux/uaccess.h>
+#include <trace/bpf_trace.h>
+#include "trace.h"
+
+unsigned int trace_call_bpf(struct bpf_prog *prog, void *ctx)
+{
+ unsigned int ret;
+
+ if (in_nmi()) /* not supported yet */
+ return 1;
+
+ rcu_read_lock();
+ ret = BPF_PROG_RUN(prog, ctx);
+ rcu_read_unlock();
+
+ return ret;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(trace_call_bpf);
+
+static u64 bpf_fetch_ptr(u64 r1, u64 r2, u64 r3, u64 r4, u64 r5)
+{
+ void *unsafe_ptr = (void *) (long) r1;
+ void *ptr = NULL;
+
+ probe_kernel_read(&ptr, unsafe_ptr, sizeof(ptr));
+ return (u64) (unsigned long) ptr;
+}
+
+#define FETCH(SIZE) \
+static u64 bpf_fetch_##SIZE(u64 r1, u64 r2, u64 r3, u64 r4, u64 r5) \
+{ \
+ void *unsafe_ptr = (void *) (long) r1; \
+ SIZE val = 0; \
+ \
+ probe_kernel_read(&val, unsafe_ptr, sizeof(val)); \
+ return (u64) (SIZE) val; \
+}
+FETCH(u64)
+FETCH(u32)
+FETCH(u16)
+FETCH(u8)
+#undef FETCH
+
+static u64 bpf_probe_memcmp(u64 r1, u64 r2, u64 r3, u64 r4, u64 r5)
+{
+ void *unsafe_ptr = (void *) (long) r1;
+ void *safe_ptr = (void *) (long) r2;
+ u32 size = (u32) r3;
+ char buf[64];
+ int err;
+
+ if (size < 64) {
+ err = probe_kernel_read(buf, unsafe_ptr, size);
+ if (err)
+ return err;
+ return memcmp(buf, safe_ptr, size);
+ }
+ return -1;
+}
+
+static struct bpf_func_proto tp_prog_funcs[] = {
+#define FETCH(SIZE) \
+ [BPF_FUNC_fetch_##SIZE] = { \
+ .func = bpf_fetch_##SIZE, \
+ .gpl_only = true, \
+ .ret_type = RET_INTEGER, \
+ },
+ FETCH(ptr)
+ FETCH(u64)
+ FETCH(u32)
+ FETCH(u16)
+ FETCH(u8)
+#undef FETCH
+ [BPF_FUNC_probe_memcmp] = {
+ .func = bpf_probe_memcmp,
+ .gpl_only = false,
+ .ret_type = RET_INTEGER,
+ .arg1_type = ARG_ANYTHING,
+ .arg2_type = ARG_PTR_TO_STACK,
+ .arg3_type = ARG_CONST_STACK_SIZE,
+ },
+};
+
+static const struct bpf_func_proto *tp_prog_func_proto(enum bpf_func_id func_id)
+{
+ switch (func_id) {
+ case BPF_FUNC_map_lookup_elem:
+ return &bpf_map_lookup_elem_proto;
+ case BPF_FUNC_map_update_elem:
+ return &bpf_map_update_elem_proto;
+ case BPF_FUNC_map_delete_elem:
+ return &bpf_map_delete_elem_proto;
+ default:
+ if (func_id < 0 || func_id >= ARRAY_SIZE(tp_prog_funcs))
+ return NULL;
+ return &tp_prog_funcs[func_id];
+ }
+}
+
+/* check access to argN fields of 'struct bpf_context' from program */
+static bool tp_prog_is_valid_access(int off, int size,
+ enum bpf_access_type type)
+{
+ /* check bounds */
+ if (off < 0 || off >= sizeof(struct bpf_context))
+ return false;
+
+ /* only read is allowed */
+ if (type != BPF_READ)
+ return false;
+
+ /* disallow misaligned access */
+ if (off % size != 0)
+ return false;
+
+ return true;
+}
+
+static struct bpf_verifier_ops tp_prog_ops = {
+ .get_func_proto = tp_prog_func_proto,
+ .is_valid_access = tp_prog_is_valid_access,
+};
+
+static struct bpf_prog_type_list tl = {
+ .ops = &tp_prog_ops,
+ .type = BPF_PROG_TYPE_TRACEPOINT,
+};
+
+static int __init register_tp_prog_ops(void)
+{
+ bpf_register_prog_type(&tl);
+ return 0;
+}
+late_initcall(register_tp_prog_ops);
diff --git a/kernel/trace/trace_syscalls.c b/kernel/trace/trace_syscalls.c
index c6ee36fcbf90..3487c41f4c0e 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/trace_syscalls.c
+++ b/kernel/trace/trace_syscalls.c
@@ -7,6 +7,7 @@
#include <linux/ftrace.h>
#include <linux/perf_event.h>
#include <asm/syscall.h>
+#include <trace/bpf_trace.h>

#include "trace_output.h"
#include "trace.h"
@@ -545,11 +546,26 @@ static DECLARE_BITMAP(enabled_perf_exit_syscalls, NR_syscalls);
static int sys_perf_refcount_enter;
static int sys_perf_refcount_exit;

+static void populate_bpf_ctx(struct bpf_context *ctx, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ struct task_struct *task = current;
+ unsigned long args[6];
+
+ syscall_get_arguments(task, regs, 0, 6, args);
+ ctx->arg1 = args[0];
+ ctx->arg2 = args[1];
+ ctx->arg3 = args[2];
+ ctx->arg4 = args[3];
+ ctx->arg5 = args[4];
+ ctx->arg6 = args[5];
+}
+
static void perf_syscall_enter(void *ignore, struct pt_regs *regs, long id)
{
struct syscall_metadata *sys_data;
struct syscall_trace_enter *rec;
struct hlist_head *head;
+ struct bpf_prog *prog;
int syscall_nr;
int rctx;
int size;
@@ -564,6 +580,15 @@ static void perf_syscall_enter(void *ignore, struct pt_regs *regs, long id)
if (!sys_data)
return;

+ prog = sys_data->enter_event->prog;
+ if (prog) {
+ struct bpf_context ctx;
+
+ populate_bpf_ctx(&ctx, regs);
+ if (!trace_call_bpf(prog, &ctx))
+ return;
+ }
+
head = this_cpu_ptr(sys_data->enter_event->perf_events);
if (hlist_empty(head))
return;
@@ -624,6 +649,7 @@ static void perf_syscall_exit(void *ignore, struct pt_regs *regs, long ret)
struct syscall_metadata *sys_data;
struct syscall_trace_exit *rec;
struct hlist_head *head;
+ struct bpf_prog *prog;
int syscall_nr;
int rctx;
int size;
@@ -638,6 +664,15 @@ static void perf_syscall_exit(void *ignore, struct pt_regs *regs, long ret)
if (!sys_data)
return;

+ prog = sys_data->exit_event->prog;
+ if (prog) {
+ struct bpf_context ctx = {};
+
+ ctx.arg1 = syscall_get_return_value(current, regs);
+ if (!trace_call_bpf(prog, &ctx))
+ return;
+ }
+
head = this_cpu_ptr(sys_data->exit_event->perf_events);
if (hlist_empty(head))
return;
--
1.7.9.5


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