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Subject[PATCH v3 linux-trace 5/8] samples: bpf: counting example for kfree_skb tracepoint and write syscall
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this example has two probes in one C file that attach to different tracepoints
and use two different maps.

1st probe is the similar to dropmon.c. It attaches to kfree_skb tracepoint and
count number of packet drops at different locations

2nd probe attaches to syscalls/sys_enter_write and computes a histogram of different
write sizes

Usage:
$ sudo tracex2
location 0xffffffff816959a5 count 1

location 0xffffffff816959a5 count 2

557145+0 records in
557145+0 records out
285258240 bytes (285 MB) copied, 1.02379 s, 279 MB/s
syscall write() stats
byte_size : count distribution
1 -> 1 : 3 | |
2 -> 3 : 0 | |
4 -> 7 : 0 | |
8 -> 15 : 0 | |
16 -> 31 : 2 | |
32 -> 63 : 3 | |
64 -> 127 : 1 | |
128 -> 255 : 1 | |
256 -> 511 : 0 | |
512 -> 1023 : 1118968 |************************************* |

Ctrl-C at any time. Kernel will auto cleanup maps and programs

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@plumgrid.com>
---
samples/bpf/Makefile | 4 ++
samples/bpf/tracex2_kern.c | 71 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
samples/bpf/tracex2_user.c | 95 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
3 files changed, 170 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 samples/bpf/tracex2_kern.c
create mode 100644 samples/bpf/tracex2_user.c

diff --git a/samples/bpf/Makefile b/samples/bpf/Makefile
index da28e1b6d3a6..416af24b01fd 100644
--- a/samples/bpf/Makefile
+++ b/samples/bpf/Makefile
@@ -8,6 +8,7 @@ hostprogs-y += sockex1
hostprogs-y += sockex2
hostprogs-y += dropmon
hostprogs-y += tracex1
+hostprogs-y += tracex2

dropmon-objs := dropmon.o libbpf.o
test_verifier-objs := test_verifier.o libbpf.o
@@ -16,12 +17,14 @@ sock_example-objs := sock_example.o libbpf.o
sockex1-objs := bpf_load.o libbpf.o sockex1_user.o
sockex2-objs := bpf_load.o libbpf.o sockex2_user.o
tracex1-objs := bpf_load.o libbpf.o tracex1_user.o
+tracex2-objs := bpf_load.o libbpf.o tracex2_user.o

# Tell kbuild to always build the programs
always := $(hostprogs-y)
always += sockex1_kern.o
always += sockex2_kern.o
always += tracex1_kern.o
+always += tracex2_kern.o

HOSTCFLAGS += -I$(objtree)/usr/include

@@ -29,6 +32,7 @@ HOSTCFLAGS_bpf_load.o += -I$(objtree)/usr/include -Wno-unused-variable
HOSTLOADLIBES_sockex1 += -lelf
HOSTLOADLIBES_sockex2 += -lelf
HOSTLOADLIBES_tracex1 += -lelf
+HOSTLOADLIBES_tracex2 += -lelf

# point this to your LLVM backend with bpf support
LLC=$(srctree)/tools/bpf/llvm/bld/Debug+Asserts/bin/llc
diff --git a/samples/bpf/tracex2_kern.c b/samples/bpf/tracex2_kern.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..a789c456c1b4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/samples/bpf/tracex2_kern.c
@@ -0,0 +1,71 @@
+#include <linux/skbuff.h>
+#include <linux/netdevice.h>
+#include <uapi/linux/bpf.h>
+#include <trace/bpf_trace.h>
+#include "bpf_helpers.h"
+
+struct bpf_map_def SEC("maps") my_map = {
+ .type = BPF_MAP_TYPE_HASH,
+ .key_size = sizeof(long),
+ .value_size = sizeof(long),
+ .max_entries = 1024,
+};
+
+SEC("events/skb/kfree_skb")
+int bpf_prog2(struct bpf_context *ctx)
+{
+ long loc = ctx->arg2;
+ long init_val = 1;
+ long *value;
+
+ value = bpf_map_lookup_elem(&my_map, &loc);
+ if (value)
+ *value += 1;
+ else
+ bpf_map_update_elem(&my_map, &loc, &init_val, BPF_ANY);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static unsigned int log2(unsigned int v)
+{
+ unsigned int r;
+ unsigned int shift;
+
+ r = (v > 0xFFFF) << 4; v >>= r;
+ shift = (v > 0xFF) << 3; v >>= shift; r |= shift;
+ shift = (v > 0xF) << 2; v >>= shift; r |= shift;
+ shift = (v > 0x3) << 1; v >>= shift; r |= shift;
+ r |= (v >> 1);
+ return r;
+}
+
+static unsigned int log2l(unsigned long v)
+{
+ unsigned int hi = v >> 32;
+ if (hi)
+ return log2(hi) + 32;
+ else
+ return log2(v);
+}
+
+struct bpf_map_def SEC("maps") my_hist_map = {
+ .type = BPF_MAP_TYPE_ARRAY,
+ .key_size = sizeof(u32),
+ .value_size = sizeof(long),
+ .max_entries = 64,
+};
+
+SEC("events/syscalls/sys_enter_write")
+int bpf_prog3(struct bpf_context *ctx)
+{
+ long write_size = ctx->arg3;
+ long init_val = 1;
+ long *value;
+ u32 index = log2l(write_size);
+
+ value = bpf_map_lookup_elem(&my_hist_map, &index);
+ if (value)
+ __sync_fetch_and_add(value, 1);
+ return 0;
+}
+char _license[] SEC("license") = "GPL";
diff --git a/samples/bpf/tracex2_user.c b/samples/bpf/tracex2_user.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..91b8d0896fbb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/samples/bpf/tracex2_user.c
@@ -0,0 +1,95 @@
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <signal.h>
+#include <linux/bpf.h>
+#include "libbpf.h"
+#include "bpf_load.h"
+
+#define MAX_INDEX 64
+#define MAX_STARS 38
+
+static void stars(char *str, long val, long max, int width)
+{
+ int i;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < (width * val / max) - 1 && i < width - 1; i++)
+ str[i] = '*';
+ if (val > max)
+ str[i - 1] = '+';
+ str[i] = '\0';
+}
+
+static void print_hist(int fd)
+{
+ int key;
+ long value;
+ long data[MAX_INDEX] = {};
+ char starstr[MAX_STARS];
+ int i;
+ int max_ind = -1;
+ long max_value = 0;
+
+ for (key = 0; key < MAX_INDEX; key++) {
+ bpf_lookup_elem(fd, &key, &value);
+ data[key] = value;
+ if (value && key > max_ind)
+ max_ind = key;
+ if (value > max_value)
+ max_value = value;
+ }
+
+ printf(" syscall write() stats\n");
+ printf(" byte_size : count distribution\n");
+ for (i = 1; i <= max_ind + 1; i++) {
+ stars(starstr, data[i - 1], max_value, MAX_STARS);
+ printf("%8ld -> %-8ld : %-8ld |%-*s|\n",
+ (1l << i) >> 1, (1l << i) - 1, data[i - 1],
+ MAX_STARS, starstr);
+ }
+}
+static void int_exit(int sig)
+{
+ print_hist(map_fd[1]);
+ exit(0);
+}
+
+int main(int ac, char **argv)
+{
+ char filename[256];
+ long key, next_key, value;
+ FILE *f;
+ int i;
+
+ snprintf(filename, sizeof(filename), "%s_kern.o", argv[0]);
+
+ signal(SIGINT, int_exit);
+
+ /* start 'ping' in the background to have some kfree_skb events */
+ f = popen("ping -c5 localhost", "r");
+ (void) f;
+
+ /* start 'dd' in the background to have plenty of 'write' syscalls */
+ f = popen("dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/null count=5000000", "r");
+ (void) f;
+
+ if (load_bpf_file(filename)) {
+ printf("%s", bpf_log_buf);
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+ for (i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
+ key = 0;
+ while (bpf_get_next_key(map_fd[0], &key, &next_key) == 0) {
+ bpf_lookup_elem(map_fd[0], &next_key, &value);
+ printf("location 0x%lx count %ld\n", next_key, value);
+ key = next_key;
+ }
+ if (key)
+ printf("\n");
+ sleep(1);
+ }
+ print_hist(map_fd[1]);
+
+ return 0;
+}
--
1.7.9.5


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