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Subject[PATCH v3 linux-trace 3/8] samples: bpf: simple tracing example in eBPF assembler
Date
simple packet drop monitor:
- in-kernel eBPF program attaches to skb:kfree_skb event and records number
of packet drops at given location
- userspace iterates over the map every second and prints stats

Usage:
$ sudo dropmon
location 0xffffffff81695995 count 1
location 0xffffffff816d0da9 count 2

location 0xffffffff81695995 count 2
location 0xffffffff816d0da9 count 2

location 0xffffffff81695995 count 3
location 0xffffffff816d0da9 count 2

$ addr2line -ape ./bld_x64/vmlinux 0xffffffff81695995 0xffffffff816d0da9
0xffffffff81695995: ./bld_x64/../net/ipv4/icmp.c:1038
0xffffffff816d0da9: ./bld_x64/../net/unix/af_unix.c:1231

Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@plumgrid.com>
---
samples/bpf/Makefile | 2 +
samples/bpf/dropmon.c | 143 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
samples/bpf/libbpf.c | 7 +++
samples/bpf/libbpf.h | 4 ++
4 files changed, 156 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 samples/bpf/dropmon.c

diff --git a/samples/bpf/Makefile b/samples/bpf/Makefile
index b5b3600dcdf5..789691374562 100644
--- a/samples/bpf/Makefile
+++ b/samples/bpf/Makefile
@@ -6,7 +6,9 @@ hostprogs-y := test_verifier test_maps
hostprogs-y += sock_example
hostprogs-y += sockex1
hostprogs-y += sockex2
+hostprogs-y += dropmon

+dropmon-objs := dropmon.o libbpf.o
test_verifier-objs := test_verifier.o libbpf.o
test_maps-objs := test_maps.o libbpf.o
sock_example-objs := sock_example.o libbpf.o
diff --git a/samples/bpf/dropmon.c b/samples/bpf/dropmon.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..515504f68506
--- /dev/null
+++ b/samples/bpf/dropmon.c
@@ -0,0 +1,143 @@
+/* simple packet drop monitor:
+ * - in-kernel eBPF program attaches to kfree_skb() event and records number
+ * of packet drops at given location
+ * - userspace iterates over the map every second and prints stats
+ */
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <linux/bpf.h>
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <linux/unistd.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <linux/filter.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <linux/perf_event.h>
+#include <sys/syscall.h>
+#include <sys/ioctl.h>
+#include "libbpf.h"
+
+#define TRACEPOINT "/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/events/skb/kfree_skb/id"
+
+static int dropmon(void)
+{
+ long long key, next_key, value = 0;
+ int prog_fd, map_fd, i, event_fd, efd, err;
+ char buf[32];
+
+ map_fd = bpf_create_map(BPF_MAP_TYPE_HASH, sizeof(key), sizeof(value), 1024);
+ if (map_fd < 0) {
+ printf("failed to create map '%s'\n", strerror(errno));
+ goto cleanup;
+ }
+
+ /* the following eBPF program is equivalent to C:
+ * int filter(struct bpf_context *ctx)
+ * {
+ * long loc = ctx->arg2;
+ * long init_val = 1;
+ * long *value;
+ *
+ * value = bpf_map_lookup_elem(MAP_ID, &loc);
+ * if (value) {
+ * __sync_fetch_and_add(value, 1);
+ * } else {
+ * bpf_map_update_elem(MAP_ID, &loc, &init_val, BPF_ANY);
+ * }
+ * return 0;
+ * }
+ */
+ struct bpf_insn prog[] = {
+ BPF_LDX_MEM(BPF_DW, BPF_REG_2, BPF_REG_1, 8), /* r2 = *(u64 *)(r1 + 8) */
+ BPF_STX_MEM(BPF_DW, BPF_REG_10, BPF_REG_2, -8), /* *(u64 *)(fp - 8) = r2 */
+ BPF_MOV64_REG(BPF_REG_2, BPF_REG_10),
+ BPF_ALU64_IMM(BPF_ADD, BPF_REG_2, -8), /* r2 = fp - 8 */
+ BPF_LD_MAP_FD(BPF_REG_1, map_fd),
+ BPF_RAW_INSN(BPF_JMP | BPF_CALL, 0, 0, 0, BPF_FUNC_map_lookup_elem),
+ BPF_JMP_IMM(BPF_JEQ, BPF_REG_0, 0, 4),
+ BPF_MOV64_IMM(BPF_REG_1, 1), /* r1 = 1 */
+ BPF_RAW_INSN(BPF_STX | BPF_XADD | BPF_DW, BPF_REG_0, BPF_REG_1, 0, 0), /* xadd r0 += r1 */
+ BPF_MOV64_IMM(BPF_REG_0, 0), /* r0 = 0 */
+ BPF_EXIT_INSN(),
+ BPF_ST_MEM(BPF_DW, BPF_REG_10, -16, 1), /* *(u64 *)(fp - 16) = 1 */
+ BPF_MOV64_IMM(BPF_REG_4, BPF_ANY),
+ BPF_MOV64_REG(BPF_REG_3, BPF_REG_10),
+ BPF_ALU64_IMM(BPF_ADD, BPF_REG_3, -16), /* r3 = fp - 16 */
+ BPF_MOV64_REG(BPF_REG_2, BPF_REG_10),
+ BPF_ALU64_IMM(BPF_ADD, BPF_REG_2, -8), /* r2 = fp - 8 */
+ BPF_LD_MAP_FD(BPF_REG_1, map_fd),
+ BPF_RAW_INSN(BPF_JMP | BPF_CALL, 0, 0, 0, BPF_FUNC_map_update_elem),
+ BPF_MOV64_IMM(BPF_REG_0, 0), /* r0 = 0 */
+ BPF_EXIT_INSN(),
+ };
+
+ prog_fd = bpf_prog_load(BPF_PROG_TYPE_TRACEPOINT, prog,
+ sizeof(prog), "GPL");
+ if (prog_fd < 0) {
+ printf("failed to load prog '%s'\n%s",
+ strerror(errno), bpf_log_buf);
+ return -1;
+ }
+
+
+ event_fd = open(TRACEPOINT, O_RDONLY, 0);
+ if (event_fd < 0) {
+ printf("failed to open event %s\n", TRACEPOINT);
+ return -1;
+ }
+
+ err = read(event_fd, buf, sizeof(buf));
+ if (err < 0 || err >= sizeof(buf)) {
+ printf("read from '%s' failed '%s'\n",
+ TRACEPOINT, strerror(errno));
+ return -1;
+ }
+
+ close(event_fd);
+
+ buf[err] = 0;
+
+ struct perf_event_attr attr = {.type = PERF_TYPE_TRACEPOINT};
+ attr.config = atoi(buf);
+
+ efd = perf_event_open(&attr, -1/*pid*/, 0/*cpu*/, -1/*group_fd*/, 0);
+ if (efd < 0) {
+ printf("event %lld fd %d err %s\n",
+ attr.config, efd, strerror(errno));
+ return -1;
+ }
+ ioctl(efd, PERF_EVENT_IOC_ENABLE, 0);
+ ioctl(efd, PERF_EVENT_IOC_SET_BPF, prog_fd);
+
+ for (i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
+ key = 0;
+ while (bpf_get_next_key(map_fd, &key, &next_key) == 0) {
+ bpf_lookup_elem(map_fd, &next_key, &value);
+ printf("location 0x%llx count %lld\n", next_key, value);
+ key = next_key;
+ }
+ if (key)
+ printf("\n");
+ sleep(1);
+ }
+
+cleanup:
+ /* maps, programs, tracepoint filters will auto cleanup on process exit */
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+int main(void)
+{
+ FILE *f;
+
+ /* start ping in the background to get some kfree_skb events */
+ f = popen("ping -c5 localhost", "r");
+ (void) f;
+
+ dropmon();
+ return 0;
+}
diff --git a/samples/bpf/libbpf.c b/samples/bpf/libbpf.c
index 46d50b7ddf79..f4f428149a7d 100644
--- a/samples/bpf/libbpf.c
+++ b/samples/bpf/libbpf.c
@@ -121,3 +121,10 @@ int open_raw_sock(const char *name)

return sock;
}
+
+int perf_event_open(struct perf_event_attr *attr, int pid, int cpu,
+ int group_fd, unsigned long flags)
+{
+ return syscall(__NR_perf_event_open, attr, pid, cpu,
+ group_fd, flags);
+}
diff --git a/samples/bpf/libbpf.h b/samples/bpf/libbpf.h
index 58c5fe1bdba1..92ff824eaed5 100644
--- a/samples/bpf/libbpf.h
+++ b/samples/bpf/libbpf.h
@@ -182,4 +182,8 @@ extern char bpf_log_buf[LOG_BUF_SIZE];
/* create RAW socket and bind to interface 'name' */
int open_raw_sock(const char *name);

+struct perf_event_attr;
+int perf_event_open(struct perf_event_attr *attr, int pid, int cpu,
+ int group_fd, unsigned long flags);
+
#endif
--
1.7.9.5


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