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SubjectRe: [PATCH] x86 spinlock: Fix memory corruption on completing completions
On 02/06/2015 06:49 AM, Raghavendra K T wrote:
> Paravirt spinlock clears slowpath flag after doing unlock.
> As explained by Linus currently it does:
> prev = *lock;
> add_smp(&lock->tickets.head, TICKET_LOCK_INC);
>
> /* add_smp() is a full mb() */
>
> if (unlikely(lock->tickets.tail & TICKET_SLOWPATH_FLAG))
> __ticket_unlock_slowpath(lock, prev);
>
>
> which is *exactly* the kind of things you cannot do with spinlocks,
> because after you've done the "add_smp()" and released the spinlock
> for the fast-path, you can't access the spinlock any more. Exactly
> because a fast-path lock might come in, and release the whole data
> structure.

Yeah, that's an embarrasingly obvious bug in retrospect.

> Linus suggested that we should not do any writes to lock after unlock(),
> and we can move slowpath clearing to fastpath lock.

Yep, that seems like a sound approach.

> However it brings additional case to be handled, viz., slowpath still
> could be set when somebody does arch_trylock. Handle that too by ignoring
> slowpath flag during lock availability check.
>
> Reported-by: Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@oracle.com>
> Suggested-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
> Signed-off-by: Raghavendra K T <raghavendra.kt@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
> ---
> arch/x86/include/asm/spinlock.h | 70 ++++++++++++++++++++---------------------
> 1 file changed, 34 insertions(+), 36 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/spinlock.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/spinlock.h
> index 625660f..0829f86 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/include/asm/spinlock.h
> +++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/spinlock.h
> @@ -49,6 +49,23 @@ static inline void __ticket_enter_slowpath(arch_spinlock_t *lock)
> set_bit(0, (volatile unsigned long *)&lock->tickets.tail);
> }
>
> +static inline void __ticket_check_and_clear_slowpath(arch_spinlock_t *lock)
> +{
> + arch_spinlock_t old, new;
> + __ticket_t diff;
> +
> + old.tickets = READ_ONCE(lock->tickets);

Couldn't the caller pass in the lock state that it read rather than
re-reading it?

> + diff = (old.tickets.tail & ~TICKET_SLOWPATH_FLAG) - old.tickets.head;
> +
> + /* try to clear slowpath flag when there are no contenders */
> + if ((old.tickets.tail & TICKET_SLOWPATH_FLAG) &&
> + (diff == TICKET_LOCK_INC)) {
> + new = old;
> + new.tickets.tail &= ~TICKET_SLOWPATH_FLAG;
> + cmpxchg(&lock->head_tail, old.head_tail, new.head_tail);
> + }
> +}
> +
> #else /* !CONFIG_PARAVIRT_SPINLOCKS */
> static __always_inline void __ticket_lock_spinning(arch_spinlock_t *lock,
> __ticket_t ticket)
> @@ -59,6 +76,10 @@ static inline void __ticket_unlock_kick(arch_spinlock_t *lock,
> {
> }
>
> +static inline void __ticket_check_and_clear_slowpath(arch_spinlock_t *lock)
> +{
> +}
> +
> #endif /* CONFIG_PARAVIRT_SPINLOCKS */
>
> static __always_inline int arch_spin_value_unlocked(arch_spinlock_t lock)
> @@ -84,7 +105,7 @@ static __always_inline void arch_spin_lock(arch_spinlock_t *lock)
> register struct __raw_tickets inc = { .tail = TICKET_LOCK_INC };
>
> inc = xadd(&lock->tickets, inc);
> - if (likely(inc.head == inc.tail))
> + if (likely(inc.head == (inc.tail & ~TICKET_SLOWPATH_FLAG)))

The intent of this conditional was to be the quickest possible path when
taking a fastpath lock, with the code below being used for all slowpath
locks (free or taken). So I don't think masking out SLOWPATH_FLAG is
necessary here.

> goto out;
>
> inc.tail &= ~TICKET_SLOWPATH_FLAG;
> @@ -98,7 +119,10 @@ static __always_inline void arch_spin_lock(arch_spinlock_t *lock)
> } while (--count);
> __ticket_lock_spinning(lock, inc.tail);
> }
> -out: barrier(); /* make sure nothing creeps before the lock is taken */
> +out:
> + __ticket_check_and_clear_slowpath(lock);
> +
> + barrier(); /* make sure nothing creeps before the lock is taken */

Which means that if "goto out" path is only ever used for fastpath
locks, you can limit calling __ticket_check_and_clear_slowpath() to the
slowpath case.

> }
>
> static __always_inline int arch_spin_trylock(arch_spinlock_t *lock)
> @@ -115,47 +139,21 @@ static __always_inline int arch_spin_trylock(arch_spinlock_t *lock)
> return cmpxchg(&lock->head_tail, old.head_tail, new.head_tail) == old.head_tail;
> }
>
> -static inline void __ticket_unlock_slowpath(arch_spinlock_t *lock,
> - arch_spinlock_t old)
> -{
> - arch_spinlock_t new;
> -
> - BUILD_BUG_ON(((__ticket_t)NR_CPUS) != NR_CPUS);
> -
> - /* Perform the unlock on the "before" copy */
> - old.tickets.head += TICKET_LOCK_INC;

NB (see below)

> -
> - /* Clear the slowpath flag */
> - new.head_tail = old.head_tail & ~(TICKET_SLOWPATH_FLAG << TICKET_SHIFT);
> -
> - /*
> - * If the lock is uncontended, clear the flag - use cmpxchg in
> - * case it changes behind our back though.
> - */
> - if (new.tickets.head != new.tickets.tail ||
> - cmpxchg(&lock->head_tail, old.head_tail,
> - new.head_tail) != old.head_tail) {
> - /*
> - * Lock still has someone queued for it, so wake up an
> - * appropriate waiter.
> - */
> - __ticket_unlock_kick(lock, old.tickets.head);
> - }
> -}
> -
> static __always_inline void arch_spin_unlock(arch_spinlock_t *lock)
> {
> if (TICKET_SLOWPATH_FLAG &&
> - static_key_false(&paravirt_ticketlocks_enabled)) {
> - arch_spinlock_t prev;
> + static_key_false(&paravirt_ticketlocks_enabled)) {
> + __ticket_t prev_head;
>
> - prev = *lock;
> + prev_head = lock->tickets.head;
> add_smp(&lock->tickets.head, TICKET_LOCK_INC);
>
> /* add_smp() is a full mb() */
>
> - if (unlikely(lock->tickets.tail & TICKET_SLOWPATH_FLAG))
> - __ticket_unlock_slowpath(lock, prev);
> + if (unlikely(lock->tickets.tail & TICKET_SLOWPATH_FLAG)) {

So we're OK with still having a ("speculative"?) read-after-unlock here?
I guess the only way to avoid it is to make the add_smp an xadd, but
that's pretty expensive even compared to a locked add (at least last
time I checked, which was at least a couple of microarchitectures ago).
An unlocked add followed by lfence should also do the trick, but that
was also much worse in practice.

> + BUILD_BUG_ON(((__ticket_t)NR_CPUS) != NR_CPUS);
> + __ticket_unlock_kick(lock, prev_head);

Should be "prev_head + TICKET_LOCK_INC" to match the previous code,
otherwise it won't find the CPU waiting for the new head.

J

> + }
> } else
> __add(&lock->tickets.head, TICKET_LOCK_INC, UNLOCK_LOCK_PREFIX);
> }
> @@ -164,7 +162,7 @@ static inline int arch_spin_is_locked(arch_spinlock_t *lock)
> {
> struct __raw_tickets tmp = READ_ONCE(lock->tickets);
>
> - return tmp.tail != tmp.head;
> + return (tmp.tail & ~TICKET_SLOWPATH_FLAG) != tmp.head;
> }
>
> static inline int arch_spin_is_contended(arch_spinlock_t *lock)



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