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Subject[PATCH 7/8] cgroup: Add documentation for cgroup namespaces
Date
From: Aditya Kali <adityakali@google.com>

Signed-off-by: Aditya Kali <adityakali@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com>
---
Changelog (2015-12-08): Merge into Documentation/cgroup.txt
---
Documentation/cgroup.txt | 144 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
1 file changed, 144 insertions(+)

diff --git a/Documentation/cgroup.txt b/Documentation/cgroup.txt
index 31d1f7b..ca42df4 100644
--- a/Documentation/cgroup.txt
+++ b/Documentation/cgroup.txt
@@ -47,6 +47,7 @@ CONTENTS
5-3. IO
5-3-1. IO Interface Files
5-3-2. Writeback
+6. Namespaces
P. Information on Kernel Programming
P-1. Filesystem Support for Writeback
D. Deprecated v1 Core Features
@@ -1013,6 +1014,149 @@ writeback as follows.
vm.dirty[_background]_ratio.


+6. CGroup Namespaces
+
+CGroup Namespace provides a mechanism to virtualize the view of the
+/proc/<pid>/cgroup file. The CLONE_NEWCGROUP clone-flag can be used with
+clone() and unshare() syscalls to create a new cgroup namespace.
+The process running inside the cgroup namespace will have its /proc/<pid>/cgroup
+output restricted to cgroupns-root. cgroupns-root is the cgroup of the process
+at the time of creation of the cgroup namespace.
+
+Prior to CGroup Namespace, the /proc/<pid>/cgroup file used to show complete
+path of the cgroup of a process. In a container setup (where a set of cgroups
+and namespaces are intended to isolate processes), the /proc/<pid>/cgroup file
+may leak potential system level information to the isolated processes.
+
+For Example:
+ $ cat /proc/self/cgroup
+ 0:cpuset,cpu,cpuacct,memory,devices,freezer,hugetlb:/batchjobs/container_id1
+
+The path '/batchjobs/container_id1' can generally be considered as system-data
+and its desirable to not expose it to the isolated process.
+
+CGroup Namespaces can be used to restrict visibility of this path.
+For Example:
+ # Before creating cgroup namespace
+ $ ls -l /proc/self/ns/cgroup
+ lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 2014-07-15 10:37 /proc/self/ns/cgroup -> cgroup:[4026531835]
+ $ cat /proc/self/cgroup
+ 0:cpuset,cpu,cpuacct,memory,devices,freezer,hugetlb:/batchjobs/container_id1
+
+ # unshare(CLONE_NEWCGROUP) and exec /bin/bash
+ $ ~/unshare -c
+ [ns]$ ls -l /proc/self/ns/cgroup
+ lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 2014-07-15 10:35 /proc/self/ns/cgroup -> cgroup:[4026532183]
+ # From within new cgroupns, process sees that its in the root cgroup
+ [ns]$ cat /proc/self/cgroup
+ 0:cpuset,cpu,cpuacct,memory,devices,freezer,hugetlb:/
+
+ # From global cgroupns:
+ $ cat /proc/<pid>/cgroup
+ 0:cpuset,cpu,cpuacct,memory,devices,freezer,hugetlb:/batchjobs/container_id1
+
+ # Unshare cgroupns along with userns and mountns
+ # Following calls unshare(CLONE_NEWCGROUP|CLONE_NEWUSER|CLONE_NEWNS), then
+ # sets up uid/gid map and execs /bin/bash
+ $ ~/unshare -c -u -m
+ # Originally, we were in /batchjobs/container_id1 cgroup. Mount our own cgroup
+ # hierarchy.
+ [ns]$ mount -t cgroup cgroup /tmp/cgroup
+ [ns]$ ls -l /tmp/cgroup
+ total 0
+ -r--r--r-- 1 root root 0 2014-10-13 09:32 cgroup.controllers
+ -r--r--r-- 1 root root 0 2014-10-13 09:32 cgroup.populated
+ -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 2014-10-13 09:25 cgroup.procs
+ -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 2014-10-13 09:32 cgroup.subtree_control
+
+The cgroupns-root (/batchjobs/container_id1 in above example) becomes the
+filesystem root for the namespace specific cgroupfs mount.
+
+The virtualization of /proc/self/cgroup file combined with restricting
+the view of cgroup hierarchy by namespace-private cgroupfs mount
+should provide a completely isolated cgroup view inside the container.
+
+In its current form, the cgroup namespaces patcheset provides following
+behavior:
+
+(1) The 'cgroupns-root' for a cgroup namespace is the cgroup in which
+ the process calling unshare is running.
+ For ex. if a process in /batchjobs/container_id1 cgroup calls unshare,
+ cgroup /batchjobs/container_id1 becomes the cgroupns-root.
+ For the init_cgroup_ns, this is the real root ('/') cgroup
+ (identified in code as cgrp_dfl_root.cgrp).
+
+(2) The cgroupns-root cgroup does not change even if the namespace
+ creator process later moves to a different cgroup.
+ $ ~/unshare -c # unshare cgroupns in some cgroup
+ [ns]$ cat /proc/self/cgroup
+ 0:cpuset,cpu,cpuacct,memory,devices,freezer,hugetlb:/
+ [ns]$ mkdir sub_cgrp_1
+ [ns]$ echo 0 > sub_cgrp_1/cgroup.procs
+ [ns]$ cat /proc/self/cgroup
+ 0:cpuset,cpu,cpuacct,memory,devices,freezer,hugetlb:/sub_cgrp_1
+
+(3) Each process gets its CGROUPNS specific view of /proc/<pid>/cgroup
+(a) Processes running inside the cgroup namespace will be able to see
+ cgroup paths (in /proc/self/cgroup) only inside their root cgroup
+ [ns]$ sleep 100000 & # From within unshared cgroupns
+ [1] 7353
+ [ns]$ echo 7353 > sub_cgrp_1/cgroup.procs
+ [ns]$ cat /proc/7353/cgroup
+ 0:cpuset,cpu,cpuacct,memory,devices,freezer,hugetlb:/sub_cgrp_1
+
+(b) From global cgroupns, the real cgroup path will be visible:
+ $ cat /proc/7353/cgroup
+ 0:cpuset,cpu,cpuacct,memory,devices,freezer,hugetlb:/batchjobs/container_id1/sub_cgrp_1
+
+(c) From a sibling cgroupns (cgroupns root-ed at a different cgroup), cgroup
+ path relative to its own cgroupns-root will be shown:
+ # ns2's cgroupns-root is at '/batchjobs/container_id2'
+ [ns2]$ cat /proc/7353/cgroup
+ 0:cpuset,cpu,cpuacct,memory,devices,freezer,hugetlb:/../container_id2/sub_cgrp_1
+
+ Note that the relative path always starts with '/' to indicate that its
+ relative to the cgroupns-root of the caller.
+
+(4) Processes inside a cgroupns can move in-and-out of the cgroupns-root
+ (if they have proper access to external cgroups).
+ # From inside cgroupns (with cgroupns-root at /batchjobs/container_id1), and
+ # assuming that the global hierarchy is still accessible inside cgroupns:
+ $ cat /proc/7353/cgroup
+ 0:cpuset,cpu,cpuacct,memory,devices,freezer,hugetlb:/sub_cgrp_1
+ $ echo 7353 > batchjobs/container_id2/cgroup.procs
+ $ cat /proc/7353/cgroup
+ 0:cpuset,cpu,cpuacct,memory,devices,freezer,hugetlb:/../container_id2
+
+ Note that this kind of setup is not encouraged. A task inside cgroupns
+ should only be exposed to its own cgroupns hierarchy. Otherwise it makes
+ the virtualization of /proc/<pid>/cgroup less useful.
+
+(5) Setns to another cgroup namespace is allowed when:
+ (a) the process has CAP_SYS_ADMIN in its current userns
+ (b) the process has CAP_SYS_ADMIN in the target cgroupns' userns
+ No implicit cgroup changes happen with attaching to another cgroupns. It
+ is expected that the somone moves the attaching process under the target
+ cgroupns-root.
+
+(6) When some thread from a multi-threaded process unshares its
+ cgroup-namespace, the new cgroupns gets applied to the entire process (all
+ the threads). For the unified-hierarchy this is expected as it only allows
+ process-level containerization. For the legacy hierarchies this may be
+ unexpected. So all the threads in the process will have the same cgroup.
+
+(7) The cgroup namespace is alive as long as there is atleast 1
+ process inside it. When the last process exits, the cgroup
+ namespace is destroyed. The cgroupns-root and the actual cgroups
+ remain though.
+
+(8) Namespace specific cgroup hierarchy can be mounted by a process running
+ inside cgroupns:
+ $ mount -t cgroup -o __DEVEL__sane_behavior cgroup $MOUNT_POINT
+
+ This will mount the unified cgroup hierarchy with cgroupns-root as the
+ filesystem root. The process needs CAP_SYS_ADMIN in its userns and mntns.
+
P. Information on Kernel Programming

This section contains kernel programming information in the areas
--
1.7.9.5


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