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Subject[PATCH v3 20/24] arm64: Documentation - Expose CPU feature registers
Date
Documentation for the infrastructure to expose CPU feature
register by emulating MRS.

Signed-off-by: Suzuki K. Poulose <suzuki.poulose@arm.com>
---
Documentation/arm64/cpu-feature-registers.txt | 225 +++++++++++++++++++++++++
1 file changed, 225 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 Documentation/arm64/cpu-feature-registers.txt

diff --git a/Documentation/arm64/cpu-feature-registers.txt b/Documentation/arm64/cpu-feature-registers.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..41981cb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/arm64/cpu-feature-registers.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,225 @@
+ ARM64 CPU Feature Registers
+ ===========================
+
+Author: Suzuki K. Poulose <suzuki.poulose@arm.com>
+
+
+This file describes the API for exporting the AArch64 CPU ID/feature registers
+to userspace.
+
+1. Motivation
+---------------
+
+The ARM architecture defines a set of feature registers, which describe
+the capabilities of the CPU/system. Access to these system registers is
+restricted from EL0 and there is no reliable way for an application to
+extract this information to make better decisions at runtime. There is
+limited information available to the application via ELF_HWCAPs, however
+there are some issues with their usage.
+
+ a) Any change to the HWCAPs requires an update to userspace (e.g libc)
+ to detect the new changes, which can take a long time to appear in
+ distributions. Exposing the registers allows applications to get the
+ information without requiring updates to the toolchains.
+
+ b) Access to HWCAPs is sometimes restricted (e.g prior to libc, or when ld is
+ initialised at startup time).
+
+ c) HWCAPs cannot represent non-boolean information effectively. The
+ architecture defines a canonical format for representing features
+ in the ID registers; this is well defined and is capable of
+ representing all valid architecture variations. Exposing the ID
+ registers avoids having to come up with HWCAP representations
+ and parsing code.
+
+
+2. Requirements
+-----------------
+
+ a) Safety :
+ Applications should be able to use the information provided by the
+ infrastructure to run optimally safely across the system. This has
+ greater implications on a system with heterogeneous CPUs. The
+ infrastructure exports a value that is safe across all the available
+ CPU on the system.
+
+ e.g, If at least one CPU doesn't implement CRC32 instructions, while others
+ do, we should report that the CRC32 is not implemented. Otherwise an
+ application could crash when scheduled on the CPU which doesn't support
+ CRC32.
+
+ b) Security :
+ Applications should only be able to receive information that is relevant
+ to the normal operation in userspace. Hence, some of the fields
+ are masked out and the values of the fields are set to indicate the
+ feature is 'not supported' (See the 'visible' field in the
+ table in Section 4). Also, the kernel may manipulate the fields based on what
+ it supports. e.g, If FP is not supported by the kernel, the values
+ could indicate that the FP is not available (even when the CPU provides
+ it).
+
+ c) Implementation Defined Features
+ The infrastructure doesn't expose any register which is
+ IMPLEMENTATION DEFINED as per ARMv8-A Architecture.
+
+ d) CPU Identification :
+ MIDR_EL1 is exposed to help identify the processor. On a heterogeneous
+ system, this could be racy (just like getcpu()). The process could be
+ migrated to another CPU by the time it uses the register value, unless the
+ CPU affinity is set. Hence, there is no guarantee that the value reflects the
+ processor that it is currently executing on. The REVIDR is not exposed due
+ to this constraint, as REVIDR makes sense only in conjunction with the MIDR.
+ Alternately, MIDR_EL1 and REVIDR_EL1 are exposed via sysfs at :
+ /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu$ID/identification/
+ \- midr
+ \- revidr
+
+The list of supported registers and the attributes of individual
+feature bits are listed in section 4. Unless there is absolute necessity,
+we don't encourage the addition of new feature registers to the list.
+In any case, it should comply to the requirements listed above.
+
+3. Implementation
+--------------------
+
+The infrastructure is built on the emulation of the 'MRS' instruction.
+Accessing a restricted system register from an application generates an
+exception and ends up in SIGILL being delivered to the process.
+The infrastructure hooks into the exception handler and emulates the
+operation if the source belongs to the supported system register space.
+
+The infrastructure emulates only the following system register space:
+ Op0=3, Op1=0, CRn=0
+
+(See Table C5-6 'System instruction encodings for System register accesses'
+ in ARMv8 ARM, for the list of registers).
+
+
+The following rules are applied to the value returned by the infrastructure:
+
+ a) The value of an 'IMPLEMENTATION DEFINED' field is set to 0.
+ b) The value of a reserved field is populated with the reserved
+ value as defined by the architecture.
+ c) The value of a field marked as not 'visible', is set to indicate
+ the feature is missing (as defined by the architecture).
+ d) The value of a 'visible' field holds the system wide safe value
+ for the particular feature(except for MIDR_EL1, see section 4).
+ See Appendix I for more information on safe value.
+
+There are only a few registers visible to the userspace. See Section 4,
+for the list of 'visible' registers.
+
+The registers which are either reserved RAZ or IMPLEMENTAION DEFINED are
+emulated as 0.
+
+All others are emulated as having 'invisible' features.
+
+4. List of exposed registers
+-----------------------------
+
+ 1) ID_AA64ISAR0_EL1 - Instruction Set Attribute Register 0
+ x--------------------------------------------------x
+ | Name | bits | visible |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | RAZ | [63-20] | n |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | CRC32 | [19-16] | y |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | SHA2 | [15-12] | y |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | SHA1 | [11-8] | y |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | AES | [7-4] | y |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | RAZ | [3-0] | n |
+ x--------------------------------------------------x
+
+ 2) ID_AA64ISAR1_EL1 - Instruction Set Attribute Register 1
+ x--------------------------------------------------x
+ | Name | bits | visible |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | RAZ | [63-0] | y |
+ x--------------------------------------------------x
+
+ 3) ID_AA64PFR0_EL1 - Processor Feature Register 0
+ x--------------------------------------------------x
+ | Name | bits | visible |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | RAZ | [63-28] | n |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | GIC | [27-24] | n |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | AdvSIMD | [23-20] | y |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | FP | [19-16] | y |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | EL3 | [15-12] | n |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | EL2 | [11-8] | n |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | EL1 | [7-4] | n |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | EL0 | [3-0] | n |
+ x--------------------------------------------------x
+
+ 4) ID_AA64PFR1_EL1 - Processor Feature Register 1
+ x--------------------------------------------------x
+ | Name | bits | visible |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | RAZ | [63-0] | y |
+ x--------------------------------------------------x
+
+ 5) MIDR_EL1 - Main ID Register
+ x--------------------------------------------------x
+ | Name | bits | visible |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | RAZ | [63-32] | n |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | Implementer | [31-24] | y |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | Variant | [23-20] | y |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | Architecture | [19-16] | y |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | PartNum | [15-4] | y |
+ |--------------------------------------------------|
+ | Revision | [3-0] | y |
+ x--------------------------------------------------x
+
+ NOTE: The 'visible' fields of MIDR_EL1 will contain the value
+ as available on the CPU where it is fetched and is not a system
+ wide safe value.
+
+
+Appendix
+-----------
+
+I. CPUID feature value types
+
+ The safe value of a CPUID feature field is dependent on the implications
+ of the values assigned to it by the architecture. Based on the relationship
+ between the values, the features are classified into 3 types.
+
+ a) LOWER_SAFE - The value 'n+1' indicates, value 'n' and some
+ additional features. (where n >= 0). The smaller value (n) is
+ considered safer in this case.
+
+ b) HIGHER_SAFE - The value 'n+1' is safer than 'n' (for n>= 0).
+
+ c) EXACT - If the values of the feature don't have any relationship,
+ a predefined safe value is used.
+
+II. CPUID feature value scheme for features
+
+ For features that are not of the EXACT type as described, the following rule applies.
+ Each 4bit field is a signed value, with RAZ as the original value defined by
+ the architecture. When a feature is added or extended the field is incremented.
+ If an existing feature(whose value is 0) is removed, the value becomes negative(0xf).
+
+ e.g: 1) Value for ID_AA64PFR0:FP
+ 0 - Floating Point instructions supported.
+ 0xf - Floating Point instructions not supported.
+
+ 2) Value for ID_AA64MMFR0:TGran16
+ 0 - 16K page size not supported.
+ 1 - 16K page size supported.
--
1.7.9.5


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