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SubjectRe: [PATCH v3 00/13] Add kdbus implementation
[Bother. Futzed Daniel Mack's email address. Resending]

On 01/16/2015 08:16 PM, Greg Kroah-Hartman wrote:
> kdbus is a kernel-level IPC implementation that aims for resemblance to
> the the protocol layer with the existing userspace D-Bus daemon while
> enabling some features that couldn't be implemented before in userspace.
>
> The documentation in the first patch in this series explains the
> protocol and the API details.
>
> Full details on what has changed from the v2 submission are at the
> bottom of this email.
>
> Reasons why this should be done in the kernel, instead of userspace as
> it is currently done today include the following:
>
> - performance: fewer process context switches, fewer copies, fewer
> syscalls, larger memory chunks via memfd. This is really important
> for a whole class of userspace programs that are ported from other
> operating systems that are run on tiny ARM systems that rely on
> hundreds of thousands of messages passed at boot time, and at
> "critical" times in their user interaction loops.
> - security: the peers which communicate do not have to trust each other,
> as the only trustworthy compoenent in the game is the kernel which
> adds metadata and ensures that all data passed as payload is either
> copied or sealed, so that the receiver can parse the data without
> having to protect against changing memory while parsing buffers. Also,
> all the data transfer is controlled by the kernel, so that LSMs can
> track and control what is going on, without involving userspace.
> Because of the LSM issue, security people are much happier with this
> model than the current scheme of having to hook into dbus to mediate
> things.
> - more metadata can be attached to messages than in userspace
> - semantics for apps with heavy data payloads (media apps, for instance)
> with optinal priority message dequeuing, and global message ordering.
> Some "crazy" people are playing with using kdbus for audio data in the
> system. I'm not saying that this is the best model for this, but
> until now, there wasn't any other way to do this without having to
> create custom "busses", one for each application library.
> - being in the kernle closes a lot of races which can't be fixed with
> the current userspace solutions. For example, with kdbus, there is a
> way a client can disconnect from a bus, but do so only if no further
> messages present in its queue, which is crucial for implementing
> race-free "exit-on-idle" services
> - eavesdropping on the kernel level, so privileged users can hook into
> the message stream without hacking support for that into their
> userspace processes
> - a number of smaller benefits: for example kdbus learned a way to peek
> full messages without dequeing them, which is really useful for
> logging metadata when handling bus-activation requests.
>
> Of course, some of the bits above could be implemented in userspace
> alone, for example with more sophisticated memory management APIs, but
> this is usually done by losing out on the other details. For example,
> for many of the memory management APIs, it's hard to not require the
> communicating peers to fully trust each other. And we _really_ don't
> want peers to have to trust each other.
>
> Another benefit of having this in the kernel, rather than as a userspace
> daemon, is that you can now easily use the bus from the initrd, or up to
> the very end when the system shuts down. On current userspace D-Bus,
> this is not really possible, as this requires passing the bus instance
> around between initrd and the "real" system. Such a transition of all
> fds also requires keeping full state of what has already been read from
> the connection fds. kdbus makes this much simpler, as we can change the
> ownership of the bus, just by passing one fd over from one part to the
> other.

I tend to think that much of the above should also be part of the
documentation file (patch 01/13).

Cheers,

Michael



> Regarding binder: binder and kdbus follow very different design
> concepts. Binder implies the use of thread-pools to dispatch incoming
> method calls. This is a very efficient scheme, and completely natural
> in programming languages like Java. On most Linux programs, however,
> there's a much stronger focus on central poll() loops that dispatch all
> sources a program cares about. kdbus is much more usable in such
> environments, as it doesn't enforce a threading model, and it is happy
> with serialized dispatching. In fact, this major difference had an
> effect on much of the design decisions: binder does not guarantee global
> message ordering due to the parallel dispatching in the thread-pools,
> but kdbus does. Moreover, there's also a difference in the way message
> handling. In kdbus, every message is basically taken and dispatched as
> one blob, while in binder, continious connections to other peers are
> created, which are then used to send messages on. Hence, the models are
> quite different, and they serve different needs. I believe that the
> D-Bus/kdbus model is more compatible and friendly with how Linux
> programs are usually implemented.
>
> This can also be found in a git tree, the kdbus branch of char-misc.git at:
> https://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/gregkh/char-misc.git/
>
> Changes since v2:
>
> * Add FS_USERNS_MOUNT to the file system flags, so users can mount
> their own kdbusfs instances without being root in the parent
> user-ns. Spotted by Andy Lutomirski.
>
> * Rewrite major parts of the metadata implementation to allow for
> per-recipient namespace translations. For this, namespaces are
> now not pinned by domains anymore. Instead, metadata is recorded
> in kernel scope, and exported into the currently active namespaces
> at the time of message installing.
>
> * Split PID and TID from KDBUS_ITEM_CREDS into KDBUS_ITEM_PIDS.
> The starttime is there to detect re-used PIDs, so move it to that
> new item type as well. Consequently, introduce struct kdbus_pids
> to accommodate the information. Requested by Andy Lutomirski.
>
> * Add {e,s,fs}{u,g}id to KDBUS_ITEM_CREDS, so users have a way to
> get more fine-grained credential information.
>
> * Removed KDBUS_CMD_CANCEL. The interface was not usable from
> threaded userspace implementation due to inherent races. Instead,
> add an item type CANCEL_FD which can be used to pass a file
> descriptor to the CMD_SEND ioctl. When the SEND is done
> synchronously, it will get cancelled as soon as the passed
> FD signals POLLIN.
>
> * Dropped startttime from KDBUS_ITEM_PIDS
>
> * Restrict names of custom endpoints to names with a "<uid>-" prefix,
> just like we do for buses.
>
> * Provide module-parameter "kdbus.attach_flags_mask" to specify the
> a mask of metadata items that is applied on all exported items.
>
> * Monitors are now entirely invisible (IOW, there won't be any
> notification when they are created) and they don't need to install
> filters for broadcast messages anymore.
>
> * All information exposed via a connection's pool now also reports
> the length in addition to the offset. That way, userspace
> applications can mmap() only parts of the pool on demand.
>
> * Due to the metadata rework, KDBUS_ITEM_PAYLOAD_OFF items now
> describe the offset relative to the pool, where they used to be
> relative to the message header.
>
> * Added return_flags bitmask to all kdbus_cmd_* structs, so the
> kernel can report details of the command processing. This is
> mostly reserved for future extensions.
>
> * Some fixes in kdbus.txt and tests, spotted by Harald Hoyer, Andy
> Lutomirski, Michele Curti, Sergei Zviagintsev, Sheng Yong, Torstein
> Husebø and Hristo Venev.
>
> * Fixed compiler warnings in test-message by Michele Curti
>
> * Unexpected items are now rejected with -EINVAL
>
> * Split signal and broadcast handling. Unicast signals are now
> supported, and messages have a new KDBUS_MSG_SIGNAL flag.
>
> * KDBUS_CMD_MSG_SEND was renamed to KDBUS_CMD_SEND, and now takes
> a struct kdbus_cmd_send instead of a kdbus_msg.
>
> * KDBUS_CMD_MSG_RECV was renamed to KDBUS_CMD_RECV.
>
> * Test case memory leak plugged, and various other cleanups and
> fixes, by Rui Miguel Silva.
>
> * Build fix for s390
>
> * Test case fix for 32bit archs
>
> * The test framework now supports mount, pid and user namespaces.
>
> * The test framework learned a --tap command line parameter to
> format its output in the "Test Anything Protocol". This format
> is chosen by default when "make kselftest" is invoked.
>
> * Fixed buses and custom endpoints name validation, reported by
> Andy Lutomirski.
>
> * copy_from_user() return code issue fixed, reported by
> Dan Carpenter.
>
> * Avoid signed int overflow on archs without atomic_sub
>
> * Avoid variable size stack items. Fixes a sparse warning in queue.c.
>
> * New test case for kernel notification quota
>
> * Switched back to enums for the list of ioctls. This has advantages
> for userspace code as gdb, for instance, is able to resolve the
> numbers into names. Added features can easily be detected with
> autotools, and new iotcls can get #defines as well. Having #defines
> for the initial set of ioctls is uncecessary.
>
> Daniel Mack (13):
> kdbus: add documentation
> kdbus: add header file
> kdbus: add driver skeleton, ioctl entry points and utility functions
> kdbus: add connection pool implementation
> kdbus: add connection, queue handling and message validation code
> kdbus: add node and filesystem implementation
> kdbus: add code to gather metadata
> kdbus: add code for notifications and matches
> kdbus: add code for buses, domains and endpoints
> kdbus: add name registry implementation
> kdbus: add policy database implementation
> kdbus: add Makefile, Kconfig and MAINTAINERS entry
> kdbus: add selftests
>
> Documentation/ioctl/ioctl-number.txt | 1 +
> Documentation/kdbus.txt | 2107 +++++++++++++++++++++
> MAINTAINERS | 12 +
> include/uapi/linux/Kbuild | 1 +
> include/uapi/linux/kdbus.h | 1049 ++++++++++
> include/uapi/linux/magic.h | 2 +
> init/Kconfig | 12 +
> ipc/Makefile | 2 +-
> ipc/kdbus/Makefile | 22 +
> ipc/kdbus/bus.c | 553 ++++++
> ipc/kdbus/bus.h | 103 +
> ipc/kdbus/connection.c | 2004 ++++++++++++++++++++
> ipc/kdbus/connection.h | 262 +++
> ipc/kdbus/domain.c | 350 ++++
> ipc/kdbus/domain.h | 84 +
> ipc/kdbus/endpoint.c | 232 +++
> ipc/kdbus/endpoint.h | 68 +
> ipc/kdbus/fs.c | 519 +++++
> ipc/kdbus/fs.h | 25 +
> ipc/kdbus/handle.c | 1134 +++++++++++
> ipc/kdbus/handle.h | 20 +
> ipc/kdbus/item.c | 309 +++
> ipc/kdbus/item.h | 57 +
> ipc/kdbus/limits.h | 95 +
> ipc/kdbus/main.c | 72 +
> ipc/kdbus/match.c | 535 ++++++
> ipc/kdbus/match.h | 32 +
> ipc/kdbus/message.c | 598 ++++++
> ipc/kdbus/message.h | 133 ++
> ipc/kdbus/metadata.c | 1066 +++++++++++
> ipc/kdbus/metadata.h | 52 +
> ipc/kdbus/names.c | 891 +++++++++
> ipc/kdbus/names.h | 82 +
> ipc/kdbus/node.c | 910 +++++++++
> ipc/kdbus/node.h | 87 +
> ipc/kdbus/notify.c | 244 +++
> ipc/kdbus/notify.h | 30 +
> ipc/kdbus/policy.c | 481 +++++
> ipc/kdbus/policy.h | 51 +
> ipc/kdbus/pool.c | 784 ++++++++
> ipc/kdbus/pool.h | 47 +
> ipc/kdbus/queue.c | 505 +++++
> ipc/kdbus/queue.h | 108 ++
> ipc/kdbus/reply.c | 262 +++
> ipc/kdbus/reply.h | 68 +
> ipc/kdbus/util.c | 317 ++++
> ipc/kdbus/util.h | 133 ++
> tools/testing/selftests/Makefile | 1 +
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/.gitignore | 11 +
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/Makefile | 46 +
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/kdbus-enum.c | 95 +
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/kdbus-enum.h | 14 +
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/kdbus-test.c | 920 +++++++++
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/kdbus-test.h | 85 +
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/kdbus-util.c | 1646 ++++++++++++++++
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/kdbus-util.h | 216 +++
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-activator.c | 319 ++++
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-attach-flags.c | 751 ++++++++
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-benchmark.c | 427 +++++
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-bus.c | 174 ++
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-chat.c | 123 ++
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-connection.c | 611 ++++++
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-daemon.c | 66 +
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-endpoint.c | 344 ++++
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-fd.c | 710 +++++++
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-free.c | 36 +
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-match.c | 442 +++++
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-message.c | 658 +++++++
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-metadata-ns.c | 507 +++++
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-monitor.c | 158 ++
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-names.c | 184 ++
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-policy-ns.c | 633 +++++++
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-policy-priv.c | 1270 +++++++++++++
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-policy.c | 81 +
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-race.c | 313 +++
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-sync.c | 368 ++++
> tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-timeout.c | 99 +
> 77 files changed, 27818 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
> create mode 100644 Documentation/kdbus.txt
> create mode 100644 include/uapi/linux/kdbus.h
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/Makefile
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/bus.c
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/bus.h
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/connection.c
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/connection.h
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/domain.c
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/domain.h
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/endpoint.c
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/endpoint.h
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/fs.c
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/fs.h
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/handle.c
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/handle.h
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/item.c
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/item.h
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/limits.h
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/main.c
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/match.c
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/match.h
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/message.c
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/message.h
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/metadata.c
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/metadata.h
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/names.c
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/names.h
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/node.c
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/node.h
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/notify.c
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/notify.h
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/policy.c
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/policy.h
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/pool.c
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/pool.h
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/queue.c
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/queue.h
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/reply.c
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/reply.h
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/util.c
> create mode 100644 ipc/kdbus/util.h
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/.gitignore
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/Makefile
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/kdbus-enum.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/kdbus-enum.h
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/kdbus-test.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/kdbus-test.h
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/kdbus-util.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/kdbus-util.h
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-activator.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-attach-flags.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-benchmark.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-bus.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-chat.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-connection.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-daemon.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-endpoint.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-fd.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-free.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-match.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-message.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-metadata-ns.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-monitor.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-names.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-policy-ns.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-policy-priv.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-policy.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-race.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-sync.c
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kdbus/test-timeout.c
>
>
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--
Michael Kerrisk
Linux man-pages maintainer; http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/
Linux/UNIX System Programming Training: http://man7.org/training/


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