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Subject[PATCH 2/2] x86,vdso: Get rid of the fake section mechanism
Date
Now that we can tolerate extra things dangling off the end of the
vdso image, we can strip the vdso the old fashioned way rather than
using an overcomplicated custom stripping algorithm.

This is a partial reversion of:
6f121e5 x86, vdso: Reimplement vdso.so preparation in build-time C

Signed-off-by: Andy Lutomirski <luto@amacapital.net>
---
arch/x86/vdso/Makefile | 16 +--
arch/x86/vdso/vdso-fakesections.c | 21 ----
arch/x86/vdso/vdso2c.c | 116 +++++++++++++++++-----
arch/x86/vdso/vdso2c.h | 202 +++++---------------------------------
4 files changed, 126 insertions(+), 229 deletions(-)
delete mode 100644 arch/x86/vdso/vdso-fakesections.c

diff --git a/arch/x86/vdso/Makefile b/arch/x86/vdso/Makefile
index 61b04fe..5a4affe 100644
--- a/arch/x86/vdso/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/vdso/Makefile
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ VDSO32-$(CONFIG_X86_32) := y
VDSO32-$(CONFIG_COMPAT) := y

# files to link into the vdso
-vobjs-y := vdso-note.o vclock_gettime.o vgetcpu.o vdso-fakesections.o
+vobjs-y := vdso-note.o vclock_gettime.o vgetcpu.o

# files to link into kernel
obj-y += vma.o
@@ -37,7 +37,8 @@ vdso_img_sodbg := $(vdso_img-y:%=vdso%.so.dbg)
obj-y += $(vdso_img_objs)
targets += $(vdso_img_cfiles)
targets += $(vdso_img_sodbg)
-.SECONDARY: $(vdso_img-y:%=$(obj)/vdso-image-%.c)
+.SECONDARY: $(vdso_img-y:%=$(obj)/vdso-image-%.c) \
+ $(vdso_img-y:%=$(obj)/vdso%.so)

export CPPFLAGS_vdso.lds += -P -C

@@ -54,10 +55,10 @@ hostprogs-y += vdso2c

quiet_cmd_vdso2c = VDSO2C $@
define cmd_vdso2c
- $(obj)/vdso2c $< $@
+ $(obj)/vdso2c $< $(<:%.dbg=%) $@
endef

-$(obj)/vdso-image-%.c: $(obj)/vdso%.so.dbg $(obj)/vdso2c FORCE
+$(obj)/vdso-image-%.c: $(obj)/vdso%.so.dbg $(obj)/vdso%.so $(obj)/vdso2c FORCE
$(call if_changed,vdso2c)

#
@@ -113,6 +114,10 @@ $(obj)/%-x32.o: $(obj)/%.o FORCE

targets += vdsox32.lds $(vobjx32s-y)

+$(obj)/%.so: OBJCOPYFLAGS := -S
+$(obj)/%.so: $(obj)/%.so.dbg
+ $(call if_changed,objcopy)
+
$(obj)/vdsox32.so.dbg: $(src)/vdsox32.lds $(vobjx32s) FORCE
$(call if_changed,vdso)

@@ -134,7 +139,7 @@ override obj-dirs = $(dir $(obj)) $(obj)/vdso32/

targets += vdso32/vdso32.lds
targets += vdso32/note.o vdso32/vclock_gettime.o $(vdso32.so-y:%=vdso32/%.o)
-targets += vdso32/vclock_gettime.o vdso32/vdso-fakesections.o
+targets += vdso32/vclock_gettime.o

$(obj)/vdso32.o: $(vdso32-images:%=$(obj)/%)

@@ -156,7 +161,6 @@ $(vdso32-images:%=$(obj)/%.dbg): KBUILD_CFLAGS = $(KBUILD_CFLAGS_32)
$(vdso32-images:%=$(obj)/%.dbg): $(obj)/vdso32-%.so.dbg: FORCE \
$(obj)/vdso32/vdso32.lds \
$(obj)/vdso32/vclock_gettime.o \
- $(obj)/vdso32/vdso-fakesections.o \
$(obj)/vdso32/note.o \
$(obj)/vdso32/%.o
$(call if_changed,vdso)
diff --git a/arch/x86/vdso/vdso-fakesections.c b/arch/x86/vdso/vdso-fakesections.c
deleted file mode 100644
index aa5fbfa..0000000
--- a/arch/x86/vdso/vdso-fakesections.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,21 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Copyright 2014 Andy Lutomirski
- * Subject to the GNU Public License, v.2
- *
- * String table for loadable section headers. See vdso2c.h for why
- * this exists.
- */
-
-const char fake_shstrtab[] __attribute__((section(".fake_shstrtab"))) =
- ".hash\0"
- ".dynsym\0"
- ".dynstr\0"
- ".gnu.version\0"
- ".gnu.version_d\0"
- ".dynamic\0"
- ".rodata\0"
- ".fake_shstrtab\0" /* Yay, self-referential code. */
- ".note\0"
- ".eh_frame_hdr\0"
- ".eh_frame\0"
- ".text";
diff --git a/arch/x86/vdso/vdso2c.c b/arch/x86/vdso/vdso2c.c
index 22c54d0..8627db2 100644
--- a/arch/x86/vdso/vdso2c.c
+++ b/arch/x86/vdso/vdso2c.c
@@ -1,3 +1,53 @@
+/*
+ * vdso2c - A vdso image preparation tool
+ * Copyright (c) 2014 Andy Lutomirski and others
+ * Licensed under the GPL v2
+ *
+ * vdso2c requires stripped and unstripped input. It would be trivial
+ * to fully strip the input in here, but, for reasons described below,
+ * we need to write a section table. Doing this is more or less
+ * equivalent to dropping all non-allocatable sections, but it's
+ * easier to let objcopy handle that instead of doing it ourselves.
+ * If we ever need to do something fancier than what objcopy provides,
+ * it would be straightforward to add here.
+ *
+ * We're keep a section table for a few reasons:
+ *
+ * The Go runtime had a couple of bugs: it would read the section
+ * table to try to figure out how many dynamic symbols there were (it
+ * shouldn't have looked at the section table at all) and, if there
+ * were no SHT_SYNDYM section table entry, it would use an
+ * uninitialized value for the number of symbols. An empty DYNSYM
+ * table would work, but I see no reason not to write a valid one (and
+ * keep full performance for old Go programs). This hack is only
+ * needed on x86_64.
+ *
+ * The bug was introduced on 2012-08-31 by:
+ * https://code.google.com/p/go/source/detail?r=56ea40aac72b
+ * and was fixed on 2014-06-13 by:
+ * https://code.google.com/p/go/source/detail?r=fc1cd5e12595
+ *
+ * Binutils has issues debugging the vDSO: it reads the section table to
+ * find SHT_NOTE; it won't look at PT_NOTE for the in-memory vDSO, which
+ * would break build-id if we removed the section table. Binutils
+ * also requires that shstrndx != 0. See:
+ * https://sourceware.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=17064
+ *
+ * elfutils might not look for PT_NOTE if there is a section table at
+ * all. I don't know whether this matters for any practical purpose.
+ *
+ * For simplicity, rather than hacking up a partial section table, we
+ * just write a mostly complete one. We omit non-dynamic symbols,
+ * though, since they're rather large.
+ *
+ * Once binutils gets fixed, we might be able to drop this for all but
+ * the 64-bit vdso, since build-id only works in kernel RPMs, and
+ * systems that update to new enough kernel RPMs will likely update
+ * binutils in sync. build-id has never worked for home-built kernel
+ * RPMs without manual symlinking, and I suspect that no one ever does
+ * that.
+ */
+
#include <inttypes.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#include <unistd.h>
@@ -61,7 +111,8 @@ static void fail(const char *format, ...)
va_start(ap, format);
fprintf(stderr, "Error: ");
vfprintf(stderr, format, ap);
- unlink(outfilename);
+ if (outfilename)
+ unlink(outfilename);
exit(1);
va_end(ap);
}
@@ -114,30 +165,53 @@ extern void bad_put_le(void);
#include "vdso2c.h"
#undef ELF_BITS

-static void go(void *addr, size_t len, FILE *outfile, const char *name)
+static void go(void *raw_addr, size_t raw_len,
+ void *stripped_addr, size_t stripped_len,
+ FILE *outfile, const char *name)
{
- Elf64_Ehdr *hdr = (Elf64_Ehdr *)addr;
+ Elf64_Ehdr *hdr = (Elf64_Ehdr *)raw_addr;

if (hdr->e_ident[EI_CLASS] == ELFCLASS64) {
- go64(addr, len, outfile, name);
+ go64(raw_addr, raw_len, stripped_addr, stripped_len,
+ outfile, name);
} else if (hdr->e_ident[EI_CLASS] == ELFCLASS32) {
- go32(addr, len, outfile, name);
+ go32(raw_addr, raw_len, stripped_addr, stripped_len,
+ outfile, name);
} else {
fail("unknown ELF class\n");
}
}

+static void map_input(const char *name, void **addr, size_t *len, int prot)
+{
+ off_t tmp_len;
+
+ int fd = open(name, O_RDONLY);
+ if (fd == -1)
+ err(1, "%s", name);
+
+ tmp_len = lseek(fd, 0, SEEK_END);
+ if (tmp_len == (off_t)-1)
+ err(1, "lseek");
+ *len = (size_t)tmp_len;
+
+ *addr = mmap(NULL, tmp_len, prot, MAP_PRIVATE, fd, 0);
+ if (*addr == MAP_FAILED)
+ err(1, "mmap");
+
+ close(fd);
+}
+
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
- int fd;
- off_t len;
- void *addr;
+ size_t raw_len, stripped_len;
+ void *raw_addr, *stripped_addr;
FILE *outfile;
char *name, *tmp;
int namelen;

- if (argc != 3) {
- printf("Usage: vdso2c INPUT OUTPUT\n");
+ if (argc != 4) {
+ printf("Usage: vdso2c RAW_INPUT STRIPPED_INPUT OUTPUT\n");
return 1;
}

@@ -145,7 +219,7 @@ int main(int argc, char **argv)
* Figure out the struct name. If we're writing to a .so file,
* generate raw output insted.
*/
- name = strdup(argv[2]);
+ name = strdup(argv[3]);
namelen = strlen(name);
if (namelen >= 3 && !strcmp(name + namelen - 3, ".so")) {
name = NULL;
@@ -161,26 +235,18 @@ int main(int argc, char **argv)
*tmp = '_';
}

- fd = open(argv[1], O_RDONLY);
- if (fd == -1)
- err(1, "%s", argv[1]);
-
- len = lseek(fd, 0, SEEK_END);
- if (len == (off_t)-1)
- err(1, "lseek");
-
- addr = mmap(NULL, len, PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE, fd, 0);
- if (addr == MAP_FAILED)
- err(1, "mmap");
+ map_input(argv[1], &raw_addr, &raw_len, PROT_READ);
+ map_input(argv[2], &stripped_addr, &stripped_len, PROT_READ);

- outfilename = argv[2];
+ outfilename = argv[3];
outfile = fopen(outfilename, "w");
if (!outfile)
err(1, "%s", argv[2]);

- go(addr, (size_t)len, outfile, name);
+ go(raw_addr, raw_len, stripped_addr, stripped_len, outfile, name);

- munmap(addr, len);
+ munmap(raw_addr, raw_len);
+ munmap(stripped_addr, stripped_len);
fclose(outfile);

return 0;
diff --git a/arch/x86/vdso/vdso2c.h b/arch/x86/vdso/vdso2c.h
index 2da32fbc..fd57829 100644
--- a/arch/x86/vdso/vdso2c.h
+++ b/arch/x86/vdso/vdso2c.h
@@ -4,128 +4,14 @@
* are built for 32-bit userspace.
*/

-/*
- * We're writing a section table for a few reasons:
- *
- * The Go runtime had a couple of bugs: it would read the section
- * table to try to figure out how many dynamic symbols there were (it
- * shouldn't have looked at the section table at all) and, if there
- * were no SHT_SYNDYM section table entry, it would use an
- * uninitialized value for the number of symbols. An empty DYNSYM
- * table would work, but I see no reason not to write a valid one (and
- * keep full performance for old Go programs). This hack is only
- * needed on x86_64.
- *
- * The bug was introduced on 2012-08-31 by:
- * https://code.google.com/p/go/source/detail?r=56ea40aac72b
- * and was fixed on 2014-06-13 by:
- * https://code.google.com/p/go/source/detail?r=fc1cd5e12595
- *
- * Binutils has issues debugging the vDSO: it reads the section table to
- * find SHT_NOTE; it won't look at PT_NOTE for the in-memory vDSO, which
- * would break build-id if we removed the section table. Binutils
- * also requires that shstrndx != 0. See:
- * https://sourceware.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=17064
- *
- * elfutils might not look for PT_NOTE if there is a section table at
- * all. I don't know whether this matters for any practical purpose.
- *
- * For simplicity, rather than hacking up a partial section table, we
- * just write a mostly complete one. We omit non-dynamic symbols,
- * though, since they're rather large.
- *
- * Once binutils gets fixed, we might be able to drop this for all but
- * the 64-bit vdso, since build-id only works in kernel RPMs, and
- * systems that update to new enough kernel RPMs will likely update
- * binutils in sync. build-id has never worked for home-built kernel
- * RPMs without manual symlinking, and I suspect that no one ever does
- * that.
- */
-struct BITSFUNC(fake_sections)
-{
- ELF(Shdr) *table;
- unsigned long table_offset;
- int count, max_count;
-
- int in_shstrndx;
- unsigned long shstr_offset;
- const char *shstrtab;
- size_t shstrtab_len;
-
- int out_shstrndx;
-};
-
-static unsigned int BITSFUNC(find_shname)(struct BITSFUNC(fake_sections) *out,
- const char *name)
-{
- const char *outname = out->shstrtab;
- while (outname - out->shstrtab < out->shstrtab_len) {
- if (!strcmp(name, outname))
- return (outname - out->shstrtab) + out->shstr_offset;
- outname += strlen(outname) + 1;
- }
-
- if (*name)
- printf("Warning: could not find output name \"%s\"\n", name);
- return out->shstr_offset + out->shstrtab_len - 1; /* Use a null. */
-}
-
-static void BITSFUNC(init_sections)(struct BITSFUNC(fake_sections) *out)
-{
- if (!out->in_shstrndx)
- fail("didn't find the fake shstrndx\n");
-
- memset(out->table, 0, out->max_count * sizeof(ELF(Shdr)));
-
- if (out->max_count < 1)
- fail("we need at least two fake output sections\n");
-
- PUT_LE(&out->table[0].sh_type, SHT_NULL);
- PUT_LE(&out->table[0].sh_name, BITSFUNC(find_shname)(out, ""));
-
- out->count = 1;
-}
-
-static void BITSFUNC(copy_section)(struct BITSFUNC(fake_sections) *out,
- int in_idx, const ELF(Shdr) *in,
- const char *name)
-{
- uint64_t flags = GET_LE(&in->sh_flags);
-
- bool copy = flags & SHF_ALLOC &&
- (GET_LE(&in->sh_size) ||
- (GET_LE(&in->sh_type) != SHT_RELA &&
- GET_LE(&in->sh_type) != SHT_REL)) &&
- strcmp(name, ".altinstructions") &&
- strcmp(name, ".altinstr_replacement");
-
- if (!copy)
- return;
-
- if (out->count >= out->max_count)
- fail("too many copied sections (max = %d)\n", out->max_count);
-
- if (in_idx == out->in_shstrndx)
- out->out_shstrndx = out->count;
-
- out->table[out->count] = *in;
- PUT_LE(&out->table[out->count].sh_name,
- BITSFUNC(find_shname)(out, name));
-
- /* elfutils requires that a strtab have the correct type. */
- if (!strcmp(name, ".fake_shstrtab"))
- PUT_LE(&out->table[out->count].sh_type, SHT_STRTAB);
-
- out->count++;
-}
-
-static void BITSFUNC(go)(void *addr, size_t len,
+static void BITSFUNC(go)(void *raw_addr, size_t raw_len,
+ void *stripped_addr, size_t stripped_len,
FILE *outfile, const char *name)
{
int found_load = 0;
unsigned long load_size = -1; /* Work around bogus warning */
- unsigned long data_size;
- ELF(Ehdr) *hdr = (ELF(Ehdr) *)addr;
+ unsigned long mapping_size;
+ ELF(Ehdr) *hdr = (ELF(Ehdr) *)raw_addr;
int i;
unsigned long j;
ELF(Shdr) *symtab_hdr = NULL, *strtab_hdr, *secstrings_hdr,
@@ -134,9 +20,7 @@ static void BITSFUNC(go)(void *addr, size_t len,
const char *secstrings;
INT_BITS syms[NSYMS] = {};

- struct BITSFUNC(fake_sections) fake_sections = {};
-
- ELF(Phdr) *pt = (ELF(Phdr) *)(addr + GET_LE(&hdr->e_phoff));
+ ELF(Phdr) *pt = (ELF(Phdr) *)(raw_addr + GET_LE(&hdr->e_phoff));

/* Walk the segment table. */
for (i = 0; i < GET_LE(&hdr->e_phnum); i++) {
@@ -154,14 +38,16 @@ static void BITSFUNC(go)(void *addr, size_t len,
load_size = GET_LE(&pt[i].p_memsz);
found_load = 1;
} else if (GET_LE(&pt[i].p_type) == PT_DYNAMIC) {
- dyn = addr + GET_LE(&pt[i].p_offset);
- dyn_end = addr + GET_LE(&pt[i].p_offset) +
+ dyn = raw_addr + GET_LE(&pt[i].p_offset);
+ dyn_end = raw_addr + GET_LE(&pt[i].p_offset) +
GET_LE(&pt[i].p_memsz);
}
}
if (!found_load)
fail("no PT_LOAD seg\n");
- data_size = (load_size + 4095) / 4096 * 4096;
+
+ if (stripped_len < load_size)
+ fail("stripped input is too short\n");

/* Walk the dynamic table */
for (i = 0; dyn + i < dyn_end &&
@@ -173,11 +59,11 @@ static void BITSFUNC(go)(void *addr, size_t len,
}

/* Walk the section table */
- secstrings_hdr = addr + GET_LE(&hdr->e_shoff) +
+ secstrings_hdr = raw_addr + GET_LE(&hdr->e_shoff) +
GET_LE(&hdr->e_shentsize)*GET_LE(&hdr->e_shstrndx);
- secstrings = addr + GET_LE(&secstrings_hdr->sh_offset);
+ secstrings = raw_addr + GET_LE(&secstrings_hdr->sh_offset);
for (i = 0; i < GET_LE(&hdr->e_shnum); i++) {
- ELF(Shdr) *sh = addr + GET_LE(&hdr->e_shoff) +
+ ELF(Shdr) *sh = raw_addr + GET_LE(&hdr->e_shoff) +
GET_LE(&hdr->e_shentsize) * i;
if (GET_LE(&sh->sh_type) == SHT_SYMTAB)
symtab_hdr = sh;
@@ -190,7 +76,7 @@ static void BITSFUNC(go)(void *addr, size_t len,
if (!symtab_hdr)
fail("no symbol table\n");

- strtab_hdr = addr + GET_LE(&hdr->e_shoff) +
+ strtab_hdr = raw_addr + GET_LE(&hdr->e_shoff) +
GET_LE(&hdr->e_shentsize) * GET_LE(&symtab_hdr->sh_link);

/* Walk the symbol table */
@@ -198,9 +84,9 @@ static void BITSFUNC(go)(void *addr, size_t len,
i < GET_LE(&symtab_hdr->sh_size) / GET_LE(&symtab_hdr->sh_entsize);
i++) {
int k;
- ELF(Sym) *sym = addr + GET_LE(&symtab_hdr->sh_offset) +
+ ELF(Sym) *sym = raw_addr + GET_LE(&symtab_hdr->sh_offset) +
GET_LE(&symtab_hdr->sh_entsize) * i;
- const char *name = addr + GET_LE(&strtab_hdr->sh_offset) +
+ const char *name = raw_addr + GET_LE(&strtab_hdr->sh_offset) +
GET_LE(&sym->st_name);

for (k = 0; k < NSYMS; k++) {
@@ -219,48 +105,7 @@ static void BITSFUNC(go)(void *addr, size_t len,
syms[k] = GET_LE(&sym->st_value);
}
}
-
- if (!strcmp(name, "fake_shstrtab")) {
- ELF(Shdr) *sh;
-
- fake_sections.in_shstrndx = GET_LE(&sym->st_shndx);
- fake_sections.shstrtab = addr + GET_LE(&sym->st_value);
- fake_sections.shstrtab_len = GET_LE(&sym->st_size);
- sh = addr + GET_LE(&hdr->e_shoff) +
- GET_LE(&hdr->e_shentsize) *
- fake_sections.in_shstrndx;
- fake_sections.shstr_offset = GET_LE(&sym->st_value) -
- GET_LE(&sh->sh_addr);
- }
- }
-
- /* Build the output section table. */
- if (!syms[sym_VDSO_FAKE_SECTION_TABLE_START] ||
- !syms[sym_VDSO_FAKE_SECTION_TABLE_END])
- fail("couldn't find fake section table\n");
- if ((syms[sym_VDSO_FAKE_SECTION_TABLE_END] -
- syms[sym_VDSO_FAKE_SECTION_TABLE_START]) % sizeof(ELF(Shdr)))
- fail("fake section table size isn't a multiple of sizeof(Shdr)\n");
- fake_sections.table = addr + syms[sym_VDSO_FAKE_SECTION_TABLE_START];
- fake_sections.table_offset = syms[sym_VDSO_FAKE_SECTION_TABLE_START];
- fake_sections.max_count = (syms[sym_VDSO_FAKE_SECTION_TABLE_END] -
- syms[sym_VDSO_FAKE_SECTION_TABLE_START]) /
- sizeof(ELF(Shdr));
-
- BITSFUNC(init_sections)(&fake_sections);
- for (i = 0; i < GET_LE(&hdr->e_shnum); i++) {
- ELF(Shdr) *sh = addr + GET_LE(&hdr->e_shoff) +
- GET_LE(&hdr->e_shentsize) * i;
- BITSFUNC(copy_section)(&fake_sections, i, sh,
- secstrings + GET_LE(&sh->sh_name));
}
- if (!fake_sections.out_shstrndx)
- fail("didn't generate shstrndx?!?\n");
-
- PUT_LE(&hdr->e_shoff, fake_sections.table_offset);
- PUT_LE(&hdr->e_shentsize, sizeof(ELF(Shdr)));
- PUT_LE(&hdr->e_shnum, fake_sections.count);
- PUT_LE(&hdr->e_shstrndx, fake_sections.out_shstrndx);

/* Validate mapping addresses. */
for (i = 0; i < sizeof(special_pages) / sizeof(special_pages[0]); i++) {
@@ -281,10 +126,12 @@ static void BITSFUNC(go)(void *addr, size_t len,
fail("vvar_begin must be a multiple of 4096\n");

if (!name) {
- fwrite(addr, load_size, 1, outfile);
+ fwrite(stripped_addr, stripped_len, 1, outfile);
return;
}

+ mapping_size = (stripped_len + 4095) / 4096 * 4096;
+
fprintf(outfile, "/* AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED -- DO NOT EDIT */\n\n");
fprintf(outfile, "#include <linux/linkage.h>\n");
fprintf(outfile, "#include <asm/page_types.h>\n");
@@ -292,20 +139,21 @@ static void BITSFUNC(go)(void *addr, size_t len,
fprintf(outfile, "\n");
fprintf(outfile,
"static unsigned char raw_data[%lu] __page_aligned_data = {",
- data_size);
- for (j = 0; j < load_size; j++) {
+ mapping_size);
+ for (j = 0; j < stripped_len; j++) {
if (j % 10 == 0)
fprintf(outfile, "\n\t");
- fprintf(outfile, "0x%02X, ", (int)((unsigned char *)addr)[j]);
+ fprintf(outfile, "0x%02X, ",
+ (int)((unsigned char *)stripped_addr)[j]);
}
fprintf(outfile, "\n};\n\n");

fprintf(outfile, "static struct page *pages[%lu];\n\n",
- data_size / 4096);
+ mapping_size / 4096);

fprintf(outfile, "const struct vdso_image %s = {\n", name);
fprintf(outfile, "\t.data = raw_data,\n");
- fprintf(outfile, "\t.size = %lu,\n", data_size);
+ fprintf(outfile, "\t.size = %lu,\n", mapping_size);
fprintf(outfile, "\t.text_mapping = {\n");
fprintf(outfile, "\t\t.name = \"[vdso]\",\n");
fprintf(outfile, "\t\t.pages = pages,\n");
--
1.9.3


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